These comprehensive RBSE Class 11 Biology Notes Chapter 4 Animal Kingdom will give a brief overview of all the concepts.
Rajasthan Board RBSE Solutions for Class 11 Biology in Hindi Medium & English Medium are part of RBSE Solutions for Class 11. Students can also read RBSE Class 11 Biology Important Questions for exam preparation. Students can also go through RBSE Class 11 Biology Notes to understand and remember the concepts easily.
→ Porifera includes multicellular animals which exhibit cellular level of organisation and have characteristic flagellated choanocytes.
→ The coelenterates have tentacles and bear cnidoblasts. They are mostly aquatic, sessile or free-floating.
→ The ctenophores are marine animals with comb plates.
→ The platyhelminthes have flat body and exhibit bilateral symmetry. The parasitic forms show distinct suckers and hooks.
→ Aschelminthes are pseudocoelomates and include parasitic as well as non-parasitic round worms.
→ Annelids are metamerically segmented animals with a true coelom.
→ The arthropods are the most abundant group of animals characterised by the presence of jointed appendages.
→ The molluscs have a soft body surrounded by an external calcareous shell. The body is covered with external skeleton made of chitin.
→ The echinoderms possess a spiny skin. Their most distinctive feature is the presence of water vascular system.
→ The hemichordates are a small group of worm-like marine animals. They have a cylindrical body with proboscis, collar and trunk.
→ Phylum Chordata includes animals which possess a notochord either throughout or during early embryonic life. Other common features observed in the chordates are the dorsal, hollow nerve cord and paired pharyngeal gill slits.
→ Some of the vertebrates do not possess jaws (Agnatha) whereas most of them possess jaws (Gnathostomata).
→ Agnatha is represented by the class, Cyclostomata. They are the most primitive chordates and are ectoparasites on fishes.
→ Gnathostomata has two super classes, Pisces and Tetrapoda.
→ Classes Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes bear fins for locomotion and are grouped under Pisces. The Chondrichthyes are fishes with cartilaginous endoskeleton and are marine.
→ Classes Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia have two pairs of limbs and are thus grouped under Tetrapoda.
→ The amphibians have adapted.to five both on land and water.
→ Reptiles are characterised by the presence of dry and comified skin. Limbs are absent in snakes.
→ Fishes, amphibians and reptiles are poikilothermous (cold-blooded).
→ Aves are warm-blooded animals with feathers on their bodies and forelimbs modified into wings for flying. Hind limbs are adapted for walking, swimming, perching or clasping.
→ The unique features of mammals are the presence of mammary glands and hairs on the skin. They commonly exhibit viviparity.
→ Aboral: In a direction away from the mouth; the part of the body opposite the mouth.
→ Acellular; Without cellular organisation.
→ Acoelomate: Animals without coelom.
→ Alimentary canal: The entire digestive tube (mouth, oesophagus, stomach and intestine) collectively.
→ Alternation of generation: Alternate succession of sexual and asexual generation in the life.
→ Amphibians: A group of vertebrates including frogs, salamanders and caecilians.
→ Anatomy: Study of the structure of animal and plants.
→ Antenna: The second cephalic appendage of copepods and branchiurans.
→ Antennule: The first cephalic appendage of copepods and branchiurans.
→ Anterior: Forward-moving end of animal.
→ Anticoagulating: Substance that prevents the coagulation of blood. ,
→ Anticoagulin: An anticoagulant substance.
→ Anus: posterior opening of the digestive tract.
→ Apopyle: Pore leading from the chamber into the central cavity in sponge.
→ Appendage: A movable projecting part of the body.
→ Appendages: Portion of body that projects and has a free end such as limbs.
→ Aquaculture: The growing of aquatic organisms for human needs, this includes fish farming.
→ Aquatic: Found in water.
→ Arms: Long, flexible mobile limbs - usually containing a feeding groove.
→ Arthropoda: An invertebrate animal. having an exoskeleton, a segmented body, and jointed appendages.
→ Asymmetry: Condition in which opposite sides of an animal are not alike, without symmetry.
→ Benthic: Living on the sea bottom.
→ Bilateral symmetry: The arrangement of the body parts so that the right and left halves are mirror images of each other.
