RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 7 The World After the Second World War

Go through these RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 7 The World After the Second World War contain important concepts so that students can score better marks in the exam.

Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 7 The World After the Second World War

Cold War

  • After the second World War, there was a competition between capitalist United States of America and communist Soviet Union (USSR) which is known as cold war.
  • The reason of cold war between America and Soviet Union (USSR) was the rivalary to become the super power of the world.
  • The incidents such as establishment of control over eastern European nations by Soviet Union, holding of different views regarding acquisition of Italy by Germany, raising voice against the bombardment of Japan by USA etc. laid the foundation of Cold War.
  • In 1949 CE communism was established in China and it widened the conflict between USA and Soviet Union over the issue of admission of China in UNO.
  • The bitterness turned into hosility finally in 1950 when communist North Korea attacked capitalist South Korea.
  • USSR tested its first nuclear device in 1953. To check the onward march of communism in South East Asia, America formed SEATO (South East Asian Treaty Organisation). The USSR retaliated this move by forming a communist defense pact consisting of eight nations as ‘Warsow Pact’ in 1955. It was an answer to NATO.
  • In 1963 America and Russia signed, ‘Hotline Agreement’ according to which in the time of emergency, they would communicate through radio and telephones.
  • In 1968 America and Russia signed Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT).
  • In 1971 America, Soviet Union, Britain and France signed a treaty to allow the movement of people from western to eastern Germany and Vice-versa.
  • In 1973, 1974 and 1977 three European security conferences were convened for mutual cooperation and peace in the countries.
  • During the war between of India and Pakistan in 1971, US backed Pakistan and Soviet Union supported India.
  • In 1983, Soviet Union destroyed a South Korean plane, which was condemned by US.
  • In 1986 Soviet Union conducted Nuclear Test after removing restriction from itself. It also warned America not to retaliate back.
  • Gradually communism was losing its ground in Europe and Soviet Union was on the verge of financial collapse and it could not carry out struggle against U.S.A. During the period of Gorbachev, cold war came to an end.
  • As a result of cold war in 1990 CE Soviet Union became disintegrated and the world became unipolar. The main causes of distintegration of Soviet Union were:
    i) Weakening of economic structure of Soviet Union,
    ii) Ambition of Soviet Union to get foreign currency
    iii) Dictatorship in Russia
    iv) Policies of Mikhail Gorbachev.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 7 The World After the Second World War

Non-aligned Movement

  • When two or more nations raise their voice to remain independent on an international platform, then it is termed as ‘Non-Alignment’.
  • In 1961 CE Non-Aligned movement came into existence.
  • To safeguard their Sovereignty, cultural and political traditions, newly independent nations chose the path of non-alignment.
  • Under NAM two institutions were established ‘Co-ordination Bureau’ and ‘Summit or conference’.
  • India was the founder member of Non-aligned movement. India never violated the principles of Non-alignment.
  • In 1961, 25 countries participated in the conference of non-aligned movement in Belgrade. The number of members increased to 120 in 2012 CE.
  • The cold war got slowed down because of this movement.
  • NAM played a major role in maintaining peace in areas like Germany, Korea, China, Indo-China, Congo, etc.
  • The policy of NAM has failed to provide any security to the member countries, while membership of a bloc might have ensured help at least from that bloc.
  • The Arabs and Israel fought four wars but no NAM country played any active role in stopping them.
  • In the freedom struggle of countries like, Algeria, Angola and Mozambique, the role of NAM countries has been negligible.

Challenges before Modern World

(i) Environment

  • The countries of the world are deliberating on the international platform on a sensitive issue like environment.
  • As a result of these efforts United Nations Environment Programme was introduced.
  • In 1992 the first eartn summit was convened in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. More than 150 representatives of the world participated in it. The important subjects related to environment were discussed in the summit.
  • In 1997 ‘World Environment and Green House summit’ was organised in Kyoto (Japan) which strived to reduce the emission of gases responsible for global warming.
  • Following the series, a convention took place in Johansburg of South Africa in 2002 known by the name ‘Earth Summit’.
  • In 2005 in Monteral in Canada was convened ‘United Nations Climate Agreemnt Summit’. Again climate change summit took place in capital of Denmark Copenhagen.
  • Next most important attempt was made in Nov-Dec 2015 in Paris. When 134 countries participated to mitigate the dangerous effects of climate change. After a prolonged deliberation, it was decided to limit the rise of the earth’s tempeature and to implement the provisions of the Paris agreement by 2020.

(ii) Terrorism

  • Terrorism is a means, a process or a tool which may be used by any state, political or secessionist organisation fanatics to gain their selfish ends.
  • Some examples of Terrorism are : The attack of Jews on the representative council of Syria in UNO in 1969, bombardment of Iranian mission at the office of UNO in 1971, hijack of Indian plane from Kathmandu in 1999, attack on world trade centre of New York in 2001 and attack on Indian Parliament in 2001 and the serial bomb blasts in Mumbai on 28 November 2008, etc.
  • The most infamous terrorist organization Islamic State (IS) was formed in 2013 CE. It was also known as Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) and Islamic State of Iraq and Levant (ISIL).
  • The motive of ISIS is to establish control over nations of Muslim majority.
  • To fight the problem of terrorism, various agencies have framed documents related to agreemnts and treaties from time to time.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 7 The World After the Second World War

Contemporary Outlook of India

Look East Policy

  • With the disintegration of Soviet Union, India became more conscious of South East Asian countries. India has worked really hard to maintain commercial and tactical relations with these nations.
  • Under this India signed bilateral agreement with Vietnam on the issues of nuclear energy, trade and commerce, art and culture.
  • India concluded defence agreement with Indonesia.
  • Mekong-Ganga cooperation was constituted consisting of five members: India, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. This began the cooperation in the fields of trade, investment, technology, tourism, education and culture.
  • In India-ASEAN relationship was decided to act unanimously agaisnt Terrorism.
  • Till November 2014,12 sessions took place of India: ASEAN heads of government summit. 13th India-ASEAN summit to be held in Cambodia.

BRICS

  • ‘BRICS’ presently is a group of nations which are part of emerging economies.
  • ‘BRICS’ group was established in 2008.
  • BRICS represents 25% geographical area and 41% of world’s population. Its extent lies from Asia, Africa to South America.
  • The first summit of BRICS held in June 2009 at Ketinburg in Russia. Till now seven summits have been held and eighth summit is to be held in India.

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation: SAARC

  • In 1985 the head of seven states: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Maldives formed an assocaition named ‘South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation’ (SAARC).
  • Afghanistan is the eighth member of this association.
  • The secretariat of SAARC is established in the capital of Nepal Kathmandu.
  • The main objective of SAARC is to promote active collaboration and mutual assistance in the economic, social, cultural, technical and scientific fields. .
  • The main principle of SAARC is non-interference in the internal affairs of other states.
  • Till November 2014, 18 summits of SAARC took place. 19th summit of SAARC is to be organised in Islamabad (Pakistan).
  • SAARC works with the assistance of various institutions, which fulfill the aims and objectives of SAARC. The important institutions are: Heads of states summit, Ministerial council, Permanent council, Technical committee, Executive committees and Secretarait.

Role of India in SAARC

  • India has played an active role since the establishment of SAARC.
  • In 1992 an important issue like environment was discussed in New Delhi by SAARC nations.
  • In 1996 first SAARC trade fair was organised in New Delhi.
  • In the same year India organised ‘Economic Cooperation Summit’.
  • In 1998, a summit on Multilingual and Multidimensional Information Technology was organised in Pune.
  • In 2004 Atal Bihari Vajpayee reiterated the priority to economic agenda.
  • In January 2006 an independent trade agreement SAFTA (South Asian Free Trade Association) was established which is considered a revolutionary event in the history of SAARC.
  • In April 2007, the 14th summit was held in New Delhi where India declared concessions to under developed countries in tax in bilateral trade.
  • In 2014, PM Narendra Modi invited the leaders of SAARC in Oath ceremony and the invitation was accepted by the leaders which gives a positive message to the world in cooperation of the SAARC nations.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 7 The World After the Second World War

The World After the Second World War Important dates and events

1914-1919 CE – The period of first world war.
1917 CE – Bolshevik Revolution in Russia.
1918 CE – Lenin’s treaty of Brest Litovsk with Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey.
1917-1945 CE – The first phase of cold war.
1939-1945 CE – Period of Second World War.
1945 CE – Bombardment on Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities of Japan by America.
1946-1953 CE – The second phase of cold war.
1947 CE – India got independence.
1949 CE – In the leadership of America, North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) was formed.
1949 CE – Communist rule was established in China.
1953 CE – Death of Russian leader Stalin. Soviet Union tested its first nuclear device.
1954 CE – South East Asian Treaty Organisation (SEATO) was formed.
1955 CE – USSR retaliated by forming a communist defense pact consisting of eight nations known as Warsaw pact.
1956 CE – British, French and Israeli invasion on Egypt.
1959-1962 CE – The fourth phase of cold war.
1961 CE – Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) came into existence.
1961 CE – The first summit of Non Aligned movement.
1962 CE – Chinese invasion on India.
1963-1979 CE – The first phase of cold war.
1963 CE – Partial trial prohibition treaty got recognition.
1963 CE – Hotline agreement between Russia and America.
1966 CE – John. F. Kennedy became the president of America.
1968 CE – Russia and America signed Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT).
1971 CE – Pakistan invaded India.
1980-1990 CE – The sixth and last phase of cold war.
1985 CE – SAARC was established in Dhaka city of Bangladesh.
1986 CE – Star Wars programme was launched in America.
1988 CE – The leadership of Soviet Union came in the hands of Mikhail Gorbachev.
1989 CE – Soviet Union was disintegrated. The official name of Burma became Myanmar.
1990 CE – Lithuania, Estonia and Latvia declared themselves independent. The unification of Germany was effected.
1991 CE – Georgia and Ukraine declared themselves independent. Warsaw pact came to an end.
1992 CE – The first earth summit was held in Rio-de Janeiro of Brazil. India got the place of sectoral diologue partner in ASEAN.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 7 The World After the Second World War

1993 CE – The emergence of independent Czech and Slovak states.
1995 CE – India got the place of full dialogue partner in ASEAN.
1996 CE – India became the member of regional forum of ASEAN.
1997 CE – The earth summit was held in New York and World environmental and Green House summit in Kyoto in Japan.
1998-2004 CE – In the tenure of Atal Bihari Vajpayee, India tested two nuclear devices.
2001 CE – Attack on world trade centre of New york and attack on Indian parliament.
2002 CE – Earth summit was held in Johannesburg city of South Africa.
2005 CE – ‘United Nations Climate Agreement’ was held in Montreal city of Canada.
April 2007 CE – 14th summit of SAARC was held.
28 November 2008 CE – Serial bomblast in Mumbai.
2008 CE – BRICS group was formed.
2009 CE – The first summit of BRICS group was held in Ketinburg in Russia. A summit was organised in Copenhegan-capital of Denmark on the issue of climate change.
2010 CE – The second summit of BRICS group was held in Brasilia.
2011 CE – Third summit of BRICS group was held in Sanya city of China. Death of the leader of terrorist organisation Osama-Bin-Laden.
2012 CE – The fourth summit of BRICS group was held in New Delhi.
2012 CE – The terrorist named Mohammad Ajmal Amir Kasab was captured alive was hanged at Yervada Jail in Pune.
2013 CE – The fifth summit of BRICS group was held in South Africa. Islamic State of Iraq and Levent (ISIL) was formed.
2014 CE – The sixth summit of BRICS group was held in Brazil. Narendra Modi became the prime minister of India.
2015 CE – ‘Climatic change summit’ was held in Paris. The seventh summit of BRICS group was held in Russia.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 7 The World After the Second World War

The World After the Second World War Notes Important terms

→ Capitalism: An economic and political system in which a country’s trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit rather than by the state.

→ Communism: An economic and social system in which all property and resources are collectively owned by a classless society and not by individual citizens.

→ Cold War: After the second war, serious tension and distrust created a race for becoming superpower between USA and USSR which is known as cold war.

→ NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organisation formed by America

→ SEATO: South Eastern Asia Treaty Organisation formed to check the Russian influence in Asia.

→ Unipolar world: When a single country has a status of superpower then that condition in International politics means unipolar world order.

→ Veto power: It refers to the power of the permanent members of UNO to veto (Saying ‘No’) any substantive resolution.

→ Perestroika: It means to reconstruct.

→ Glasnost: It means openness in governance.

→ Non-Aligned Movement: It is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.

→ Sovereignty: A country which is free in taking decisions in its internal and external matters is called a sovereign country.

→ Agenda 21: It is a historic document of 800 pages which was prepared in the first earth summit held in Rio-de-Janeiro (Brazil). It highlights the important issues regarding the environmental concerns.

→ Environment conservation: To protect environment from pollution and to protect biodiversity.

→ Terrorist: A person usually a member of a group who uses or advocates terrorism.

→ I.S. (Islamic State): An infamous terrorist organisation.

→ C.T.B.T.: Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty which came to existence in 1996.

→ BRICS: The organisation formed by Brazil, Russia, China, India, South Africa for the protection of regional interests.

→ SAFTA: South Asian Free Trade Area. A trade contract between SAARC members in 2006.

→ SAARC: An organisation of South Asian countries. Is full name is ‘South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation’.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 6 The World Between 1919 and 1945

Go through these RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 6 The World Between 1919 and 1945 contain important concepts so that students can score better marks in the exam.

Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 6 The World Between 1919 and 1945

League of Nations

  • On 10th January, 1920 the League of Nations was founded with the efforts of US President Woodrow Wilson at the Paris Peace Conference to save the world from the devastating consequences of war.
  • The main office of this union was in Switzerland’s Capital Geneva. Initially it had 43 members.
  • The main parts (components) of the League of Nations were General Assembly, Council, Secretariat, International Court and International labour organization.
  • There were five permanent members in the council of League of Nations – Britain, France, Italy, Japan and America.
  • The main function of the League of Nations was to implement the treaty of peace of Disarmament of the Paris Peace Conference and establish peace and security in the world.
  • Another important task of the League of Nations was to protect the interests of the minorities, to promote social, economic and humanitarian activities in the world.
  • The League of Nations achieved success in settling many disputes in the political field. In those, the border dispute of Albania, the mediteranean dispute, the Hungarian dispute, the Yovarjano conflict, the Lotlesia dispute and the controversy over Bulgaria and Greece were main ones.
  • Because of fierce nationalism, global economic crisis, rise of autocratic rule and non-cooperation of superpowers, the League of Nations failed to resolve many vital disputes of international importance.

