These comprehensive RBSE Class 11 Biology Notes Chapter 9 Biomolecules will give a brief overview of all the concepts.
Rajasthan Board RBSE Solutions for Class 11 Biology in Hindi Medium & English Medium are part of RBSE Solutions for Class 11. Students can also read RBSE Class 11 Biology Important Questions for exam preparation. Students can also go through RBSE Class 11 Biology Notes to understand and remember the concepts easily.
→ All carbon compounds or molecules present in the living tissues are called biomolecules,
→ Primary metabolites are biochemicals formed as intermediate and products of normal vital metabolic pathways of organisms.
→ Secondary metabolites are specialised products formed by alternation of normal or primary metabolic pathways".
→ Carbohydrates (hydrates of carbon) are also named as saccharides as they are formed of sugars,
→ Pentose, hexose and heptose sugars exist in two forms open chain and ring form (pyranose and furanose forms).
→ Glycosidic bonds occurs between adjacent monomers of carbohydrate polymer.
→ Maltose sugar is formed of two molecules of glucose held together by glycosidic bond.
→ Lactose (milk, sugar) present in milk upto the extent of 5%.
→ Homopolysaccharides are made up of only one type of monosaccharide units.
→ Heteropolysaccharides are made up of more than one type of monosaccharide units.
→ Inulin is present in roots of Dahlia and called dahlia starch.
→ The fatty acids which cannot be synthesized in the body of animals are called essential fatty acids. Candle wax is a mixture of paraffin wax and stearic acid.
→ Lycopene is a simple carotene of red colour that occurs in the ripened fruits of tomato and chilly.
→ Due to the presence of two opposite electric charges on ionisable amino group (-NH2) and ionisable carboxylic group (-COOH), the amino acids can react with both acid and bases and are called amphoteric.
→ Protein is the polymer of amino acids.
→ Only 20 types of amino acids can form several thousand types of proteins by polymerisation.
→ Secondary structure of protein occurs as a-helix and α-pleated sheets.
→ Tertiary structure of protein is stabilised by five types of bonds:
→ Proteins are three types on the basis of their shape: Fibrous proteins, Globular proteins and Intermediate proteins.
→ Purine base is bicyclic or with double ring while Pyrimidine base is monocyclic or with single ring.
→ Nucleoside is made up of sugar and nitrogen base while nucleotide is made up of sugar, nitrogen base and phosphate group.
→ Enzymology is the branch of science which deals with the study of enzymes in all their aspects like structure, nomenclature, reactions and functions.
→ Lock and Key hypothesis of enzyme action was given by Emil Fischer.
→ Induced fit hypothesis to explain the enzyme action was proposed by Daniel Koshland.
→ Pepsinogen is called proenzyme (inactive enzyme precursors).
→ The enzymes lower the requirement of activation energy to speed up a chemical reaction.
→ Inorganic catalysts can catalyze diverse reactions (not specific) while enzyme are highly specific for a particular reaction.
→ Enzymes inhibitors are the substances that can inhibit the enzyme action.
→ Blomolecules: All carbon compounds or molecules present in the living tissues are called biomolecules.
→ Primary Metabolites: These are biochemicals formed as intermediates and products of normal vital pathways of organisms.
→ Secondary Metabolites: These are specialised products formed by alternation of normal or primary metabolic pathways.
→ Peptide bonds: Occurs between the joining of two amino acids. These are also called amide bond.
→ Glycosidic bond: Occurs between the linking of two monosaccharide units. Glycosidic bonds having -COC- are also called ether bond.
→ Monosaccharides: These are simple sugars, have 3-7 carbon atoms per molecule.
→ Oligosaccharides: These are formed by joining of 2-6 monosaccharide molecules.
→ Maltose: It is a disaccharide formed of two molecules of glucose held together by glycosidic bond.
→ Lactose: It is a disaccharide sugar present in milk upto the extent of 5%.
→ Reducing Sugars: The sugars which have a free aldehyde or ketonic group e.g., glucose, fructose, maltose.