→ Biradial symmetry: Condition in which an animal has radially arranged parts that lay half on one side and half on other side of a median longitudinal plane, e.g. Ctenophora.
→ Calcareous: Composed mostly of calcium carbonate or lime.
→ Capillary: The smallest blood vessels, just big enough for passage of red blood cells.
→ Chelicera: A pair of pincer-like head appendages of arachinids.
→ Chemo-receptors: Organs or neuron sensitive to specific chemical changes.
→ Chitin: A complex organic substance or a polysaccharide protein, forming the exoskeleton of arthropods and some other animals.
→ Choana: Internal opening of the nasal passage in the roof of the mouth (plural- choanae).
→ Choanocyte: Flagellated collar cells found in sponges.
→ Chondricthyan: A member of the class chondricthyes, cartilagenous fishes. Living fish in the class are the sharks and rays.
→ Chordata: Phylum of animals distinguished by their possession of a notochord, a dorsal hollow nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, and a post-anal tail at some point during their , development.
→ Cilia: Hair like projection.
→ Clitellum: A thickened glandular portion of the body of an earthworm or other annelid, used in the formation of cocoon.
→ Cloaca: The common chamber into which the intestinal, urinary and reproductive duct discharge.
→ Coelenterata: Phylum (Cnidoblast structures).
→ Coelom: Body cavity lined with tissue of mesodermal origins in which the digestive and other organs lie.
→ Coelom: The body cavity lined with the tissue of mesodermal origin in which the digestive and other organs lie,
→ Coelomate: Coelomate animals or Coelomata (also known as eucoelomates - "true coelom") have a fluid filled body cavity called a coelom.
→ Collar: A distinct body region between the proboscis and the trunk that is attached to the proboscis on a medio-dorsal stalk. The ventral mouth opens anterior to the collar.
→ Colony: Group of individuls.
→ Columnar epithelial cells: are epithelial cells whose heights are at least four times their width.
→ Dioecious: having the male and female reproductive organs in separate individual.
→ Diploblastic: Derived from two embryonic germ layer, ectoderm and endoderm.
→ Direct development: Development to an adult body plan without an intervening larval stage.
→ Echinoderm: Member of a phylum of marine invertebrates comprising echinoids (sea urchins), asteroids (sea stars), crinoids (sea lillies), holothuroids (sea cucumbers) and ophiuroids (brittle stars).
→ Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of the embryo.
→ Embryo: Young animal that is passing through its developmental stages.
→ Exoskeleton: A supporting structure on the outside of an animal body. The skeleton of an invertebrate is usually an exoskeleton. .
→ Fertilization: Union of a male gamete (sperm) with a female gamete (ovum) to give an egg, or zygote,
→ Freshwater: Water containing less than 0.5% salts,
→ Fringing reefs: Coral ridge build up from ocean bottom.
→ Habitat: Physical area of the occurence of an animal species.
→ Haemocoelomic: A body cavity (as in arthropods or some molluscs) that normally contains blood and functions as part of the circulatory system.
→ Haemoglobin: is the protein molecule in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and returns carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs.
→ Haemocoel: Coelom filled with blood.
→ Herbivore: Feeding on vegetation.
→ Histology: The study of cellular and sub-cellular view of tissue, in other words the microscopic view, sf: Indirect development: Development to an adult via a distinct larval form.
→ Internal fertilization: The fusion of the male and female gametes occurs within the female's reproductive tract.
→ Mantle: A fleshy layer that secretes the shell of the mollusc.
→ Mantle cavity: The space between the mantle and the visceral mass.
→ Mesogloea: Non-cellular jelly like substance lying between the ectoderm and endoderm.
→ Mollusca: Non-segmented, schizocoelomate phylum, sf: Monoecious: Having both male and female reproductive organs.
→ Mduthparts: The group of appendages near the mouth which are involved in feeding, comprising the paired mandibles, maxillules, maxillas, and maxillipeds.
→ Nematocysts: One of the stinging capsules found in the coelenterates.
→ Nephridla: is an invertebrate organ which occurs in pairs and performs a function similar to the vertebrate kidney.
→ Nephridium: tubular excretory structure characteristic of many invertebrates, Such as the animal.
→ Nerve cord: cord of neuron and ganglia forming part of a central nervous system.