Financial crisis

  • In the year 1929 AD, the global financial crisis saw an explosive decline and a period of global economic slowdown began.
  • Currency was devalued and there was a sharp decline in agricultural production. Farmers and laboures became unemployed.
  • From 1929 to 1934 AD, there was a crisis of economic recession all over the world.
  • The main reasons for the economic slowdown were effects of 1st World War, mechanization of industries, excess of production, economic nationalism, uneven distribution of gold and decline in the American stock market.
  • In order to reorganize the economy, US president Roosevelt started a famous programme called New System (New Deal) in 1933.
  • Japan’s imperialistic aspirations started to grow due to the economic recession. As a result Japan invaded Manchuria.
  • During the economic recession, democratic governments were unable to cope with unemployment, inflation, volatility and insecurity. As a result, people became disillusioned with democratic system.
  • As a result of the economic downturn, most of Europe’s lands came under the control of dictators.
  • As a result of the downturn, there was an increase in government control in the economic sector. The masses dissatisfied with economic system were attracted rapidly towards communism.
  • Countries with a sense of insecurity started developing their own military power.
  • The economic crisis brought the attention of the nations away from global security and put it on national security, which deeply hurt the purposes of the League of Nations.
  • The economic crisis disrupted the entire international order. This affected the entire nations of the world.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 6 The World Between 1919 and 1945

Fascism

  • The organization formed by Mussolini and the ideology of his governance is termed as Fascism.
  • Taking advantage of the feelings of the people of Italy, who were disappointed by the treaty of Versailles, Mussolini spread Fascism in Italy.
  • Due to first world war there was great loss to industry, trade and agriculture, so that the people of Italy turned against the then government and Mussolini’s fascist ideology gained the advantage of this situation.
  • The people of Italy saw a national correctional personality in Mussolini in that state of chaos.
  • In the election of 1920, the Fascist party got the absolute majority and Mussolini declared himself as dictator.
  • After the establishment of totalitarianism in Italy, the League of Nations was weakened resulting in the breakdown of global peace.
  • Seeing the growing influence of Mussolini, Capitalist nations adopted the policy of appeasing Italy.
  • In 1923 AD, Italy recovered its territories of Rhodes and Dardenielles from Greece by the treaty of Lausanne.
  • After Mussolini came to power, differences between Italy and France over France’s dominance in Mediterranean sea increased.
  • In 1956, Mussolini acquired Abyssania in October 1935, to seek retribution for the defeat of Eduova.
  • In view of security and mutual co-operation, there was a ‘steel settlement’ between Germany and Italy on May 22, 1939.

Nazism

  • Nazism emerged under the leadership of Hitler in Germany. His ideology is called Nazism.
  • The Weimar republic of Germany failed to establish an efficient government, burdened by the treaty of Versailles. The benefit of this situation was received by the Nazi party.
  • Hitter’s attractive programmes and speeches influenced German youth, soldiers and politicians, due to which Hitler received their support.
  • The success of the Nazi party caused fear of insecurity in many European nations.
  • As a result, Germany received co-operation from countries such as Hungary, Poland, etc. Britain also adopted a policy of appeasement towards Germany.
  • Hitler cancelled the treaty of Versailles and started the process armament.
  • On 6 November 1937 AD, Italy-Germany-Japan built Rome-Berlin-Tokyo axis.
  • In the treaty of Versailles Germany had coded large land portions to Poland. To avenge this insult, Germany invaded Poland in September 1939.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 6 The World Between 1919 and 1945

II World War

  • After Twenty years of the end of first World War, second World War started in 1939.
  • This world war engulfed the entire world with its deadly consequences.
  • After the loss of immense wealth, human lives and destruction, the second World War ended in 1945.

Causes

  •  The harsh and abusive conditions of the treaty of Versailles.
  • Rise of authoritarianism.
  • Weakness of the League of Nations.
  • Rise of imperialist sentiment.
  • Disarmament – Failure of disarmanent and fierce nationalism
  • Policy of appeasement towards Italy and Germany.
  • Minority caste discontent and international economic crisis.
  • Split into two groups of the world.
  • Germany invades Poland.

Result (effect, outcome)

  • Nuclear age begins
  • Splitting of the world into two ideologies
  • Germany split into two segments
  • Fall of national sentiment
  • Force on the establishment of all authoritarian regimes
  • End of European domination
  • Start of the cold war
  • Rise of Non-alignment
  • The emergence of new independent states in Asia and Africa.
  • Establishment of United Nations Organization.

United Nations Organization

  • United Nations Organization was formed on August 14, 1941, by a joint declaration of the British prime minister and US president Roosevelt aboard a warship in the Atlantic ocean.
  • San Francisco convention: In 1945, this charter was signed by 50 nations. UN charter of the United nations came into force on October 24, 1945.
  • The main objective of this organization was to promote international cooperation in the social, economic, cultural and humanitarian areas and to establish international peace and security by establishing disarment and new international economic system.
  • By promoting peace and accepting the responsibility of charter, any nation could become a member of the United Nations.
  • According to section 5 and 6 of the charter, any member can be suspended by the General Assembly for continuous violation of the charter.
  • The official languages of the United Nations are: English, French, Chinese, Arabic, Russian and Spanish.
  • United Nation’s headquarters is in Manhattan island of New York city of America.
  • United Nation’s flag has two upright olive branches in the white background and has a world map in its light blue background.
  • The General secretary is the Chief administrative officer of the United Nations. At present Ban Ki Moon is the general secretary of this organization.
  • The United Nation has six major components: The General assembly, the security council, the council of trustees, the Secretariat, the economic social council and the international court of Justice.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 6 The World Between 1919 and 1945

Special bodies (organs) of the United Nations

  • United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization-UNESCO (4th November 1945 AD)
  • International Labour Organization-ILO (11 April, 1919)
  • Food and Agriculture Organization-FAO (16 October, 1945 AD)
  • World Health Organization-WHO (1th April, 1946 AD)
  • International Monetary Fund-IME (December 1945 AD)
  • International Reconstruction and Development Bank-IRDB (World Bank)
  • United Nations Child Crisis Fund-UNISEF (1946 AD)
  • World Trade Organization-WTO (1st January, 1995 AD)
  • Human Rights Declaration-HRD (10 December, 1948 AD)

Nelson Mandela

  • Nelson Mandela was born on 15th July, 1918 in a 6 lack family of South Africa.
  • Seeing the atrocities of white people on his society. He resolved to end apartheid policy.
  • Mandela remained in Jail for twenty seven years, and due to his efforts and the agreement with South Africa’s white regime resulted in the formation of a democratic constitution in South Africa.
  • Mandela became South Africa’s first black president in 1994. Nelson Mandela was awarded the Nobel Peace prize, the Nehru Peace Award, Bharat Ratna, etc.

India’s Contribution to the United Nations

  • India signed the declaration of United Nations and became its founding member.
  • India played an active role in the Labour Organization Food and Agriculture organization, World Health Organization and UNESCO.
  • The president of the 8th session of the United Nations General Assembly was Smt. Vijaylaxmi Pandit.
  • Dr. Radhakrishanan and Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad assumed UNESCO’s head post.
  • Dr. Nagendra singh was appointed as the Chief justice of international court and Dr. H. J. Bhabha was appointed on the post of commission constituted for peaceful use of Nuclear power.
  • Princess Amrit Kaur was the president of World Health Organization.
  • Gautam Kagi is the first Indian to be appointed managing director of the World Bank.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 6 The World Between 1919 and 1945

The World Between 1919 and 1945 Important dates and events

29 July 1883 AD – The father of Fascism and the Italian supremacist Bennito Mussolini was born.
20 April, 1889, AD – Birth of German dictator Adolf Hitler
1912 AD – Mussolini started editing the socialist magazine ‘Avanti’
18 July, 1918 AD – Birth of Nelson Mandela
11 November, 1918 AD – End of 1st World War
11 April, 1919 AD – Establishment of International Labour Organization
10 January, 1920 AD – League of Nations was legally established
1920 – League of Nations established a permanent state commission
1920-22 AD – The League of Nations Vienna controversy
1920 AD – The factionist party became a political party. Oland Island Controversy
1921-24 AD – Albania border dispute happened.
31 October, 1922 AD – Mussolini was appointed the Prime Minister of Italy
1923 AD – There was a ‘Lausanne treaty’ between Greece and Italy.
1923-29 AD – Yavorjano dispute
1923-30 AD – Hungarian dispute
1925-26 AD – Bulgaria and Greece dispute
1928-33 AD – Granchaco dispute
1929-34 AD – Period of economic crisis in the world
1931 AD – Japan invaded Manchuria
1932-33 AD – Lotesia dispute
1932 AD – Hitler was appointed chancellor of Germany. Disarmanent conference was held in Geneva under the auspices of the League of Nations.
1933 AD – US President Roosevelt launched famous programme called ‘New-Wystem’ (New Deal)
1934 AD – America took the membership of League of Nations.
1935 AD – Italy and France have friendship treaty. Hilter announced re-armament.
21 November 1936 AD – Germany and Italy signed on Anti-communism pact in which there was no provision for political agreement with Russia.
1936 AD – There was an agreement between Germany and Italy.
6th November, 1937 AD – Japan-Italy-Germany built Rome-Berlin-Tokyo axis.
1937-45 AD – China-Japan war
1939-40 AD – Russian-Finnish war
22 May 1939 AD – Italy had a iron pact with Germany
1939 AD – The beginning of II World War
14th August, 1941 – British Prime minister Churchill and US President Roosevelt jointly announced, the ‘Atlantic Charter’

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 6 The World Between 1919 and 1945

6th August, 1945 AD – United States of America dropped nuclear bomb on Hiroshima.
9th August, 1945 AD – Nuclear (Atomic) bombs dropped on Japan’s Nagasaki city.
1945 AD – The San Francisco conference happened.
16th October, 1945 AD – Food and Agriculture Organization was established.
24th October, 1945 AD – United Nations Organization (UNO) was formed.
1945 AD – International Monetary Fund was established.
1946 AD – Trigaveli became the first Secretary General of the UNO
4th November, 1946 AD – Establishment of UNESCO
1946 AD – Functioning of World Bank started.UNICEF was established
1947 AD – The UNO’s flag was adopted
7th April, 1948 AD – Establishment of World Health Organization (WHO)
10th December, 1948 AD – Human rights declaration was released
21st September, 1949 AD – German Federal Republic was established (West Germany)
7th October, 1949 AD – Democratic Republic was established in Germany (East Germany)
1990 AD – Unification of Germany
1994 AD – Nelson Mandela became South Africa’s first black president
1st January 1995 AD – Establishment of World Trade Organization
18th July, 2009 AD – The UNO passed the resolution to declare Mandela day
2013 AD – Nelson Mandela died

The World Between 1919 and 1945 Notes Important Terms

→ League of Nations: A consortium of nations formed after the end of 1st World War. Its purpose was to establish peace and security in the world.

→ General Secretary: The head of the third part, secretariat of the League of Nations was called General Secretary.

→ Mandate: An arrangement in which the League of Nations provided the presentation of the Colonies which were taken from Germany and Turkey and given to countries like Japan, France, Belgium and England.

→ Economic Crisis: There was a huge decline in the financial world from 1929 to 1934 AD. The currency was devalued, the value of agricultural production declined drastically, it was called economic crisis (downturn)

→ New deal: To re-organize the economy, US President Roosevelt introduced new eronomic system called New deal.

→ Democratic system: The government (ruling system) in which power is in the hands of the general public is called democratic system.

→ Dictatorship: When the power is centered in the hands of a person or in some people’s hands, it is called totalitarianism or dictatorship.

→ Communism: In the manner of which all the resources of the country are owned by the people of the society and society is without category, it is called communism.

→ Fascism: The ideology of governance, established by Mussolini in Italy is called Fascism.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 6 The World Between 1919 and 1945

→ Nazism: In Germany, the ideology of the party that was led by Hitler was called Nazism.

→ Mein Kampf: It is the creation of Hitler. It is also called the Bible of the Nazis.

→ Appeasement policy: Such a diplomatic policy that pacifies any other power to avoid the war.

→ Non-alignment: Non-alignment means to be neutral by not supporting any faction’s policies.

→ Colonialism: The ideology that promotes the exercise of power over the resources of another nation’s resources, which is weak but rich in natural resources. This was done by a powerful nation for its various interests.

→ Disarmament: It is an arrangement whose purpose is to reduce the specific threats of the existence of weapons and their nature.

→ Veto power: The right to reject a proposed act or policy.

→ Human Rights: This declaration accepted on December 10, 1948 ensured that no person

→ Declaration: will be discriminated against on the basis of dynasty, colour, gender, religion, language, property and birth, etc.

→ Benito Mussolini: The dictator of Italy and creator of Fascism.

→ Adolf Hitler: Germany’s world famous dictator, who led the Nazi party.

→ Nelson Mandela: South Africa’s first black president, who campaigned against apartheid policy.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 5 First World War

Go through these RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 5 First World War contain important concepts so that students can score better marks in the exam.

Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 5 First World War

First World War

  • Before the first world war, there was domination of European countries on the whole world.
  • Before the first world war, the colonies of different European countries had been established in Asia and Africa.
  • Fierce competition and rivalry had arisen between European countries regarding the control over the colonies which resulted in the form of first world war.
  • Besides this there were many other causes of the first world war:
    i) The rise of fierce nationalism.
    ii) Imperialistic competition between England and Germany
    iii) Competition between Germany and France
    iv) Partition of European Countries in two groups
    v) Mercantile and colonial rivalry
    vi) Servoslav movement and Balcan politics
    vii) Diplomatic policies of Nations
    viii) Role of Newspaper
    ix) Rise of International anarchy.
  • The immediate cause of the first world war was the invasion of Austria on Serbia on 28 July 1914 CE.
  • In the first world war, all the nations of the world were divided into two groups which were known as Allied Powers and Central Powers.
  • Allied Powers: England, France, Russia, Serbia, Japan, Portugal, United States of America, Italy, Romania, Greece, Siam, Serbia, Cuba, Panama, Brazil, Gueatemala, etc.
    Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungry, Bulgaria and Turkey.
  • Not only one nation was responsible for the first world war but also all the nations were responsible equally for creating the circumstances for this world war.
  • The first world war as fought for four years, three months, and eleven days. 80 lakh solidiers were killed in it and around 2 crore people were wounded.
  • On 6 April 1917, due to sinking of an American ship, America declared war against Germany.
  • Along with the defeat of Germany this war came to an end on 11 November 1918 CE.
    In 1919 CE, after the end of first world war, in order to establish enduring peace, a peace conference was organised in Paris.
  • In Paris conference, 32 countries were invited. Woodrow Wilson (the president of America), Lyold George (Prime Minister of England), Climensc (Prime Minister of France) and Orlando (Prime Minister of Italy) were specially invited in it.
  • In this peace conference, many treaties were performed with defeated nations: Treaty of St. Germain (i) Treaty of Trango (iii) Treaty of Neuli (iv) Treaty of Sebre (v) Treaty of Versailles (vi) Referendum in Schelswig.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 5 First World War

Consequences of the First World War

  • Along with the decline of feudalism and Autocracy, democratic rule became established.
  • Nationalism, Socialism, Facism, Nazism and militarism emerged. An arms race started between different nations.
  • Ten trillion rupees were spent in this war and huge loss of money was incurred.
  • Due to extraordinary expenditure public loans of the world increased.
  • Governments of different nations increased import duties by which the world trade was badly effected.
  • Paper currency was devalued.
  • Efforts were made for the solution of the problems of minorities.
  • The demand of rights and representation for women began to rise in each nation.
  • International Labour Union of League of Nations was established by which the feelings of internationalism were created.

The First World War and India

  • India was an important colony of England during the first world war.
  • India fought for the interests of England in this war.
  • India supported England with this expectation that after winning the war England will provide democratic rule to India.
  • But the British tricked the Indians and contrary to Indian expectations the British continued with their oppressive policies which resulted in famine, pandemics, economic exploitation suppression of press and cruelty towards Indians.
  • To suppress the revolutionary activities of Indians, Rowlatt Act was passed in 1919 CE.

