These comprehensive RBSE Class 12 Biology Notes Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production will give a brief overview of all the concepts.
These RBSE Solutions for Class 12 Biology in Hindi Medium & English Medium are part of RBSE Solutions for Class 12. Students can also read RBSE Class 12 Biology Important Questions for exam preparation. Students can also go through RBSE Class 12 Biology Notes to understand and remember the concepts easily.
→ Animal husbandry is the agricultural practice of breeding and raising livestock. It deals with the care and breeding of livestock like buffalo, cows, pigs, horse, sheep, goats etc.
→ Animal husbandry is a source of livlihood for a great part of population. It is concerned with providing milk, meat, egg, honey, hide and fibres.
→ Dairying is the management of animals for milk and its products for human consumption. Various products that are made from fresh milk in a dairy farm include posteurised milk, fermented milk, butter milk, yog urt, cheese, butter, cream and khoa.
→ Poultry is the rearing, breeding and caring of poultry birds like chickens, fowls and ducks. Geese and Turkeys are also included in poultry.
→ Egg laying birds are called layers while meat yielding birds are called broilers.
→ Mating of good quality animals to produce highly productive and suitable animals for enhancement of overall performance in the subsequent generation and to increase production and profitability is termed animal breeding.
→ There are two types of animal breeding: Inbreeding and outbreeding.
→ Cross breeding involves interbreeding of superior males of one breed with superior females of another breed.
→ The rearing, care and management of honeybees for the commercial production of honey is called bee keeping or apiculture.
→ Bee-keeping is an age-old cottage industry in India. Apis mellifera is commonly known as Italian bee, is prefered over the indigenous species of bees.
→ Fishery or pisciculture involves the rearing, catching, processing, selling and breeding of fishes. A large number of human population are dependent on fish, fish products and other aquatic animals.
→ Plant breeding is the purposeful manipulation of plant species in order to develop desired plant types that are better suited for cultivation, give high quality and better yield and are disease resistant. The aim of plant breeding is to develop a variety which combines as many of the desirable and beneficial characters of economic value as possible. Hybridization is the technique of introducing characters of two desirable species into a single offspring by means of artificial pollination to create new genetic combinations.
→ Single cell protein is the alternative source of proteins for animal and human nutrition. Some common microbes as SCP produces are Spirulina, Methylophilus methylotrophus, Candida utilis, Fusarium graminerum etc.
→ Plant tissue culture is a technique of growing plant cells, tissues or organs in a sterilized culture medium under controlled environmental conditions. Micropropagation is a type of tissue culture, which rapid vegetative multiplication of plant material for agriculture, horticulture and forestry.
→ Other useful technique of tissue culture are another culture, ovary culture, ovule culture, embryo culture etc.
→ Animal Husbandry: Science of rearing feeding, caring and breeding of animals.
→ Livestock: Domesticated animals like cattle, sheep, goat, cammels, horse, pigs etc.
→ Milch Breeds: Milk-yielding breeds.
→ Pathogen: Disease causing organisms.
→ Indigenous Breed: Deshi breeds.
→ Exotic Breeds: Non native breeds of our country.
→ Inbreeding: Breeding by selfing or between the members of same species.
→ Emasculation: The removal of anthers or stamens from the flower of a parent considered to be female in a cross.
→ Apiary: Artificial bee hive formed of wooden chambers.
→ Callus: An unorganised and undifferentiated mass of parenchymatous cells formed in culture.
→ Hybridization: The method of producing new individuals by crossing parents with different genetical constitution.
→ Layers: Egg laying fowls/poultry.
→ Broilers: Meat provider fowls/poultry.
→ Concentrates: Mineral rich food components e.g., cereal grains, maize, oil cakes etc.
→ Psciculture: Rearing, caring, feeding and catching of fish/fish farming.
→ Posturage: Flowering plants which provide pollen and nector to the honey bees.
→ Roughage: Fibres-containing animal feed obtained from hay fodder and silage.
→ Swarming: Leaving off old queen with some workers and drones to start a new colony at a new place.
→ Selection: It involves the sorting out of individuals from mixed population.
→ Explant: Cell, tissue or organ which is used in plant tissue culture.
→ Embryoids: The embryos developed from a single somatic cell by tissue culture.
→ SCP: Single Cell Protein.
→ Micropropagation: Rapid vegetative multiplication of plant material for agriculture, horticulture and forestry.