→ Notochord: An embryonic rod-like structure that is located on the dorsal part of the developing animal and is essential for initiating the differentiation of the adult nervous system.
→ Operculum: Calcareous plate formed by cuticular secretion of the glandular cells of the animal foot.
→ Oral valve: Fish that have a respiratory pump have flaps behind each lip that act as a one way valve when the mouth is closed, preventing back flow of water out the mouth. Similarly, the opercula have a flap on the rear that seals the opercular opening during opercular expansion.
→ Organism: A single complete living unit. sH Osculum: Relatively large external opening of the central cavity through which water leaves a sponge.
→ Ostium: An opening to a passage or to a canal system in sponges.
→ Oviparous: Egg-laying animals, sfc Parasitic: Organism that lives during the whole life cycle upon or within another organism and from which it derives nourishment.
→ Pedal: Pertaining to the feet.
→ Pharyngeal slit: Opening in the pharynx, sis Pharynx: Anterior portion of the digestive tract between the mouth cavity and oesophagus.
→ Phylum: One of the main taxonomic divisions into which the animal kingdom is divided
→ Platyhelminthes: Phylum that includes the flatworm such as planarian.
→ Pneumatophore: Air-filled float of siphonophoran hydroids.
→ Polymorphism: Occurence of several forms in a single species.
→ Polyp: A tubular coelenterates form, sis Porocyte: Water intake cell of certain sponges, characterised by canal passing through it.
→ Post-anal tail: Muscular, posterior elongation of the body extending beyond the anus in chordates.
→ Posterior: End of the body.
→ Predaceous: predatory.,
→ Proboscis: Tubular extension of the nose, lips or pharaynx. the extended beaklike mouth parts of insects.
→ Proglottids: Tapewarm segment.
→ Prostomium: Anterior portion of the first segment of the annelids such as earthworms overhanging the mouth region.
→ Pseudocoel: A body cavity not completely lined with mesoderm as found in round worms.
→ Radial symmetry: The condition in which similar parts are arranged about a common center like the spokes of a wheel.
→ Segmentation: Division of a body into more or less similar parts.
→ Segmented worms: Annelids.
→ Sense organ: an organ sensitive to a particular type of stimulus.
→ Setae or chaetae: Bristles such as those embedded in the body wall of the earthworm.
→ Sexual dimorphism: Phenomenon of two sexes of a given species differing in secondary characters.
→ Solitary: Living alone, not a member of the colony or group.
→ Species: A population of interbreeding individuals.
→ Spermatheca: Seminal receptacles in some female insects.
→ Spicule: One of much solid structure that composed the structural framework of a spongo.
→ Statolith: Solid body within a statocyst.
→ Swarming: Move somewhere in large numbers.
→ Tactile organs: Organ pertaining to sense of touch.
→ Tentacles: A flexible arm-like extension from the body of many invertebrates such as Hydra used in grasping and movement.
→ Testis: Sperm formation gland.
→ Tetrapod: Phylogenetic reference to an organism with a four-footed evolutionary history; includes amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals.
→ Thorax: The middle region of the body, comprising the seven postcephalic trunk somites from the maxillipedal to the genital.
→ Triploblastic: Derived from three primary germ layers- ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm.
→ Tube feet: Projections from the body wall, which are connected to the water vascular system and generally used for locomotion. They may also be modified to serve respiratory, food- catching and sensory functions.
→ Tubicolous: Marine worm living in a tube.
→ Tunicate: Sessile chordate that is a member of Urochordata.
→ Uniramous: An appendage with a single ramus.
→ Ureotelic: Animal whose nitrogenous excreta contain mainly urea.
→ Uricotelic: Animal whose nitrogenous excreta contain mainly uric acid.
→ Vascular system: also called the circulatory system is made up of the vessels that carry blood and lymph through the body.
→ Ventral: Pertaining to the belly, away from the back or opposite of dorsal.
→ Vertebral column: Series of separate bones joined together as a backbone.
→ Vertebrata: Members of the phylum Chordata that possess a vertebral column.
→ Water vascular system: The water vascular system maintains communication with the surrounding sea water through a group of pores in the madreporite.
→ Zygote: The product of the union of two gametes of any type.