Russian Revolution in 1917 CE

  • The superiority of Russia was challenged by their defeat in war with Japanese in 1904-05.
  • The Russian society was divided into three categories of elite, middle and proletariat class.
  • Dissatisfaction and feeling of opposition were increasing continuously among the Russian people due to different reasons.
  • The causes of this dissatisfaction were the oppressive policies of Czarist regime.
  • Some immediate circumstances made this dissatisfaction explode suddenly.
  • On 8 March 1917 CE workers of factories in Petrograd struck work because they didn’t get enough food to eat.
  • On 10 March all the factories of Petrograd remained closed.
  • The Czar sent his army to suppress the revolutionaries but the soldiers favoured them.
  • On 11 March the Czar dissolved the ‘Duma’.
  • Workers and soldiers together formed “Revolutionaries Soviet.”
  • On 14 March, Revolutionary Soviet and the members of Duma formed a temporary government in which prince Luov became their leader. ,
  • In this temporary government the leader of the revolutionary socialist party Alexander Kerensky was made the minister of Justice, the leader of Octoberist Party Gushkov was made war minister, the leader of constitutional democratic party professor Milokhov was made foreign minister and Terevenko was appointed as finance minister.
  • Thus, as a result of the revolution, a temporary liberal government was formed.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 5 First World War

Bolshevik revolution and Lenin

  • Lenin is credited for the establishment of the first communist government of the world and implementation of Marxist model.
  • Lenin was born on 22nd April 1870 at Russia’s Volga Province near the city of Simbrisk.
  • On 8th May 1887 Lenin’s brother Alksandr Ulyanov was hanged on a rope for the murder of Czar Alexender III. Infuriated with this event Lenin decided to remove the Czarist rule from its roots.
  • In 1903 CE, the Social democratic party was divided into two groups: Bolshevik and Menshevik.
  • Bolsheviks considered them staunch revolutionaries and Menshivks were reformists and opportunists.
  • According to Lenin’s direction, the armed revolutionaries decided to capture power on 23 October 1917 and a ‘Politburo’ was appointed for the implementation of their plan.
  • Trotski founded the Military revolutionary committee of Soviet.
  • On 25 October, 1917 CE the Bolshevik revolution started suddenly at night and under the leadership of
  • Bolsheviks, workers and soldiers captured the palace of Czar in Petrograd.
    Kerenski fled from capital.
  • On 8 November 1917 CE under the leadership of Lenin, first cabinet of new government was formed. In this new government Trotsky was appointed as foreign minister. Stalin was made Minister of ethnic groups and Raikov was made home minister.
  • In the initial years of its rule Bolshevik party had to face civil war.

First World War Important dates and events

  • 22 April 1870 CE – Birth of Lenin the hero of Bolshevik Revolution
  • 1879 CE – Birth of Stalin, Successor of Lenin.
  • 1882 CE – Formation of triad by Germany, Austria and Italy
  • 8 May 1887 CE – The brother of Lenin hanged till death for murder of Czar Alexander III.
  • 1898 CE – Social Democratic party was formed.
  • 1903 CE – Social Democratic party was divided into two parties: Bolshevik and Menshevik.
  • 1904-05 CE – The war between Russia and Japan.
  • 1905 CE – Period of Russian Revolution.
  • 1907 CE – Treaty between England, Russia and France.
  • 1914 CE – The first world war started. Austria declared war against Serbia.
  • 1915 CE – Mahatma Gandhi returned India from Africa.
  • 1917 CE – Bolshevik Revolution in Russia.
  • February 1817 CE – The conference of Elite classes in Moscow.
  • 7 November 1917 CE – Bolshevik party took over the rule.
  • 8 November 1917 CE – First cabinet of new government in the leadership of Lenin was formed.
  • 1918 CE – Treaty of the Brest Litovask between Lenin and government of Germany.
  • 11 November 1918 CE – End of first world war.
  • 1919 CE – Peace conference in Paris.
  • 28 June 1919 CE – Treaty of Versailles with Germany.
  • 1919 CE – Indian government act was passed. Third international or ‘Comintum’ was established in Moscow.
  • 1923 CE – Treaty of Lausanne.
  • 1924 CE – The Death of Lenin.
  • 1925 CE – Nihilist organisation was formed.
  • 6 March 1953 – Death of Stalin.
  • CE 1991 CE – Soviet Union was disintegrated.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 5 First World War

First World War Notes Important terms

→ Colony: The area which is ruled by a foreign power and the native people have no political rights.

→ Dictator: A ruler with absolute power over a country, typically one who has obtained control by force.

→ Imperialism: A policy of extending a country’s power and influence through colonization, use of military force or other means.

→ Traid: Germany, Austria and Italy form an alliance for mutual co-operation against rival powers.

→ Militarism: It is a belief or the desire of a government or a people that a state should maintain a strong military capability to use it aggressively to expand or promote national interests.

→ Armament: The process of equipping military forces for war.

→ Mandate system: It was the system of the League of Nations in which the victors of world war-I were given responsibility for governing former German and Ottoman territories as mandates from the League.

→ Fascism: Fascism is a form of government which is a type of one-party dictatorship. It is against principles of democracy.

→ Nazism: Nazism is the ideology and set of practices associated with the 20th Century German Nazi party in Nazi Germany and of other far right groups.

→ Republican government: A form of government in which a state is ruled by representatives of the citizen body.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 5 First World War

→ Rowlatt Act: The act passed by the British government in 1919 CE. This allowed certain political cases to be tried without juries and permitted internment of suspects without trial

→ Duma: The name of Russian parliament.

→ Industrial Revolution: The industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

→ Nihilism: The rejection of all religions and moral principles, in the belief that life is meaningless.

→ Capitalism: An economic and political system in which a country’s trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.

→ Red Army: Strong organized army formed by Bolsheviks to confront foreign armies and chieftains of the Czar.

→ Prince Coptic: Chief promoter of Nihilism.

→ Lenin: Great hero of Bolshevik revolution and leader of Bolshevik party.

→ Stalin: Follower of Lenin.

→ Trotsky: The foreign minister of Bolshevik government.

→ Alexander Kerenski: Leader and minister of Justice of Socialist party.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 4 Development of Nationalism in the World

Go through these RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 4 Development of Nationalism in the World contain important concepts so that students can score better marks in the exam.

Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 4 Development of Nationalism in the World

The original natives of America before Columbus

  • The American continent is known by the name of ‘New World’. It was discovered by Christopher Columbus in 1942 AD.
  • European historians have called the original inhabitants of America by the name ‘Red Indians’.

The Ancient Civilization of Original inhabitants

  • The Aztec and Mayan civilizations emerged in North America.
  • North America is known for Mayan and Aztec culture and South America is known for Incan culture.
  • The information about the original culture of America is obtained from the travelogues, daily accounts, diaries of contemporary travellers, and from the remains of grand architecture. The Mayan, Aztec and Incan civilizations were urban civilizations.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 4 Development of Nationalism in the World 1

  • The original sources of livelihood in Ancient America were agriculture and its related business.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 4 Development of Nationalism in the World 2

  • The Mayan culture is related with Mexico. The basis of this civilization lay in the cultivation of maize.
  • The Aztec community of Mexico was divided into classes, similar to the society in Ancient India.
  • The principal deity of Aztec civilization was Maxilli. Mexico is named after it.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 4 Development of Nationalism in the World

Reasons for the arrival of European countries in America

  • America was named after the Italian sailor, Amerigo Vespucci, who reached the American shores in 1501 AD.
  • There were many reasons for the inhabitants of European countries to visit America. The main among these were:
    i) To obtain gold, silver and other precious things
    ii) The spirit of imperialism and expansionism
    iii) To preach and propagate the religion of Christianity.

Effect of the arrival of European countries on Natives of America

  • The arrival of Europeans in America had a very bad effect on the original inhabitants of the continent. The Europeans completely destroyed the culture, cuisine, lifestyle, thoughts and conduct, religious belief and architectural style of the natives.
  • The Europeans forced the original inhabitants of America to live in a very small part of the continent, because of which these tribes came to the brink of extinction due to wars, massacres and disease.

Struggle for American Independence

  • The struggle for American independence in the 18th century is considered to be the most important event that influenced the entire world.
  • In context of the American war of Independence, Carl. L. Baker remarked that this revolution was a conflict between the economic interests of the colonies and Britain.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 4 Development of Nationalism in the World

Reasons for American War of Independence

The main reasons for the American War of Independence were:

  • Lack of goodwill and affection towards England
  • Rise of intellectual consciousness
  • The unsympathetic and exploitative British policies for their colonies
  • the tension between the governor and local legislative councils
  • The faulty economic policies and regulations of Emperor George III.

Major Events in American War of Independence

The American freedom struggle witnessed these major events:

  • Boston massacre
  • Boston Tea party
  • Organisation of the First Continental Congress o Lexington massacre
  • Organisation of the Second Continental Congress.

Declaration of Independence

  • Richard Henry put the proposal of American independence in the Continental Congress of June 1776, which was seconded by John Adams.
  • On July 2, 1776, the Congress passed the resolution of American independence and on July 4, 1776, America got its freedom from British rule.

Important Victories

  • Washington’s armies defeated the British army in the Battle of Trenton (1776), Sarragota War (1777), and Battle of Yorktown (1761).
  • In 1783, the Treaty of Paris was signed between representatives of England and American colonies.
  • America’s 13 colonies were declared free from British rule in the Treaty of Paris.

Causes of England’s Defeat

The main causes of England’s defeat were:

  • The great geographical distance between England and America
  • Recruitment of most of the soldiers in British army from Germany on rent
  • Lack of enthusiasm is British Soldiers
  • incompetence of the British monarch and ministers etc.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 4 Development of Nationalism in the World

Effects of American Independence

The major effects of American independence were:

  • Rise of America as a democratic nation and making of its written constitution
  • End of commercial imperialism
  • Inspiration for the French Revolution
  • Birth of British Commonwealth
  • Increase in the powers of the British Parliament
  • More facilities for Ireland.

The French Revolution

  • The Glorious Revolution of England in 1688 and the American War of Independence in 1776 were not as important as the French Revolution (1789).
  • The French Revolution was against the autocratic regime, unjust social system, economic exploitation and inequality that prevailed in the country.
  • Feudal system, economic exploitation and inequality, and religious superstition were rife in all the countries of contemporary Europe, and in such a situation, the spirit of renaissance awakened in France, which was an extremely momentous event of that period.

The main reasons for the French Revolution were:

  • faulty political system
  • social inequality o bad economic conditions
  • Intellectual awakening
  • the unwise policy adopted by France in the American War of Independence
  • Religious dissatisfaction
  • emergence of the middle class.

Major Events and phases of the French Revolution

  • There was a council named ‘Estates Generale’ in France. It had the representation of the elite class, clergy class, intellectual class and common citizenry in it.
  • The first conference of the Estates General was held in 1320 during the reign of Phillip the fair, but the session was not called after 1614.
  • A session of the Estates General was convened on 5 May 1789 after a gap of 175 years. It had a total of 1214 members.
  • When the members of the third assembly came for the conference on 20 June 1789, the king had the assembly hall locked in favour of the elite class. As a result, the common class members held their assembly in a nearby Tennis ground.
  • On July 14, 1789, the enraged people of Paris attacked the fort of Bastille, freed the prisoners held there and thus began the Revolution.
  • The fall of Bastille was an indication of the success of popular revolt against the autocratic rule of the king.
  • On August 4, 1789, the National Assembly abolished all the privileges of the elite and clergy classes.
  • On October 5, 1789, thousands of women stormed the Palace of Versailles, and raised the slogan of ‘Give us bread’. The king’s family became prisoners in their palace.
  • The new constitution of France was prepared in 1791, whose fundamental basis was the ‘will of the people’.
  • The king of France, Louis XVI was hanged to death on 21 January 1793.
  • The National Convention was the third Parliament of France, in whose monarchy was abolished and democracy was established on September 21, 1792.
  • Directory regime system was in force in France from 1795 to 1799.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 4 Development of Nationalism in the World

Effect of French Revolution

The main effects of the French Revolution were:

  • Abolition of the feudal system
  • Rise of nationalism
  • Emergence of democratic spirit and declaration of human rights
  • Formationof political parties
  • Abolition of the privileges of the Church
  • Emergence of socialism
  • Educational reforms
  • Emergence of the spirit of liberty, equality and fraternity etc.

Napoleon Bonaparte

  • Napoleon Bonaparte was born in Ajasinco city in the island of Corsica near Italy, on August 15, 1769.
  • Napoleon gained popularity by saving the members of National Assembly from an agitated mob on 16 September, 1793.
  • Napoleon abolished the Directory system and handed over the governance to three councils. Napoleon himself became the Chief Counsel.
  • Napoleon was appointed Counsel for life in 1802.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte was declared the emperor of France on December 2,1804.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte defeated the combined armies of Austria and Prussia on December 2, 1805 in the Battle of Austerilitz.
  • Napoleon formed the ‘Rhine Federation’ by amalgamating the many small states of Germany through the Treaty of Pressburg.
  • Napoleon employed the influence of religion to lend stability to the regime in a very effective manner.
  • Napoleon removed education from the control of the Church and put it under the State. Napoleon aimed to strengthen his administration through the medium of teachers.
  • Napoleon abolished irrelevant and outdated laws, and formulated new laws. The ‘Code of Law’formulated in 1804 was named the ‘Napoleonic codes’.
  • Napoleon gave legal aceptance to the right to private property and made the farmers the rightful owners of the land they tilled.
  • Napoleon emphasised the code of family discipline and order.
  • Napoleon occupied Spain in an unauthorised manner, but he could not succeed in his Moscow campaign.
  • Sweden, Prussia, England, Russia and Austria came together to from a ‘Fourth Alliance’ in order to defeat Napoleon.
  • Napoleon suffered a crushing defeat in the Battle of Waterloo on June 18, 1815. He surrendered before the British Naval officer, Metland, on July 15, 1815.
  • Napoleon died on 5 May 1821, living a prisoner’s life on the island of St Helena.

The Main Reasons behind Napoleon’s decline

The main resons for Napoleon’s decline were:

  • Lack of vision
  • Continental system
  • Unauthorised occupation of Spain
  • Campaign against Russia
  • Derogatory behaviour towards the Pope
  • England’s strong position
  • High ambitions
  • Favouritism towards relatives (nepotism)
  • Centralisation of power in one person (autocratic style).

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 4 Development of Nationalism in the World

The Concept of Nation (in context of Germany and Italy)

  • The essential elements for a state, nation or country to exist are: people, territory, sovereignty and culture.
  • In context of India, four essential elements have been defined for an ideal state: (i) people, (ii) culture, (iii) territory, (iv) sovereign power.
  • European scholars do not accept similar culture to be an essential element for a state to exist, but the Indian concept considers culture to be an integral part of state.

The Political Unification of Germany

  • After the French Revolution and Napoleon’s conquests, a nation named Germany was founded due to the rise of feelings of nationalism in European countries.
  • Before Napoleon, Germany was divided into a number of small states, and was under the authority of the Roman Empire.
  • Napoleon formed a federation of 39 states of Rhineland in place of the numerous small states of the region and established a simple, uniform, administrative system. The federation was called the ‘Rhine Federation’.
  • 18 states combined together in 1834 and formed the ‘Zollverin’; an economic federation, under the leadership of Prussia.
  • The establishment of ‘Zollverin’ strengthened the path for the political unification of Germany in future, under the leadership of Prussia.
  • In 1815, the University of Zenna formed a patriotic organisation named ‘Birchenshaft’. This organisation emphasised the moral upliftment of the German people.
  • Economic unification began in Germany after the formation of Zollverin, that reached the various smaller states of Germany through railways.

