These comprehensive RBSE Class 12 Biology Notes Chapter 11 Biotechnology: Principles and Processes will give a brief overview of all the concepts.
These RBSE Solutions for Class 12 Biology in Hindi Medium & English Medium are part of RBSE Solutions for Class 12. Students can also read RBSE Class 12 Biology Important Questions for exam preparation. Students can also go through RBSE Class 12 Biology Notes to understand and remember the concepts easily.
→ Biotechnology: “It is a art of utilizing living organism and their products for the production of food, drinks, medicine for benefits to the human race or other animal species.”
→ Genetic Engineering: A technology which used to modify the genetic material (RNA, DNA) to produce more useful proteins.
→ Cloning: It is a process to produce identical DNA molecule with in host cell to direct their replication process.
→ Cloned has to be cut at specific sequences by restriction enzyme.
→ DNA fragments and cutted vector has to be take for the gene amplification, carried by polymerase chain reaction.
→ Before the amplification of gene separation and isolation of desirable gene has to be done through the process called gel electrophoresis.
→ Ligation: Desired gene ligated into vector DNA to form recombinant DNA.
→ Transforming: Penetration of piece of DNA into host cell, artificially a recombinant DNA transformed into bacterial host cell.
→ Most frequently E. Coli bacteria used as host organism.
→ Plasmids have ability to replicate in host cell other then the"chromosomal DNA, because they have origin of replication.
→ Plasmids are penetrate into host cell by making cell competent. Micro-injection, gene gun are also use to penetrate plasmids or recombinant DNA into vector cell.
→ Isolation of DNA: After breaking the cell wall all the genetic material take out from, the cell.
→ Cutting of DNA: Restriction enzyme digest the DNA and desirable gene separate out by gel electrophoresis.
→ Amplification of desired gene: Using PCR technique desired gene manipulate in number, vector is also manipulate to increase becomes of product.
→ Desired gene and vector ligated and recombinant DNA inserted into host organism.
→ Agrobacterium species is a natural genetic engineer. Gene Product: After the insertion of gene host cells filled in bioreactors that produce large amount (100 -1000 litres) recombinant protein.
→ After several processes that protein is ready to sale in market in different forms.
→ Genome: Complete set of genetic material of an organism, including mitochondrial and chloroplast genetic material.
→ Insertion: Addition of extra genetic material
→ GE, GMO: Genetic engineering, genetic modified organism.
→ In Vitro: Something happens outside of a living organism or in laboratory.
→ In Vivo: Something happens inside of a living organism.
→ Vector: DNA molecule used as a vehicle to carry foreign genetic material.
→ Antibiotic Resistance: Microbes cannot harm and can’t grow with in the cell, means a particular thing can’t harm.
→ Plasmodium: It is a unicellular Eukaryotes and a obligate parasites of vertebrates, develops into blood feeding insects.
→ Host Organism: An organism that harbours a recombinant DNA in it.
→ Gel - electrophoresis: Method for separation genetic material and proteins on the basic of size and charge. Selectable Markers: Type of gene that act as a antibiotic resistance.
→ Insertional Inactivation: Foreign gene inserted into restriction site replacing the antibiotic resistance gene.
→ B- galactosidase: Bacterial enzyme, breaks lactose of milk into (galactose + glucose) and produce energy. Nucleases: Class of enzymes that are able to break phosphodiester bonds present in DNA/RNA between nucleotides.
→ DNA Polymerase: Catalyze the formation of new DNA molecules.
→ Agarose Gel: Polysaccharide polymer derived from seaweeds used for the separation and resolution of smaller bonds of DNA.
→ Buffer Solution: Solution contain an acid, and a base, or a salt to maintain a hydrogen ion concentration in medium.
→ Heterologous host: Express protein in the cell, v which they are not supposed to be produced but they / arq now producing because of foreign gene in it.