→ Ribulose: Ribulose biphosphate (RuBP) is acceptor molecule of CO2 in Calvin cycle of photosynthesis.
→ Polysaccharides: They are also called glycans, made up of many monosaccharide units.
→ Homopolysaccharides: Complex carbohydrates made up of only one type of monosaccharide units.
→ Heteropolysaccharides: Complex carbohydrates that are made up of more than one type of monosaccharide units. .
→ Mucopolysaccharides: These are slime and mucilage producing polysaccharides, e.g., hyaluronic acid, pectins etc.
→ Glycogen: It is a glucosan homopolysaccharide also called as animal starch.
→ Glycogenesis: Formation of glycogen from glucose.
→ Glycogenolysis: Formation of glucose from glycogen.
→ Starch: Helically coiled, branched chain polysaccharide.
→ Cellulose: It is straight, unbranched chain polysaccharide.
→ Chitin: A homopolysaccharide present in fungal cell wall as fungus cellulose and in the exoskeleton of arthropods.
→ Pectin: It is made up of galactose, galacturonic acid and arabinose, occurs in cell wall in the form of calcium pectate.
→ Heparin: A mucopolysaccharide, anticoagulant of blood and connective tissue.
→ Saturated fatty acids: They do not have any double bond in their carbon chains.
→ Unsaturated fatty acids: They have one or more double bonds in their carbon chain.
→ Saponification: It is a process that involves conversion of fat or oil into soap and alcohol by the action of heat in the presence of aqueous alkali.
→ Cholesterol: It is a fat soluble white crystalline sterol.
→ Lycopene: It is a simple carotene of red colour occur in the ripened fruits of tomato and chilly.
→ Diosgenin: A steroid obtained from Yam (Digscorrea) has property to prevent sperm formation in males.
→ Aromatic amino acids: A cyclic or ring structure is found in hydrocarbon side chain i.e., tyrosine, phenylalanine.
→ Essential amino acids: The amino acids which can not be synthesized in animals.
→ Non protein amino acids: The amino acids which are not incorporated in proteins but occur freely or in combined state in non protein substances.
→ Gluconeogenesis: Formation of glucose from non carbohydrate sources.
→ Monomeric Protein: The protein which is made of single polypeptide.
→ Multimeric Protein: The protein which is made of more than one polypeptide.
→ Fibrous Proteins: They are thread like elongated proteins.
→ Complete Proteins: The proteins having all the essential amino acids are called complete proteins.
→ Incomplete Proteins: The protein that do not have one or more essential amino acids are called incomplete proteins.
→ Purines: These are large sized, heterocyclic, double ring nitrogenous bases.
→ Pyrimidines: These are small sized, heterocyclic single ring nitrogenous bases.
→ Nucleosides: It is made of condensation of a pentose sugar and a nitrogenous base.
→ Nucleotide: It is the product formed by joining of a pentose sugar, a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
→ Higher Nucleotides: The nucleotides that have more than one phosphate groups, e.g., G.D.P., A.D.P., A.T.P. etc.
→ Metabolism: Sum total of chemical reactions occur in a living system are collectively called metabolism.
→ Enzymology: The branch of science which deals with the study of enzyme in all their aspects like structure, nomenclature and function.
→ Constitutive Enzymes: The enzymes which are always present in the cell and involved in central metabolic activity.
→ Co-factors: A non protein part of conjugate enzyme.
→ Apoenzyme: The protein part of a conjugate enzyme.
→ Holoenzyme: The conjugate enzyme formed by apoenzyme and co-factor.
→ Prosthetic group: They are non protein organic co-factors tightly held with apoenzyme.
→ Co-enzymes: They are non protein organic co-factors loosely attached with apoenzyme.
→ Isoenzymes: They are multiple forms of the same enzyme which have same substrate specificity but differ from one another in their substrate affinity, activity maxima and regulatory control.
→ Proenzymes or Zymogens: They are inactive enzymes that are converted in active form by specific factors like pH, substrate, enzyme primer etc.