Contribution of Bismarck

  • Bismarck wanted to unify Germany by armed might under the leadership of Prussia.
  • On August 14, 1865, a pact was reached by king Wilhem I of Prussia and king Francis Joseph of Austria at a place called Gestine.
  • The Treaty of Prague was made between Prussia and Sardinia on 23 August, 1866, according to which the confederation of North Germany was formed under Prussia’s leadership.
  • A battle ensued between France and Prussia on September 1, 1870 at Sedan in which France was defeated.
  • Wilhem I was declared the emperor of unified Germany on 18 January 1871. Berlin was made capital of unified Germany, and Bismarck was declared the Chancellor of Germany.
  • In the Frankfurt Treaty of February 26, 1871, the unification of Germany was completed, and a powerful nation was founded under the leadership of Prussia.
  • Bismarck used diplomacy to give Germany the identity of a powerful nation. Now Germany became the centre of European politics, in place of France.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 4 Development of Nationalism in the World

Political Unification of Italy

  • Due to the invasions of Napoleon, an era of national movements began in Italy.
  • Geographically, Italy was divided into Northern, Central and Southern states. Rome, Italy’s capital, was under the authority of the Pope.
  • Napoleon conquered the various states of Italy, integrated them into a single entity and established a national state.
  • Organisations like the ‘Carbonneirri’ and ‘Young Italy’ made important contributions in the unification of Italy.
  • Mazzini made vital contribution to the unification of Ialy. He founded the organsation named ‘Young Italy’.
  • Cavour wanted to exclude Austria from Italy. He turned the national issue of Italy into an international problem to gain the support of European nations.
  • A pact was reached between Napoleon and Cavour at a place called Plombiers, according to which France would send 2 lac soldiers to Sardinia, in event of a war between Sardinia and Austria.
  • The Treaty of Villa Franca was signed between Napoleon III, the emperor of France, and Austrian monarch Francis Joseph on 11 July, 1859, according to which it was decided that an Italian federation be formed under the authority of the Pope.
  • Guissepe Garibaldi was born in 1807 at Nice. Initially, he became a member of Mazzini’s ‘Young Italy’.
  • Garibaldi founded an orgnisation of patriots named ‘The Red Coats’ and through its influence, he entered Sicily.
  • In 1860, the people of Sicily revolted against the autocratic rulers of the Boubom dynasty under the leadership of Garibaldi. Garibaldi annexed Sicily.
  • Garibaldi attacked the then leadership of France on 19 August 1860, and was victorious.
  • Italy obtained Venetia through the Treaty of Prague between Prussia and Austria.
  • Taking advantage of the defeat of France in the Franco-Prussian war of 1870, Italy occupied Rome.
  • The people of Rome voted overwhelmingly in favour of ceding to Italy. Rome was made the capital of unified Italy.
  • The unification of Italy was completed due to Mazzini’s moral strength, Cavour’s diplomacy, Garibaldi’s sword and wisdom of Victor Emmanuel.

Development of Nationalism in the World Important dates and events

1320 – First convention of Estates Generale of France organised.
1453 – Turkish conquest of Constantinople, and decline in European trade.
1492-1636 – Christopher Columbus discovered the American continent; founding of Harvard College
1704 – Publishing of Boston’s first newspaper ‘Boston Newsletter’ begins.
1757-1763 – Seven-year war between England and France; banning of liquor imports by America and imposition of tax on molasses.
1764-1765 – Stamp Act promulgated in America. It made mandatory for all newspapers magazines, books, licenses, leases to pay stamp duty.
1767 – England’s Finance Minister Townshend imposes import duty on glass, dyes, tea.
June 1767 – New York Legislative Assembly dissolved.
15 August 1769 – Napoleon Bonaparte was bom on the Island of Corsica.
5 March 1770 – Tension grows between British soldiers and citizens in America.
26 December 1773 – Boston Tea Party in America.
5 September 1774 – Convening of First Continental Congress in America.
19 April 1775 – Lexingon massacre in America
10 May 1775 – Convention of Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia, America, under the Chairmanship of John Hancock.
15 June 1775 – George Washington appointed commander of American Continental Army.
1776 – George Washington defeats British army in the Battle of Trenton.
2 July 1776 – American Continental Congress passes the motion of American independence.
4 July 1776 – Declaration of American independence. The manifesto declaring separation from England accepted by all American states.
1777 – British defeat in the Battle of Saragotta.
1781 – Lord Cornwallis, the British commander forced to surrender by Washington and Roshamby with help of French army.
3 December 1783 – Paris Treaty signed between representatives of Britain and American colonies.
5 May 1789 – Convention of Estates Generale organised in France.
17 June 1789 – Declaration of their own assembly as the National Assembly by common class of France.
20 June 1789 – Gates of Assembly Hall locked to appease the elite class by king of France and holding of Assembly by common class in a nearby tennis ground.
27 June 1789 – French monarch orders a joint convention of all three houses of legislature.
14 July 1789 – Mob of agitators storm and capture Bastille fort. 14 July declared a national holiday.
4 August 1789 – abolition of special privileges in France.
5 October 1789 – Thousands of women enter Royal Versailles palace of France to demand bread.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 4 Development of Nationalism in the World

1791 – Written constitution prepared for the first time in France.
20 June 1791 – King Louis XVI caught near Baren village while unsuccessfully trying to fie.
21 September 1792 – Monarchy abolished and democracy established in France during the tenure of the third Parliment of France ‘National Convention’.
21 January 1793 – French Monarch Louis XIV put to death.
27 July 1794 – fall of Robbespeire in France.
1795 – National Convention frames new constitution in France.
16 September 1793 – Napoleon Bonaparte saved members of National Grand Assembly from violent mob.
(October 1795 to November 1799) – Directory regime enforced in France.
January 1797 – Napoleon defeats Austria in battles of Vivoli and Australitz.
August 1798 – Napoleon defeated by Commander of English fleet, Nelson, in the battle of Nile.
1800 – Founding of Bank of the France
1801 – Treaty of Concorde
1802 – Napoleon appointed Counsel for life
2 Decmber 1804 – Napoleon declared emperor of France.
21 October 1805 – British commander Nelson defeats Napoleon in battle of Trafalgar.
2 December 1805 – Napoleon defeats combined armies of Prussia and Austria in the battle of Australitz.
14 June 1806 – France defeats Prussia in battles of Zenna and Oersted.
1807 – Guissepe Garibaldi born in the city of Nice.
8 July 1807 – Treaty of Tilsit between France and Russia.
1813 – Napoleon defeats Austria in the battle of Dresden.
1814 – Allied forces defeat Napoleon and force a treaty at Fountainbhau.
1815 – Zenna University in Germany founds a patriotic organisation called Birschenshafft.
30 March 1815 – Napoleon Bonaparte escapes from Island of Elba and reaches Paris.
15 July 1815 – Napoleon surrenders before British naval officer Metland.
1818 – The ‘toll tax federation’ treaty by Zollverin with Schwarzburg Sonderschausen states
5 May 1821 – Napoleon’s death at St Helena Island.
1831 – Mazzini establishes organisation named ‘Young Italy’.
1852 – Two estates of German federation Schelswig and Holstein sign the London treaty.
1854 – Cavour helps armies of England and France against Russia in the Crimean war with 1800 soldiers.
3 May 1859 – France helps Italy in its conflict with Austria, and Austria is defeated.
11 July 1859 – Treaty of Villa Franca between Napoleon III of France and Austrian emperor Francis Joseph.
1861-1888 – Reign of Prussian emperor Wilhem I.
January 1864 – Schelswig and Holstein estates were the issue on which Prussia and Austria reached an agreement due to Bismarck’s efforts.
February 1864 – Combined armies of Austria and Prussia defeat Denmark.
14 August 1865 – Pact of Gestine reached between Prussian emperor Wilhem I and Austrian monarch Francis Joseph.
1866 – Pact between Prussia and Sardinia
3 July 1866 – War between Austria and Prussia, Austria defeated
23 August 1866 – Treaty of Prague between Prussia and Austria.
15 July 1870 – War begins between France and Prussia.
1 September 1870 – Decisive war between France and Prussia at Sedan in which France was defeated.
18 January 1871 – German emperor Wilhem I coronated in Versailles palace.
12 June 1871 – Victor Emmanuel inaugurates Parliament of unified Italy.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 4 Development of Nationalism in the World

Development of Nationalism in the World Notes Important Terms

→ Nationalism: Sense of unity felt by such people who share the same language, history and common culture.

→ Civilization: Civilization means those resources and artistic skills through which people fulfil all the needs the their life.

→ Culture: The manner in which man lives his life is called culture. It includes man’s lifestyle, thought and behavioral processes, attire, dance, arts, music, religious faith, philosophy, language and literature.

→ Architecture: Art of constructing building in various styles/designs.

→ Tribe: Such a community of people living in inaccessible areas, who have their own unique and distinct culture, customs, lifestyle, cusine and attire, is called a tribe.

→ Aztec Civilisation: The civilization that emerged in the Central valley of Mexico. The Aztec people came from the North to settle in the Central Valley of Mexico in the 12th Century. This society was class-based.

→ Mayan Civilisation: The civilization that developed in Mexico. This civilization made considerable progress between the eleventh and fourteenth century. Maize cultivation was extensive here, and the inhabitants used progressive methods of agriculture. The Mayan people made remarkable advancement in the fields of architecture, astronomy and mathematics.

→ Maxilli: The main deity of the Aztec people of Mexico

→ Incan Civilization: The biggest civilization of American countries that developed in Peru. The Incan empire extended from Ecuador to Chile over 3000 miles.

→ Red Indians: Wheatish-complexioned people, whose habitation was mistaken by Columbus to be India, while in fact, they were America’s orginal natives.

→ Capitulaision: a kind of deed in which the Pope promised the ownership of new lands to their discoverers/conquerors.

→ Colonisation: governance of another country or region by a country or a company in accordance with its own policies.

→ Colony: A weak country under the rule of a powerful country is called the colony of the powerful country. For example, India was a colony of England.

→ Pope: Religious leader of all Catholic community in Europe.

→ Continent: an extensive land extent which is usually surrounded by large water bodies.

→ Governor: Official who was responsible for administration in Colonies.

→ Seven-year War: War betwen England and France from 1757 to 1763. England emerged victorious in this war.

→ Sugar Act: America stopped import of English liquor and tax was imposed on molasses.

→ Quartering Act: Law arranging accommodation and food supplies to be ensured by colonies for royal troops in America.

→ Stamp Act: Stamp duty was made mandatory for newspapers, magazines, licenses and leases by this Act enforced in 1765.

→ Constitution: The collection of laws and regulations related to the formation of government, its working and its responsibilities, is called constitution.

→ Religious Freedom: the freedom to follow any religion of one’s choice.

→ Revolution: a sudden activity that manifests itself illegally or by use of force with the objective of changing the government or rule, through revolt.

→ Estates Generale: The representative assembly in France during the reign of kings. Its members included the elite class, the clergy, the intellectual class and common citizens.

→ Palerma: Institution in France that registered laws.

→ Civil Constitution of Clergy: Constitution enforced for priests in France

→ Republic: ruling or governance system based on mandate and representation of the people.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 4 Development of Nationalism in the World

→ Gullotine: a kind of machine invented by Dr Gullotine. It was a saw-toothed implement hung between two pillars on which the head of a criminal was kept to sever it from the body.

→ Bastille: Fortress and prison located in the eastern part of Paris. This fortress was used more as a prison. It was destroyed by a violent angry mob on July 14, 1789.

→ Monarchy: rule of king or such ruling system that was based on power and sword. The ruler in a monarchy was normally not answerable to the people.

→ Nation: Nation is a group of such people who share a common culture, territory and sovereign power.

→ Religion: Life values (ethics) that are ideal for a person to embrace, such is forgiveness, compassion, truth etc.

→ Carbonneirri: A secret organisation established in 1810 under Italy’s leadership. Its main objective was to expel foreigners from Italy and to establish legitimate independence.

→ Young Italy: The organisation founded by Mazzini in 1831. This organsation had three slogans: have faith in God, all brothers unite, and free Italy

→ Christopher Columbus: Italian native, he discovered the continents of North and South America. He had set out to discover India, but reached America.

→ Ptolemy: Author of treatise titled ‘Geography5. He proposed that the earth is round.

→ Thomas Paine: Author of book titled ‘Common Sense’. He evoked the spirit of patriotism amongst American people.

→ John Hancock: The President of second continental congress. This convention was held on May 10, 1775 in Philadelphia, America.

→ George Washington: The great freedom fighter of America. He became the first President of America after indepenence.

→ Richard Henry: He put forward the resolution of American independence in the Continental Congress.

→ Louis XVI: King of France during the French Revolution.

→ Voltaire: Leading philosopher of France. He held the luxurious lifestyle and decadence of the Church responsible for the corruption prevalent in France.

→ Napoleon Bonaparte: He became the emperor of France in 1804. He annexed many European countries and integrated them into France. He was defeated in the battle of Waterloo in 1815.

→ Didero: French philosopher who emphasised establishment of an ideal society in France.

→ Rousseau: Famous philosopher. His book ‘Social Contract’ emphasised the freedom of man. He was the propounder of the principles of liberty, equality and fraternity.

→ Montesque: Famous philosopher, who gave the principle of ‘separation of powers’.

→ Robbespiere: Disciple of famous French philosopher Rousseau. He established a regime of terror in France.

→ Bismarck: Prime Minister of Germany. He very ably managed the unification of Germany.

→ Mazzini: Young Italian revolutionary. He found an organisation named ‘Young Italy5 in 1831.

→ Cavour: Prime Minister of Sardinia Peidmont state of Italy. He was of the opinion that Italy would never gain freedom without foreign mediation.

→ Garibaldi: Freedom fighter of Italy. He made an important contribution to the unification of Italy by founding a patriotic organisation named ‘Red Coats’.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 3 The Renaissance, Reformation Movement and Industrial Revolution in Europe

Go through these RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 3 The Renaissance, Reformation Movement and Industrial Revolution in Europe contain important concepts so that students can score better marks in the exam.

Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 3 The Renaissance, Reformation Movement and Industrial Revolution in Europe

→ In between the 13th to 16th century the thinking power, human intellect and vision underwent a revolutionary transformation. This new awakening of consciousness is called renaissance.

→ The time period of renaissance is estimated to be between 1350 to 1550 AD.

→ The word Renaissance has come from the French word Renaissa.

→ For the first time this word was applied for revolutionary changes in Art & Architecture in 16th century in Italy.

→ Renaissance was a kind of intellectual & liberal cultural movement in which human being came out from the bondage of medieval age towards independent and progressive thinking.

→ The birth of new awakening consciousness (Renaissance) took place in Italy. Italy was the main centre of foreign trade through which interaction of western and eastern cultures occurred.

→ The conflict of war between Muslim & Christian world and trade relation & ties with different countries led to the spread of renaissance among people.

→ The renaissance gave place to the concept of logic & reasoning by which scientific innovations for human betterment took place.

→ During the phase of renaissance, the French, Spanish, Portuguese, German, English & Swedish and other regional languages were developed. As a result of this, new literature was created, in which Divine comedy by Dante, Canterbury tales of Chaucer and Leonardo” of Sir Thomas Moore were well known.

→ During renaissance the application of canvas and oil painting as a trend got initiated.

→ The painting of Monalisa, The Last Supper and Virgin of Rocks by Leo nardo da Vinci are the best examples of that time.

→ The architectural style of renaissance period was the combination of ancient Greek and Roman style. The best example of that are-Cathedral of Florence and Saint Peter’s Church.

→ Many new scientific theories & principles came into existence at that time. The best examples are principles of Copernicus and gravitational laws of Newton.

→ In the period of renaissance the philosophical thinkers gave up detachment and spirituality of religious books for the sake of Beauty, Human love and worldly pleasure as the source of life.

→ The renaissance gave freedom of expression to the human being, by which feeling of nationalism developed.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 3 The Renaissance, Reformation Movement and Industrial Revolution in Europe

Reformation Movement (Religious Reformation) in Europe

  • The people influenced by renaissance during 16th century, tried to stop religious monopoly, to set aside the wrong rituals of church and to end the religious hypocracy and backwardness. This movement that was started was known as Reformation.
  • The immediate reason behind the rise of religious reform movement was the sale of apology letters by the Pope that was opposed by Martin Luther.
  • The consequences of religious reform movement gave rise to the feeling of nationalism in Europe.
  • In order to protect the Catholic Church and to stop the protest and movement, the progressive religious reform movement was started.
  • By the spread of education, the field of literature & language developed further. The reformatory movement helped in the developmental movement of economic growth and capitalistic thinking.
  • The moral discipline flourished through this movement in the society.

Industrial Revolution

  • In England in the years in between 1780 to 1850 AD, the changes in industry and economic structure was known as the industrial revolution.
  • The foremost use of the word “Industrial revolution” was made by Gregory Michel of France and Cedric Anganum of Germany.
  • According to Davie “Industrial revolution occurred because of the changes that made it possible for humans to give up old methods of production for the manufacturing of goods in industries.
  • Britain became the pioneer of industrial revolution.
  • Why did industrial revolution begin in Britain?
  • Britain had sufficient resourcees, raw materials and investment along with a progressive regime.
  • Britain had iron and coal mines.
  • The country had the facilities to fulfil demand and supply of production.
  • The rise in British population led to increase in demand of things.
  • The effectiveness of Business class.
  • The availability of money in abundance and the establishment of banking system.
  • Political sustenance and good rule.
  • Britain’s favourable geographical position.
  • The non-interference of local authorities in the market structure.
  • By industrial revolution the changes were brought in different sectors of Agriculture.
  • The land owner of Yorkshire, JethroTull produced a seed-sowing machine called the seed drill.
  • Townshend gave the principal theory of crop cycle.
  • In 1793 AD, American resident Withing made the machine to separate straw from grains.
  • In 1834 AD, H. McGormak of Cyrus invented the crop cutting machine.
  • Cloth Production Field.
  • In 1733 AD, a weaver named John, discovered the flying shuttle that accelerated the cloth weaving method.
  • In 1764 AD, James Hargreaves invente’d ‘Spinning Jenny5.
  • In 1764 AD, Richard Arcbright produced thread making machine named as ‘Water Frame’. Technical changes in iron industry.
  • In 1709 AD, Abraham Durby invented the blast furnace in which coke was used for the first time.
  • Henry Courts invented the Allodan Furnace, this made possible the production of pure and good iron.
  • Between 1800 to 1830 AD, Britain showed healthy growth in iron production.The invention of power from steam.
  • The serious problem of water contamination in mines was solved by the invention in 1712 AD of the steam engine.
  • In 1769 AD, James Watt produced a low cost and efficient steam engine.
  • The changes in public transportation.
  • For the transportation of heavy material at low cost, Britain built canals. From 1788 to 1796 AD, 46 projects of canal building were started.
  • Wossloy canal, the first one, was built in 1761 AD by James Brindley.
  • In 1869 AD, the French Engineer, Ferdinand-de-Lesseps constructed the Suez Canal.
  • In 1814 AD, railway engineer, George Stephenson produced the rail engine named ‘Bulchar’.
  • In 1825 AD, for the first time in between Stockton and Dodington cities, on a 9 mile long railway track a railway train was run.
  • The results of industrial revolution.
  • The production capacity increased, as a result, the goods became cheap. The villagers in order to get employed migrated to cities and this increased the population of cities.
  • Cottage industries came to an end and as a result therefrom the people had to work in industries.
  • Banking system got established and international markets grew.
  • The buying and purchasing improved that led to inter-dependency of countries in trade and commerce.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 3 The Renaissance, Reformation Movement and Industrial Revolution in Europe

The Renaissance, Reformation Movement and Industrial Revolution in Europe Important Dates and Connected Occurrences/Persons

  • 1272 AD – Famous Venetain traveller, Marco Polo reached the court of Mongol King Kublai Khan.
  • 11th to 13 th century – Among Muslim and Christian world, a series of wars broke out that were called ‘Crusades’.
  • 1350 AD – 1550 AD – In Europe the period of renaissance.
  • 1453 AD – Ottoman Turks defeated Constantinople’s by zantine ruler.
  • 1455 AD – Johannasen Gutenberg invented the Printing Press.
  • 1473 AD – The birth of famous scientist Copernicus.
  • 1483 AD – The birth of German reformer Martin Luther.
  • 1484 AD – Idealistic and humanistic thinker philosopher Svengalil’s birth at Togenberg province in Switzerland.
  • 1509 AD – The supporter of protestant sect Calvin’s birth.
  • 1511 AD – A native of Holland, Erasmus created the book titled ‘In Praise of Folly’.
  • 1516 AD – Erasmus published the new edition of ‘New Testament’
  • 1517 AD – Martin Luther in Germany spread movement against Britain Catholic Church.
  • 1519 AD – In a place called Leipzig, the follower of Pope and Luther had arguments, Luther proved the role of Pope in between God and human being to be useless.
  • 1520 AD – Martin Luther was ordered by Pope that he should stop his thoughts from getting broadcast/published.
  • 1521 AD – In the assembly of Warners, Luther was asked to end the anti-church menages spread by him.
  • 1525 AD – Srengali laid roots of improvements in church.
  • 1526 AD – The first religious gathering of Spear tried to get solutions for religious sects.
  • 1529 AD – In Spear the second religious assembly or gathering was organized.
  • 19th April 1529 AD – The supporters of Luther ideology opposed the proposal against the reformation movement that gave acceptance in principal to protestant theory.
  • 1530 AD – The Protestants received principal acceptance.
  • 1531 AD – In the Civil war of Switzerland, Svengali dies. (Internal insurgency)
  • 1534 AD – Ignesius Loyola established ‘Society of Jesus’
  • 1546-1555 AD – Internal insurgency in Germany.
  • 1555 AD – Between King Ferdinand and Protestants, the agreement of Augsberg happened.
  • 1564 AD – Calvin’s death.
  • 1709 AD – Abrahim Durby invented Blast Furnace.
  • 1712 AD – Thomson Nukeman invented steam engine.
  • 1733 AD – A weaver named John invented flying shuttle
  • 1761 AD – James Brindley constructed the Worsley canal.
  • 1764 AD – James Hargreaves invented spinning jenny.
  • 1764 AD – Richard Arkwright produced thread spinning machine named as Water frame.
  • 1769 AD – James Watt produced low cost and more effective steam engine.
  • 1793 AD – American native Whitton constructed a machine to separate straw from grains.
  • 1788-1796 AD – In this period 46 canal projects in England were started.
  • 1801 AD – Richard Trevithick constructed ‘Puffing devil engine’ that was called Dragon.
  • 1814 AD – Steam Rail engine was constructed that was named ‘Stephenom’s rocket’ and George Stephenson constructed Rail Engine.
  • 1825 AD – Between Stockton and Dolygrton in England a railway train was run.
  • 1830 AD – Liverpool and Manchester were connected through a railway line.
  • 1834 AD – H. Mac Komic of Cyrus invented the crop cutting machine.
  • 1869 AD – French engineer Ferdinand T Lesseps constructed the Suez Canal by connecting sea and the Mediterranean and the Red Seas.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 3 The Renaissance, Reformation Movement and Industrial Revolution in Europe

The Renaissance, Reformation Movement and Industrial Revolution in Europe Notes Important terms

→ Renaissance: The atmosphere of sadness and vigorlessness in society came to an end and new awakening of consciousness came to be known as Renaissance.

→ Orthodoxy: Ancient illusionary traditions, backwardness and unscientific customs were called Orthodoxy.

→ Scientific observations: In the field of science, important discoveries and inventions are called scientific observation.

→ Crusade: The wars between 11th century and 13th century among Muslim and Christian world are called ‘The Crusades’.

→ Humanitarianism: This is the part of history in which humanity and the life of good deeds are given special importance.

→ Medieval Age: The history of Europe from 5th century to 14th century is called Medieval Age.

→ Letter of forgiveness: Pope X prepared sin redemption letters, after purchasing them any follower of Christian faith could free self from sins. The letters produced by churches were called letter of forgiveness or apology letter.

→ Jesuit: The organization established by Ignasius Loyola to struggle against Protestants of Spain was called Society of Jesus and its followers were called Jesuit.

→ Reformation Movement: This was against Pope’s control and supremacy and church’s evils. For evil faith, blind faith and suppression to be destroyed, a movement started that was called reformation movement.

→ Protestant: Protestant word has come from English word ‘protest’ and its meaning is to revolt. The revolt against Pope is called protestant movement.

→ Interdict: This was a special power or authorization by which any state’s church could be closed.

→ Ladders: The progressive thoughts of John Wycliff and his followers were called Ladders.

→ Industrial Revolution: Industrial revolution related to those changes that came up from machines in productivity, transportation and communication.

→ Canal System: In Europe between 1788 and 1796 AD, 46 new projects of canal development were run. This period was named as the Canal Age.

→ Johannes Gutenberg: Gutenberg was a native of Germany. He invented printing press in the 15th century. He published 150 copies of the Bible in his printing press.

→ Jacob Birkhart: He was a historian of Bresslay university. He emphasized on Renaissance. In 1860 AD Birkhart created the book ‘The Civilization of the Renaissance.

→ Petrarch: Petrarch is called the father of humanitarianism. He criticized blind faith and religious orthodoxy in life.

→ Dante: Italy’s native of Florence, Dante (1265-1321) is called the messenger of renaissance. He created the books ‘Divine Comedy’ and ‘The Monarchy’.

→ William Shakespear: Shakespear (1564-1616 AD) was a great poet and narrator. His prominent plays are ‘Merchant of Venice’, Romeo Juliet, Hamlet and Macbeth.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 3 The Renaissance, Reformation Movement and Industrial Revolution in Europe

→ Erasmus: He was a resident of Holland. His work ‘In the Praise of Folly’ was about humour on life of equality.

→ Machiaveli: Machiaveli (1469-1527) is called modem Chanakya because he reformed the political principles and wrote a book named ‘The Prince’.

→ Leonardo Da Vinci: Leonardo Da Vinci was Ital/s famous painter, sculptor, scientist, mathematician, engineer, musician and historian. He produced ‘the last supper’ a world famous painting and ‘Mona Lisa’.

→ Copernicus: Copernicus was a famous scientist, who declared that earth along with other planets of solar system revolves round the sun.

→ Newton: Newton was a British scientist and mathematician. He propounded the theory of laws of Gravitation.

→ Galelio: Galelio was a native of Italy. He invented the principle of pendulum, wind measurement instrument and telescope.

→ John Wycliff: John Wycliff (1320-1384) was employed at Oxford University. He was a progressive thinker and forward thinking person. He is called the ‘Morning Star of Reformation.

→ Martin Luther: Martin Luther (1483-1546) was a young German Monk. In 1517 AD he wrote the holy text ‘Ninety Five Thesis’ and revolted against Catholic Church.

→ John Hans: John Hans (1369-1415 AD) was a resident of Bohemia. He supported the thoughts and sayings of John Wycliff.

→ Sevonrola: Sevonrola (1452-1488) was a native of Florence. He believed that religious authorities must live straight, simple and religious life. He opposed the tenets of Pope and for this he was given punishment and burnt alive.

→ Svengali: Svengali (1484-1531) was a contemporary historian. He was born in 1484 AD at Toggenburg in Switzerland. He was idealistic and humanistic thinker and ancient history lover. In 1525 AD he established reformist church.

→ Calvin: Calvin (1509-1564) was a native of France. He supported the establishment of protestant sect. He created the book ‘Institute of the Christian Religion’.

→ James Watt: He was native of England. He invented the steam engine in 1764 AD.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 2 Major Religions of the World

Go through these RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 2 Major Religions of the World contain important concepts so that students can score better marks in the exam.

Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 2 Major Religions of the World

→ The main religions of world are Vedic Religion, Jainism, Buddhism, Islam, Christianity and Zoroastrianism.

→ Spread of different religions in different parts of the world has contributed to make human life superior to other creatures.

Vedic Religion

  • The Vedas are considered the oldest texts of Indian philosophy. These are four: (i) Rig-Veda (ii) Yajur-Veda (iii) Samveda (iv) Athraweda.
  • Rig-Veda is considered to be the oldest and the first book of the world.
  • The Rig-Veda has predominantly religious Suktas. We get information about the social, political, religious and economic life of the Aryans from these.
  • Purpose of ritualistic religion in Yajurveda and Samveda has been showed. There is a compilation of the holy mantras of yajna in Samveda.
  • The principles of politics and social structure and conduct have been mentioned in Atharva Veda.
  • The part of Vedic literature are Veda, Brahman Samhita, Aranyakas, Upanishads and Vedanga. Their collective name is Vedic literature.
  • Aryans used to worship nature primarily and were polytheistic.
  • Fire had an important place in Rigveda.
  • Aryans performed prayer, praise and worship by yajna of god and goddess to seek their blessings in Vedic Dharma.
  • There are two types of yajna: (i) Nitya yajna, (ii) Neimittic yajna.
  • Every person used to do five ‘Mahayajanas’ daily: (i) Brahma yajna, (ii) Dev yajna, (iii) Bhoot yajna, (iv) Pitra yajna, (v) Nri yajna.
  • Due to yajna, the prestige of the Brahmins increased.
  • In later Vedic period three debts were conceived: (i) Dev Rina, (ii) Rishi Rina, (iii) Pitra Rina
  • In the Rig-Veda, it has been laid down for a person doing good deeds on earth to live happily in heaven after death.
  • Development of physical and mental attributes, character and personality of human was possible through rites. Therefore, the sacraments were given importance in the later Vedic period.
  • The society was divided in Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Sudra in Vedic period according to virtues and deeds.
  • In the Vedas, Human life was divided into four parts which are known as four ashramas Brahmacharya, Grihastha, Vaanprastha and Sanyas.
  • 16 rituals have been mentioned in the ‘Dharmashastra’ (Scriptures), which have to be obeyed from birth to death.
  • According to the Upanishads, the main purpose of human life is to attain ‘Moksha’. Moksha means to get rid of the cycle of birth and death.
  • Vedic people were optimistic. They believed that by leading pious lives, happiness and peace are attained in the heaven.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 2 Major Religions of the World

Jainism

  • Mahatmas (monks) who have contributed to the establishment and development of Jainism are known as ‘Tirthankar’.
  • It is believed that there were 23 Jain Tirthankars before Mahaveer. The first Tirthankar was Rishabhdev and 23rd Tirthankar was Parshvanath.
  • According to Jain literature, the 23rd Tirthankar, Parshvanath, was born in house of king Ashwasen of Kashi in the 8th Century B.C.
  • People who adopted the path which was described by Parshvanath, were known as ‘Nirgranth’. Walking on this path could lead to freedom from worldly bondage.
  • The 24th Tirthankar Mahaveer Swami was born in 599 BC in Kundgram near Vaishali.
  • After 12 years of hard ascetic practice Mahaveer Swami got the supreme knowledge on the banks of Rajupalika river under a Saal tree.
  • Mahaveer Swami died (Nirvana) at the age of 82 years in Pawapuri, now Rajgir.
  • Jain literature ‘Agam Sahitya’ gives information about the teachings of Jainism.
  • Mahaveer Swami rendered ‘Panch Maharat’ religion for the monks: (i) Ahinsa, (ii) Satya, (iii) Asteya, (iv) Aparigrah, (v) Brahmacharya.
  • ‘Five Anuvrat’ were arranged for (householder) grihastha Jain devotees : (i) Ashina Anuvrat, (ii) Satyagradh Anuvrat, (iii) Asteyo Anuvrat, (iv) Aprigrah Anuvrat, (v) Brahmacharya.
  • According to Jainism, the world (Shristi) is eternal and infinite. God has not created it.
  • Jainism believes in karma and rebirth. Man is the creator of his own destiny (luck). The cause of all the pleasure and sorrows of man is his own karma.
  • In Jainism, the only goal of life is to get Salvation by gaining victory over the senses.
  • There are two branches of Jainism, Shwetamber and Digambar.
  • Jainism has influenced world literature and culture. It has made a sense of cultural coordination and unity in the world.
  • The most important contribution of Jainism is artistic movements, sculptures, monasteries and caves etc. which still exist.
  • Jain lifestyle provided by Mahaveer Swami is only solution for environmental conservation and pollution control.
  • Triumph over illusion and senses and to seek salvation is the only aim in Jain Dharma.

Buddhism

  • In sixth century BC Buddhism was established in eastern India by Mahatma Buddha.
  • Mahatma Buddha was born in 563 BC, in the Kshatriya family of Shakya dynasty (Kul) in Kapilvastu in northern Bihar in Lumbini
  • The childhood name of Gautam Buddha was Siddhartha. He was of highly reflective nature since childhood.
  • Gautam Buddha left home at the age of 29 and got out in search of truth.
  • After many years of continuous meditation at the age of 35, Gautam Buddha got knowledge under the peepal tree on the night of Vaisakh Purnima and thenceforth, he came to be known as the Buddha.
  • Mahatma Buddha left his body in Kushinagar, capital of the Republic Malla in 483 BC, at the age of 80.
  • Mahatma Buddha taught people in such a way that they could get relief from grief and worldly sorrow by his teachings and get everlasting peace.
  • Four eternal truths are the basis of Buddha’s philosophical thought (i) The world is full of grief (ii) Cause of grief (iii) Prevention of grief (iv) Path of preventing grief.
  • In order to get rid from sorrow, Mahatma Buddha presented the ‘Astangik Marg’ or the Eight fold path.
  • Gautama Buddha considered everything in the world as changeable, temporary and dynamic (moving).
  • Sheel, samathi and pragya – these are three cardinal traits.
  • Non-violence (Ahimsa), Satya, Asteya, Aparigraha and Brahmacharya are called panchsheel.
  • According to Buddhism, one has to suffer the consequences of what one does. Thus Buddhism believes in ‘Karmavaad’ (Empiricism).
  • Non-violence is also the basic mantra of Buddhism and that the ultimate goal of life is salvation.
  • Gautam Buddha propagated Buddhism in a planned manner. He established Buddhist association and Buddhist ministry (vihar) for the promotion of his teachings.
  • Buddhism first provided the whole world with a simple and realistic religion. This religion presented the ideal of non-violence, peace, fraternity (brotherhood) and co-existence.
  • Many Stupas, Viharas, Chaitya, Caves, and Sculptures were built in the world, not only in India but across Asia by the inspiration of Buddhism.
  • The Buddhist religion forged cultural relations of India with different countries of the world. The preachers of this religion spread Indian culture in countries like Sri Lanka, China, Burma, Japan, Tibet, Cambodia, Vietnam, Korea, Nepal, Indonesia and Mongolia, etc.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 2 Major Religions of the World

Islam Religion

  • The founder of Islam was Hazrat Mohammad. He was born in 570 AD at Mecca in Arabian peninsula.
  • Hazrat Mohammed opposed idol worship and preached the religion of the concept of Allah, the one and only God.
  • Because of opposing idol worship. Mecca’s residents were annoyed with Hazrat Mohammed, due to which he had to leave Mecca in 622 AD and went to Medina.
  • Islam’s tenets are compiled in the holy book ‘The Quran’.
  • In the Quran, there are the principles of Islam that Hazrat Mohammad received from Allah
  • Abraham got constructed a small marble building as huge mosque in Mecca, which is called ‘Kaba’. Allah is worshipped here.
  • The person who believes in Islam is called Momin or Musalman.
  • The fundamental revered points of Islam are called ‘Usool-A.Din’.

Christianity

  • The founder of Christianity was Jesus Christ.
  • Jesus Christ was born in the mountainous part of Palestine in Bethlehem (Israel).
  • Jesus Christ visited different villages and preached to people that God sees everyone in a similar way. The Jews disliked this message of Jesus Christ.
  • Judas, a disciple of Jesus Christ betrayed him.
  • In the form of a punishment he was sentenced to death at the age of 30 years.
  • The teachings of Jesus Christ are complied in the Holy ‘Bible’ text.
  • Jesus Christ made some rules of life which are called Sacraments (rituals).

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 2 Major Religions of the World

Major Religions of the World Important dates and Events of the Chapter

  • 8th Century BC – 23rd Jain tirthankar Parshvanath was born in the house of king Ashwasen of Ikshwaku dynasty of Kashi.
  • 599 BC – 24th Jain Tirthankar Mahaveer Swami was born in Kundagrama near Vaishali in the Kshatriya dynasty.
  • 563 BC – Mahatma Buddha was born in Lumbini in Shakya Kshatriya dynasty. Some of the scholars believed that he was born in 566 B.C.
  • 527 BC – Mahaveer Swami passed away at Pawapuri near Rajgarh at the age of 72 years.
  • 483 BC – At the age of 80 years Mahatma Buddha attained Mahaparinirvana himself in Kushinagar, capital of the Republic of Malla.
  • 383 BC – Organizing 2nd Buddhist Council (Sangiti) in Vaishali.
  • 570 AD – Founder of Islam Religion Hazrat Mohammad was born at Mecca in the Arabian Peninsula.
  • 622 AD – Hazrat Mohammad left Mecca and went to Medina. The Hijri Samvat starts from this day.
  • 642 AD – Death of Hazrat Mohammad

Major Religions of the World Notes Important Terms

→ Veda: The word ‘Veda’ is made of the Sanskrit word (dhatu) ‘vid’. Which means knowledge. The Vedic sages who have acquired knowledge from creation have mentioned it in Vedas. Vedas are also known as ‘Shruti’. Vedas are four: Rig-Veda, Samveda, Atharvaveda, Yajurveda.

→ Rig-Veda: Rig-Veda is the oldest text. It has mainly religious ‘Suktas’.

→ Reet: Truth and indestructible power. Rig-Veda describes ‘Rit’. The meaning of ‘Rit’ is related to the global physical and moral system.

→ Upanishad: The texts that describe the spiritual knowledge, elemental (Tatva) contemplation and the extreme state of perceptions are ‘Upanishads’. Their number is considered to be 108.

→ Moksha: Getting rid of the cycle of birth and death.

→ Tirthankar: Mahatma, who contributed to the establishment and development of Jainism.

→ Jain: Origin from word ‘Jin’. Its literal meaning is ‘winner’ that is the conqueror of senses (The giver of victory over the senses)

→ Nirgrantha: People who adopted the path, projected by Parshvanath, 23rd Tirthankara of Jainism are called ‘Nirgrantha’. On this path, freedom from worldly bondage can be obtained.

→ Kayvalya: Mahaveer Swami got supreme knowledge under the saal tree on the bank of Riju palika river. This knowledge is known as ‘kayvalya’.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 2 Major Religions of the World

→ Agam Literature: Jain religious texts, giving information about the teachings of Jainism.

→ Asteya: One of the Panch Mahavrahtas of Jainism, that means not stealing.

→ Aparigraha: One of the ‘Panch Mahavrathas’ of Jainism, means not collecting.

→ Dwadshangi: 12 Jain Aagm texts are called Dwad shangi in the classical language.

→ Anekantwad: Mahaveer Swami has taken the middle path except for the intermediate opinions of the selfish and atheist which is known as ‘Anekantwad’ (polytheisim) or ‘syadwad’ (Sadism).

→ Tridacna: Samyak gyan, Samyak darshan and Samyak charitra of Jainism are known as Tridacna.

→ Samyak Gyan: Complete and true knowledge.

→ Samyak Darshan: Have full faith in Jain Tirthankar and their teachings.

→ Samyak Charitra: It means that a person can gain the knowledge of truth only by controlling his senses.

→ Samvar: Following the triratnas, the activities of the creatures (Jiva).

→ Nirjara: The state of destruction of the accumulated Karmas with meditation.

→ Shwetamber: Jain monk wearing white clothes.

→ Digamber: Staying completely naked, Jain monk, who performs penance.

→ Mahabhinishk Raman: When Mahatma Buddha left his son, wife, father and the whole kingdom, and went out in search of knowledge this dual incident of life has been called Mahabhinishk in Buddhist literature.

→ Mahaparinirvan: The event of relinquishment of Mahatma Buddha’s body is called Mahaparinirvan in Buddhist literature.

→ Dharmachakra Pravartan: Gautam Buddha initiated his five Brahmin colleagues an Samath as the religion of his knowledge, which is known as ‘Dharma Chakra Pravartan’, in the literature of Buddhism.

→ Grief prevention Gamini Percept: The path shown by Mahatma Buddha on which the person can overcome the miseries.

→ Madhyam Pratipada: The Astangik Marg, as told by Mahatma Buddha to get relief from sorrows.

→ Anityavad: According to Mahatma Buddha, everything in the whole world is variable, temporary and dynamic. It has been called the therory of altruism or transcendentalism in Buddhism.

→ Pratity a Samutapod (Antimatter): The theory of causation (cause and effect) in Buddhism.

→ Dwadash nidan or Bhavchakra: 12 orders of the causal chain of Buddhism.

→ Bhava: According to Buddhism, the desire to hold the body is called ‘Bhava’.

→ Upadan: According to Buddhism. The desire to live in worldly matters in known as ‘Upadan’.

→ Nirvan: The ultimate goal of life or salvation. Its literal meaning is to be extinguished or attain sublime state.

→ Buddha Sangiti: To organize the teachings of Mahatma Buddha, remove the differences between the Buddhist monks and organize the propagation of Buddhism.

→ Isthavir: A sect that believes in the traditional rules of Buddhism. It is also called ‘Therwadi’.

→ Mahashanghik: A branch or sect of Buddhism that accepts modesty with change. It is also called ‘Sarvastivadi’.

→ Heengan: The ancient branch of Buddhism whose followers neither believe in the gods nor believed the Buddha as deity. They considered Buddha as human being who received knowledge and Nirvana with personal efforts.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 2 Major Religions of the World

→ Mahayan: The new tradition of Buddhism that followers believed Buddha as deity and worshipped his idols. This branch has a similarity to the principles of Hinduism.

→ Stupa: Holy mounds associated with Buddhism. These included some remains of Buddha’s Body such as his bones or objects used by him that were buried. Stupa’s meaning in Sanskrit is ‘Teela’ (Mound)

→ Vihar: Residences of Buddhist monks (Matha)

→ Hijrat: Hazrat Mohammad left Mecca and went to Medina, this incident is called as ‘Hijrat’.

→ Quran: Holy text of Islam religion. This book is a compilation of the principles of Islam.

→ Mazhab: An Urdu word. It is means religion.

→ Ibadat: Worship/prayer.

→ Kaaba: A small marble building built in the mosque of Mecca.

→ Religion: The English word meaning tenets of faith.

→ Non-Violence: Not harming any organism with mind, action and word.

→ Resurrection: The appearance of Jesus Christ after his death is called Resurrection in Christianity.

→ Sacrament: The rites of Christianity in various stages of human life are called the ‘Sacrament’ in the Bible.

→ Baptism: According to Christian religion, when the child becomes 3 years old, the Priest sprinkles holy water on it and names it. This is called Baptism or Naming Sacrament (Namkaran sanskara). The child is considered to be initiated into Christianity through this sacrament.

→ Confirmation: According to Christianity when a child becomes 12 years old, then a public declaration of his name is made, which is called confirmation or certification.

→ Ordination: According to Christianity if a person is more than 18 years of age and wants to become a priest, then the initiation given to him will be called ‘ordination’.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 1 World’s Major Civilizations

Go through these RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 1 World’s Major Civilizations contain important concepts so that students can score better marks in the exam.

Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 1 World’s Major Civilizations

→ History of primitive human beings (History of early humans)

→ Modern civilized human life is the result of a long and continuous development.

→ From the emergence of humans to the present, many civilizations in the world have developed and collapsed.

→ The evolutionary period of the primordial is believed to be 5,00,000-500 B.C., on the earth. This period of human development is known as ‘Ice age’.

→ Prehistoric carved human relics have been found in the form of old tools, pottery, shelters, human and animals bones.

→ The prehistoric humans hunted animals and collected products from plants to obtain food.

→ About 10,000 years ago, the primitive man started to developing rapidly.

→ In the course of human development, a reflective, intelligent and knowledgeable human was born who walked on the ground, and this species was called homosapiens.

Stone Age

  • In stone age, humans stone tools were divided in three parts: Kuthar, gandase, rohani or shalkar (peeling) tools.
  • Stone tools have been obtained from many places in Europe, Asia and Africa.
  • The bowman used the arrow and the spear to fight with their enemy and hunt animals.
  • In the later stone age, hunting and collecting fruits from the forests were the main human activities.
  • In later stone age, humans also learned to get support from fellow humans in finding food.
  • The status of men and women during the stone age was equal.
  • In stone age humans made pictures by drawing lines on the walls of caves.
  • Stone age man made stone tools for himself and used to wear ivory ornaments, stones and shells, as earrings and wrist-bands.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 1 World’s Major Civilizations

Neolithic Era

  • In the Neolithic period, man reared cattle farming and agricultural activities began. Evidence of which has been obtained from Thailand, Arabia and Iran.
  • Neolithic humans started living in homes built of clay, wooden pillars and grass pallets, etc.
  • In this period, animals were reared mainly to obtain milk and meat.
  • The main tool used by humans in this period was a smooth axe made of granulated stone.
  • In this period, humans started making pottery for storing food and cooking.
  • In this period, humans began wearing flax, cotton and wool, due to which social life improved.
  • In Neolithic times, the human worshipped the sun, moon, stars and other powers of nature, and dead people were buried.
  • Neolithic settlements have revealed small female statues of clay which were called ‘Matradevi’.
  • The Neolithic man invented the wheel and first used it for making pottery, after which the wheels were used to pull the cart.

Metal Era

  • The discovery and use of metals is an important event in the history of mankind. The metals were used to make various stensils, tools and weapons.
  • As a result of the spread of human civilization, trade started between different parts of the world and produce exchange (bartering) was replaced by currency exchange.

Ancient Civilization of Egypt

  • The origin and growth of ancient Egyptian civilization occurred in the Nile Valley.
  • Egypt is a country irrigated by the Nile and located in the north-west of the continent of Africa. It is called ‘Gift of the Nile’.
  • Political unity in Egypt was originally conceived by king Menes.
  • The ancient Egyptian society was developed but inequality was seen in the society.
  • In Egyptian society, the ruler had the highest status. The ruler was called ‘Pharaoh’ here.
  • The Egyptian society was mainly divided into three sections, (i) The Elite (ii) Middle class (iii) Poor class.
  • The feudal lords and priests formed the upper class, in middle class there were clerks, traders, crafsmen, intellectuals, artisans and some independent farmers and the farmers’, workers and slaves were included in the lower classes.
  • The basic unit of Egyptian society was the family, in which parents, sibling, sons and daughters lived together.
  • In the civilization of Egypt, women had great respect. They had enough social freedom.
  • The people of Egypt used wheat, rice, oil seeds, meat and various types of vegetables in their diet.
  • In the civilization of Egypt, music, dance, jugglery, animal fights, dice games, etc. were the means of entertainment.
  • Religion had a prominent place in the lives of ancient Egyptians.
  • The chief deities of Egyptians were Umanray (sun), orisis (son of sun) and sin (Moon).
  • Egyptians believed that after death the soul resides in the body, so they preserved the body with the help of different spices which was called ‘Mummy’.
  • Huge stone structures were built for the protection of dead bodies by the Egyptians, which are called ‘pyramids’.
  • The main occupation of the people of Egypt was agriculture. Major agricultural crops were wheat, barley, peas, mustard, figs, olives, dates, flax and grapes.
  • Egyptians also used to eat the bull, mule, horse, goat, sheep, donkey, poultry and duck.
  • In Egypt, skilled craftsmen working on metal, wood, clay, glass, paper and cloth were present.
  • The trade of Egypt was through the Nile river. It used to export foodgrains, utensils, glass products, paper and furniture and important metals, wood, colours, spices, sandalwood, and ornaments.
  • The rulers of Egypt were considered to be the representatives of the Sun god. They were called ‘pharaohs’.
  • There was a council named ‘Sarie’ to assist in their work.
  • There were provisions for severe punishments in Egyptian society.
  • Among Egyptian pyramids, the one made in Giza for Khafu is world famous.
  • There was also a substantial development of the art of sculpting in Egypt. The Great Sphinx situated before the pyramid of Giza is the world’s largest statue.
  • Excellent samples of Egyptian painting are found in the form of paintings made with various colours on the walls inside the pyramids and temples.
  • The ancient pictographic script of Egypt is called ‘Heiroglyphics’.
  • The Egyptians had made their calendar on the basis of stars and Sun and calculated 360 days in a year.
  • The science of preserving dead bodies by placing the dead bodies in medicinal spices was prevalent in Egypt.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 1 World’s Major Civilizations

Ancient Babylonian Civilization

  • In present Iraq, civilizations like Sumeria, Babylonia, Assyria etc. were developed between Dajla and Farhat rivers.
  • The ruler of Babylonia, Hammurabi, made a code of law for his people, which was engraved on a 8 feet high rock.
  • Throughout the reign of Hammurabi, the entire empire was divided into several provinces, which were governed by to the feudal lords.
  • The concept of Hammurabi’s penal code was ‘tit for tat’ and ‘blood for blood’.
  • The Babylonian society was divided into upper class, middle class and lower or slave class, whose members were called Avilambh, Mascenam and Aradu.
  • Family life in the Babylonian society was patriarchal but women had a respectable place.
  • The main food of the people of Babylonian civilization was foodgrains, fruit, milk, meat and fish. People were entertained by music and dance.
  • Babylonian society believed in gods and goddesses. The chief gods and goddesses were Ann (Akash), shamas (sun), sin (Moon), Bael (Earth), etc.
  • The main sources of livelihood of the people of Babylonian civilization was agriculture and animal husbandry. The land here was fertile.
  • In this civilization the main industries were, making garments, making cotton yarn, making pottery, making sculptures, making metal weapons and jewellry, and making wooden items.
  • The people of Babylonia used to import mainly luxury items, timber, lead, bronze, copper, gold and silver.
  • A building named ‘Ziggurut’ was a typical example of Babylonian architecture.
  • Babylonian sculptures are more famous for the finesse of artistry. The statues were a mixed shape of animals and humans.
  • The main themes of the Babylonian paintings were wild animals and birds.
  • The people of Babylonia were music lovers. These people played a variety of musical instruments.
  • The people of Babylonia developed the Sumerian alphabet script. This script used articles, symbols, signs and images.
  • The residents of this place created the world’s first epic, which is known as ‘Gilgamesh’.
  • The achievements of the people of Babylonia in the field of science were important, they made calculations based on the decimal and schematic system
  • The people here had a lot of interest in astrology. This learning was only with the priests.
  • The Babylonian knew the right time of sunrise, sunset, moonrise and moonset.
  • They calculated the day and night time and divided it in 24 hours. 1 (one) minute of 60 seconds and 1 (one) hour of 60 minutes further divided the day.

Ancient Civilization of China

  • The rise of China’s civilization occurred in the lower basin of the ‘Hummany-Ho’ (Hwang Ho) river.
  • China has been ruled by the Shung, Chang, Ming and Han dynasty. The oldest dynasty was Shung dynasty.
  • In China, the king was considered as the son and representative of God. He was the highest authority of religion, governance justice and law.
  • The Chinese Empire was divided into several parts. The ‘Gram’ (village) was the smallest unit of the local body.
  • In China, there was a public service commission for the selection of administrative officers, which regularly conducted competitive examinations.
  • The Great Wall of China is a world famous specimen of ancient Chinese architecture.
  • Chinese painters liked making images of natural scenes instead of human figures. The art of painting was very advanced during the Han dynasty’s rule.
  • Chinese artists were very skillful in making bronze objects. These were also used for decoration and embellishment.
  • The society of ancient China was divided into several classes, namely mandarin, agriculturist, artisan, businessman and military men.
  • There was a joint family tradition in Chinese Society. The head of the family was an old man.
  • The situation (condition) of women in ancient times was quite respectable in China. The situation of women deteriorated as compared to men with passage of time. They started to be seen property of men, and the parda system and divorce system were also popular.
  • In Chinese civilization, eating and living were also divided on the basis of classes. In the lives of Chinese people, there was a special place for festivals, fairs and rituals.
  • The major religions of ancient China were Taoism and Confucianism. The people here were worshippers of holy and natural powers.
  • Confucius, Laotse, Motesu and Mentheus were the main thinkers of China who taught the lessons of love, cooperation and tolerance.
  • The main occupation of the Chinese was agriculture. These people used to cultivate wheat, rice and tea. Sheeps, pigs, cows, bulls, dogs were pets. Irrigation was done by canals.
  • The main activities under the Chinese handicraft industry were silk preparation, knit fabric, paper-making pottery-making, etc.
  • Chinese cities were the main centers of trade. Business (trade) was done by both water and land routes.
  • The invention of paper, printing press, ink, gunpowder, painting, kutubnuma, water wheel and water clock was also done by the Chinese.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 1 World’s Major Civilizations

Indus Valley civilization

  • The Indus-Saraswati civilization developed in India in the land between the Indus and its tributaries and the Saraswati river.
  • The main sites of Indus-Saraswati civilization like Harappa, Mohanjodaro, Ganeriwal, Kotadiji etc., are located in Pakistan and Kalibanga, Rakhighari, Dholavira, Rangpur and Lothal are in India.
  • The period of Indus Saraswati civilization is believed to be between 5000 BC to 3000 BC.
  • The Indus Saraswati civilization was famous for its town planning.
  • The management of water and drainage was a major feature of this civilization. This civilization was the best symbol of urban cleanliness.
  • Huge baths, the great Granary, dock (Harbour), reservoir, huge stadium were the most important features of this civilization.
  • The society of the Indus-Saraswati civilization was made up of people who worked in different types of occupations.
  • Family was the main unit of the society of Indus-Saraswati civilization. Women had respect in family and society.
  • People of this civilization used to eat wheat, barley, rice, milk, meat, etc., in their diet.
  • People of Indus Saraswati civilization also engaged in animal husbandry as well as agriculture. They used to cultivate wheat, barley, rice, sesame, etc. The cow had a great importance at that time.
  • The residents here were skilled in making pots and tools of copper and bronze as well as in the art of making glazed clay pottery.
  • In this civilization, internal and foreign trade was in an advanced state. The commodity exchange system for trade was prevalent.
  • People of this civilization were worshippers of natural powers. They worshipped mother godness and Shiva.
  • Agni vedika has been found in the excavation of Kalibanga, Lothal, Banawal and Rakhigiri, which shows that there should have been the practice of ‘Yagya’ and ‘Agnipooja’.
  • In this civilization, the cremation of a dead person was performed by burying or cremating the dead body.
  • We do not get any clear information about the political system of Indus-Saraswati civilization.
  • The remains of this civilization include the highest number of clay statues.
  • The pieces obtained in the relics of this civilization are manufactured from the shelkhari. These artifacts have been found in city locales only.
  • More than 2500 artifacts are available from the Indus-Saraswati civilization as of now. Approximately 419 pictures of the Indus script have been identified.

Greek civilization

  • Greece is the first European country, where civilization was developed.
  • According to an estimate the Greek civilization was originated in about 1500 B.C.
  • The inhabitants of Greece lived in Tribes and the lord of many tribes was the king.
  • Among many city states of Greece, the two major cities were Sparta and Athens. Sparta had military rule while in Athens there was democracy.
  • A battle took place between Greeks and Persians at a place named Marathon. Greece won this war.
  • After the loss of Athens, the ruler of Macedonia. Philip occupied most of the states of Greece.
  • Alexander’s commander Talmi made a temple of Goddess of arts, literature and education in Sinduriya.
  • Homer of Greece wrote the famous epics Iliad and Odyssey.
  • Many political and social principles were developed in ancient Greece. Democritus, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle etc., were the main plilosophers of Greece.
  • After the victory of Alexander, there was a lot of progress in science in Greece. Alexandria became a famous center of the study of medicine.
  • The best examples of Greek architecture and sculpture are seen in their temples. Parthenon temple of Athena is the best example of Greek architecture.
  • The Greeks had a great respect for human beauty and courage.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 1 World’s Major Civilizations

Roman Civilization

  • The main center of Rome’s civilization was Italy. The first inhabitants of Italy came from North Africa, Spain and France and settled here.
  • The establishment of the city of Rome took place in the district of Latium in the south of the Tiber River in approximately 1000 BC.
  • In ancient Rome there was a king, a council and a senate for administration.
  • There were several wars between the inhabitants of Carthage city on the northern coast of Africa and Rome.
  • Julius Caesar was a brilliant general of Rome, who suppressed all his opponents and established peace and order.
  • Julius Caesar’s adoptive son, Octavian, won the Actium war and became the sole owner of Mediterranean countries. He became famous as Augustus Caesar.
  • Constantine was a good natured, moderate, discriminate, efficient and thoughtful ruler. He built a new, huge capital for the Roman Empire named Constantinople.
  • Most of the early residents of Rome took up farming and animal husbandry and used clay and wooden utensils.
  • Life of slaves was very difficult. After working hours, they were kept locked in cells.
  • Ancient Rome was the biggest propounder of law and governance in the world. The ruler of Rome could mostly establish union governance in his large wide empire because of his law and governance.
  • There was considerable development in philosophy, art, literature, architecture, science, etc. in ancient Rome.
  • Roman civilization collapsed due to imperialism.

World’s Major Civilizations Important Dates and Events

  • 500000 BC-5000 BC – Human development period. Early civilization began to emerge in some parts of the world.
  • 5000 BC-3000 BC – The period of Indus Saraswati civilization (Based on the evidence obtained from new excavation).
  • 3400 BC – King Minis unified the states of Egypt.
  • 3400 BC-2160 BC – Pyramid era or ancient kingdom in Egypt.
  • 3000 BC – Cotton began to be grown in the Indus valley.
  • 2300 BC-1750 BC – The period of Indus Saraswati civilization (on the basis of radiocarbon dating).
  • 2160 BC-1580 – BC The feudal era or medieval kingdom in Egypt.
  • 2123 BC-2081 BC – Medieval kingdom in Egypt. The ruling period of Hammurabi, ruler of the Amorite dynasty of Babylonia.
  • 1766 BC-1122 BC – Rule of the Shung dynasty in China.
  • 1600 BC – A man from Babylonia made a map of Shasta Alza province in a square inch.
  • 1580 BC-1650 BC – Era of empires and new state in Egypt.
  • 1122 BC-225 BC – Chang dynasty’s rulers reigned in China.
  • 604 BC – Chinese thinker Laotse was born in Hunan province of China.
  • 551 BC – Confucius, birth in China’s ‘Lou’ province.
  • 469 BC-429 BC – The summit of the advancement of Athen’s democracy under the leadership of Pericles.
  • 378 BC-288 BC – Promoting the views of Confucius by a Chinese philosopher named Maunshiyas.
  • 332 BC – Alexander exercises control over Egypt.
  • 326 BC – Alexander defeated king Porus on the banks of the Jhelum river on the border of India.
  • 264 BC-146 BC – The wars between Carthage and Rome, known as the Punic wars.
  • 225 BC-203 BC – Chang dynasty rule over China.
  • 203 BC-220 AD – Han dynasty rule over China.
  • 200 BC – Crossing the Alps mountain, the people who spoke the Indo-European languages, start settling in Rome.
  • 44 BC – Roman Emperor Julius Caesar was murdered by followers of Pompiee Ceccius and Brutus.
  • 31 BC-14AD – The reign of Augustus Caesar in Rome.
  • 618 AD – Kaotse established the Tang dynasty in China.
  • 960 AD – Chao Kuang Ching of the Shung Dynasty in China founded the new dynasty.
  • 1921 AD – Raibahadur Dayaram Sahni discovered the archaeological mound located on the left bank of river Ravi which flows near the town of Harappa in Montgomery district of undivided India.
  • 1922 AD – Rakhal Das Banerjee discovered Mohanjodaro, a mound located on the eastern bank of the Indus river flowing in the Larkana district of undivided India.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 1 World’s Major Civilizations

World’s Major Civilizations Notes Important Terms

→ Civilization: The world literally means the rules of discipline of those human behaviours, which allow humans to conduct collective life in society.

→ Culture: The meaning of culture is a way of living, behaviour, finding a better way of earning a living, finding new knowledge, expressing your thoughts in art and literature.

→ Archeology: Antiquities of ancient times on whose basis the old unknown history is established.

→ Archeologist: The scholars who carry out the excavations of the dunes and ruins to highlight the daily life of ancient humans and their occupations.

→ Carbon-14: In all things, one type of radioactive Carbon-14 always remains.

→ Carbon-14 Method: The quantity of Carbon-14 contained in an object is detected by the scientists which can tell us how old an object roughly is.

→ Small amounts: In middle stone age (Mesolithic age) people used small tools, they were known as small amount.

→ Dhankavarka Faju Pradesh: In the world first of all, agricultural work began on the borders of the deserts of Thailand, Arabia and Iran, in the valley where there was no shortage of water. This is called Dhankavarka Faju Pradesh.

→ Mixed farming: Neolithic people started farming as well as animal husbandry. This was called mixed farming.

→ Total sign: For a separate identity of its existence, if any group of families had assumed the shape of an animal or plant as sign of its caste or group, it was called the total sign of that group.

→ Mother Goddess: In Neolithic age small female statues of clay were found in settlements which were called Mother Goddess.

→ Chalcolithic period: The time in which man used stone and copper together, is called the chalcolithic period.

→ Lifeline of Egypt: The Nile river is said to be the Lifeline of Egypt.

→ Pharaohs: The kings of Egypt were called Pharaohs.

→ Pyramid: In the civilization of Egypt, huge structures were made for the protection of dead bodies, which were called pyramids.

→ Mummy: In Egyptian civilization, the dead bodies kept in the pyramids, were called ‘Mummies’. They were kept preserved with the help of special spices.

→ Aman-Ray: In northern Egypt, the sun was called ‘Aman-Ray’.

→ Osiris: In the civilization of Egypt, the representative of the sun on earth was known as ‘Osiris’.

→ Nom: In the civilization of Egypt, the province was named ‘Nom’.

→ Nomen/Nomark: In Egyptian civilization, the provincial officer was known as ‘Nomen’ or ‘Nomark’.

→ Hieroglyph: Egypt’s ancient pictorial script is called ‘Hieroglyph’.

→ Mesopotamia: In present the land situated in between the Dajla-Farhat rivers in Iraq, was called Mesopotamia.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 1 World’s Major Civilizations

→ Abelam: In high class of Babylonia society, there were ministers, landlords and merchants etc., who were called Abelam.

→ Mascenum: The middle-class members of the Babylonian civilization were known as Mascenum.

→ Aardu: The lower class of the Babylonian society, which consisted of slaves was called Aardu.

→ Ann: Ann was considered to be the Akash devta (Sky God).

→ Shamas: Sun God of the inhabitants of Babylonia

→ Sin: Moon God of the inhabitants of Babylonia.

→ Bell (Beil): Name given to Earth by inhabitants of Babylonia.

→ Nigengal: In Babylonian civilization, the wife of Moon God was worshiped in the name of Nigengal.

→ Marduck: God of agriculture in Babylonian civilization, which later became the God of storm.

→ Ziggurat: The buildings of Babylonian civilization, which were conceived as goddess Venus.

→ Sumerian alphabetic script: Script adopted by people of Babylonia.

→ Gilgamesh: The world’s first epic, written in the Babylonian civilization.

→ Hummany-Ho (Hwang-Ho): The river of China which is known as Hummany Ho (Hwang-Ho), yellow river, wandering river, China’s sorrow and the river of thousand curses.

→ Heen: In the Chinese civilization a group of villages was called ‘Heen’ (Hein)

→ Mandarin: Class of scholars in China were called ‘Mandarin’.

→ Shang-V: Sky-god worshipped by people of Chinese civilization.

→ Hou-To: Earth goddess, worshipped by people of Chinese civilization.

→ E-Chin: Book of philosophy written by Chinesee philosopher Confucious.

→ Shi-Ching: Chinese poetry texts written by Confucius.

→ Di-Ching: Book of virtue written by Confucius.

→ Shu-Ching: Documents of history written by Confucius.

→ Lunuchaui: The text made by the disciples of Confucius through his teachings and principles has been called Lunuchaui.

→ Taoism: Chinese thinker Laotse’s ideology is called Taoism.

→ Indus River: River originated from the Sengenkhb Singhukn glacier located in the north of Kailash Mansarovar in Tibet.

→ Saraswati River: River originated from the Shivalik hills. At present the river does not exist physically.

→ Zeus: Zeus was the god of heaven in Greek civilization.

→ Posideon: The god of the sea in Greek civilization.

→ Athena: The goddess of victory in Greek civilization.

→ Tyrant: The dictator is known as Tyrent in Greek civilization.Their rise was due to the struggle among the Landlords, Middle and poor class.

→ Apollo: Sun god worshipped in Greek civilization.

→ Lyrics: The small Greek poems were called lyrics in Greek civilization.

→ Sophocles: The exponent of the Third ideology of Greek philosophy in Greek civilization. They believed that there is no absolute truth in the world.

→ Pumic War: A series of wars between the inhabitants of Rome and the residents of Carthage in the north coast of Africa, between 264 BC and 146 BC, were called the Pumic wars.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 1 World’s Major Civilizations

→ Julian Calender: The calendar modified by Roman king Julius Caesar. This has ten months in a year.

→ Gladiator: Swordsmen fighting other men and animals participating in competitions in Rome’s civilization were called Gladiators.

→ Iliad: An epic written by Homer in Greek civilization.

→ Herodotus: Famous historian who called Egypt The boon of the Nile.

→ Miniz: The Egyptian ruler who unified the different states of Egypt in 3400 BC.

→ Maxmuller: Famous historian, he said women had great respect in Egyptian civilization.

→ Hepseptus: Queen of Egypt, who was expert in painting.

→ Shampolpi: French scholar who got success in reading all the letters of Egyptian script.

→ Hammurabi: He was the sixth ruler of Amorite dynasty. He rulled for 42 years (2123-2081 BC).

→ N.D. Margon: Famous French scholar. He discovered the inscribed column of Hammurabi’s code.

→ Kaotse: Chinese ruler who established Tang dynasty in 618 AD.

→ Kunai-Cheih: Famous painter of Hann (Haan) dynasty in Chinesee civilization.

→ Confucius: Famous Chinese philosopher. He was born in 551 BC in the elite caste family of China’s ‘Lu’ state.

→ Laotse: Chinese philosopher. He was born in Hunan province of China in 604 BC.

→ Mancius: Chinese philosopher. He spread the ideas of Confucius from 378 BC to 228 BC.

→ Metesu: Chinese philosopher, minister of the Shung state. He was a pacifist and great economist.

→ Sous-sa-chayen: First Chinese historian.

→ Dayaram Sahani: Famous archeologist. In 1921, he discovered the archaeological mound located an the left bank of the river Ravi which flows near the town of Harappa in Montgomery district of undivided India.

→ Rakhal Das Banetjee: Famous archeologist. In 1922 he discovered Mohanjodaro, a mound located on the eastern bank of the Indus river flowing in the Larkana district of undivided India.

→ Homer: Famous Greek poet. He wrote the famous epics Iliad and Odyssey.

→ Pericles: Great democratic leader of Greece. By his reforms Athens expanded and strengthened democracy.

→ Philip: The king of Macedonia. After the defeat of Athens he took control of most of the Greek states.

→ Alexander: Son of king Philip. Alexander went on to win the world when he was 20 years old. He defeated king Porus on the banks of Jhelum in 326 BC.

→ Seleucus: Commander of Alexander. He invaded India but Chandragupta Maurya defeated him.

→ Ptolemy: Alexander’s commander. Later he became the ruler of Egypt, Palestine and Phoenicia

→ Saifo: Great poetess of Greece. She sang songs on love and nature.

→ Ashilus: He was the writer of tragedy play. He wrote ’Prometheus bound.’

→ Sophavales: Best Tragedy Play author of Greece. She wrote Eeclipus Revas, Antigon and Ilotno.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 1 World’s Major Civilizations

→ Socrates: Famous Greek philosopher. He believed that right knowledge shows the path of right conduct and happiness.

→ Plato: Pupil of famous philosopher Socrates. He wrote the text ‘Republic’. In his book he imagined an ideal society.

→ Aristotle: He was a student of Plato’s Academy. He contributed significantly to the field of philosophy, medicine, zoology and astrology.

→ Hippocrates: Medical practitioner of Greece. He is known as the father of medical science.

→ Micron: Famous sculptor of Greece. His most famous masterpiece is the statue of discus thrower.

→ Fieclius: Famous sculptor of Greece. His most famous masterpiece is the statue of Harmuz, in which he is depicted as carrying a baby dinosour.

→ Hannibal: Commandar of Carthage. Carthage was defeated by Rome under his leadership.

→ Julius Caesar: General (ruler) of Rome. He was a versatile and talented soldier, administrator, legislator and politician.

→ Octavian: Ruler of the Mediterranean countries. He became famous by the name of Augustus Caesar.

→ Constantine: Ruler of Roman empire. He built a new huge capital for the Roman empire named Constantinople.

→ Virgil: Great poet of Rome. He wrote a text named Illiad

→ Tacitus: Famous historian of Rome. He described the chaos and corruption of his time in his famous book ‘Annals and Histories’.

RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 13 Rajasthan: Climate, Vegetation and Soil

Go through these RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 13 Rajasthan: Climate, Vegetation and Soil contain important concepts so that students can score better marks in the exam.

Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 13 Rajasthan: Climate, Vegetation and Soil

Climate

  • The composite or generally prevailing weather conditions of a region for a long period (more than 30 years) is called the climate.
  • Climate is a geographic factor which not only affects the natural elements, but also affects the economic and demographic elements.
  • Each of the four divisions of the year (summer, winter, autumn and spring), marked by specific weather patterns resulting from the changing position of the earth in context to the sun.
  • Temperature, atmospheric pressure, winds and rainfall are the elements of climate.
  • On the basis of temperature, the world has been divided into three zones: Tropical zone, Temperate zone and Frigid zone.
  • For the determination of climatic zones, rainfall plays an important role. On this basis, climatic zones are classified into Humid, Semi-humid and Arid climatic zones.

Climate of Rajasthan

  • The climate of Rajasthan relates to Monsoon and it is arid and semi-humid.
  • The climate of western Rajasthan is dry. In the eastern part of Aravalli, it is subhumid, and in Jhalawar and Mount Abu of the south-eastern Plateau area, it is excessively humid climate.
  • The climate of a particular place is influenced by a variety of intersecting factors.
  • The factors which influence climate are latitude, elevation, situation and location of Aravalli Mountain, ocean-currents, topography, soil, vegetative cover and prevailing winds.

RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 13 Rajasthan: Climate, Vegetation and Soil

Characteristics of Rajasthan’s Climate

  • The climate of Rajasthan shows diversities throughout the state.
  • In the desert areas, it is usually hot and dry in summers and cold during winters, in the Aravalli range to the west, both rainfall and humidity are low, and in the east, weather is characterised by high humidity and more rainfall.

Seasons of Rajasthan

  • There are three seasons in Rajasthan-summer, rainy and winter.
  • In the summer season, the atmospheric conditions in Rajasthan include high temperature, hot and dry winds (100) and storms.
  • Rainy season is from mid June to September. During this period, there is maximum rainfall. Rajasthan receives rainfall from both Bay of Bengal branch and Arabian Sea branch.
  • Winters in Rajasthan exist from October to February. There is low temperature, calm winds, lack of humidity etc. in Rajasthan at this time.

Natural Vegetation

  • Vegetation is the sum total of plant species and the ground cover they provide. The trees, plants, hurbs, shrubs and grasses found on the earth’s surface are collectively called vegetation.
  • Vegetation plays an important role in balancing the environmental and ecological conditions.
  • We obtain many direct and indirect benefits from forests.

Distribution of Forests

  • The distribution of forest is only on 9.32 per cent of total area of Rajasthan.
  • The dense forests are found only on 3.83 per cent area. The per person forest area in Rajasthan is only 0.03 hectare, which is extremely less than the national average of 0.13 hectare per person.
  • There is dense vegetation in the districts of Sirohi, Banswara, Dungarpur, Udaipur, Rajsamand, Chittorgarh and Jhalawar, while very few and rare forests are seen in Churu, Nagaur, Jodhpur, and Barmer.
  • Maximum forest area of 31 per cent is found in Sirohi, while the least 0.05 per cent is found in Churu district.

RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 13 Rajasthan: Climate, Vegetation and Soil

Types of Forests

  • Geographical classification of forest is more important in Rajasthan due to the variation of topographical forms, climate and soils.
  • On the basis of geographical classification, the forests found here are divided into tropical thorny forests, tropical dry autumn forests and sub-humid mountain forests.
  • Tropical dry autumn forests have again been classified into dry teak, salar, bamboo, dhaukara, palash, khair, babool and mixed autumn forests.
  • On the basis of administration, forests have been classified into Reserved forests, Protected forests and Unclassified forests.

Soil

  • Soil is the material found on the Earth’s surface that is composed of organic and inorganic elements.
  • Soil is the best natural gift on which the entire agricultural cultivation depends.
  • Soils are formed due to the interaction of five major factors time, climate, parent material, topographical relief and organisms.
  • Soil is a mixture of solid, liquid and gaseous substances which is a result of interaction of fragmentation of rocks, climate, vegetation and bacteria.

Types of Soil

  • On the basis of colour, composition and fertility, the soils of Rajasthan have been divided into deserted sandy, red-yellow, laterite, combind red and black, black and alluvial soil.
  • The formation of deserted sandy soil is due to high temperature and physical erosion, the formation of laterite soil is due to high temperature and excess humidity and the black soil is formed of lava-based rocks.

Problems of Soil

  • The main problems of soil are erosion, degradation and water logging.
  • Removal of top soil due to it being flown or blown away by the action of air and water is called soil erosion.
  • The destruction of soil and its fertility is also called “creaping death.”
  • Usually, the soil erosion is classified into sheet erosion, rill erosion and gully erosion.
  • The main causes of soil erosion are rapid water flow, lack of vegetation, deforestation, uncontrolled grazing of animals, old methods of farming etc.
  • The causes of degradation of soil include sustained agriculture and old unscientific methods of agriculture and water logging.
  • The quality of soil may be retained only by its conservation. The main steps for soil conservation include the use of green manure, vermicompost, forestation and leaving the soil layered, etc.

RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 13 Rajasthan: Climate, Vegetation and Soil

Rajasthan: Climate, Vegetation and Soil Notes Important Terms

→ Climate: The composite or generally prevailing weather conditions of a region for a year or a series of the years.

→ Vegetation: Vegetation is the sum total of plant species and the ground cover they provide. The trees, plants, hurbs, shurbs and grasses found on the earth’s surface are collectively called vegetation.

→ Season: Each of the four division of the year (summer, winter, autumn and spring), marked by particular weather patterns, resulting out of the earth’s changing position in context to the sun.

→ Soil: Soil is the material found on the earth’s surface that’ is composed of organic and inorganic elements.

→ Atmospheric pressure: It is the force exerted on a point of the earth’s surface by the air above it as gravity pulls it to Earth. Atmospheric pressure is also called air pressure and it is measured commonly with a barometer.

→ Rain: Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapour and that become heavy enough to fall on the earth under gravity.

→ Tropical zone: Tropical zone is the region of Earth near the equator and between the Tropic of Cancer in the Northern Hemisphere and Tropic of Capricorn in the Southern Hemisphere.

→ Temperate zone: Temperate latitudes of the Earth lie between the subtropics and the polar circle.

→ Frigid zone: The area or region between the Arctic Circle and the North Pole or between the Antarctic Circle and the South Pole, where the earth’s surface is covered with snow during most of year due to very low temperature.

→ Humidity: Humidity is the amount of water vapour present in the air.

→ Aridity: Aridity is a term that most people conceptually understand, and it evokes an image of dry, desert land with sparse natural water bodies and rainfall and commonly only scant vegetation, which is adapted to scarcity of water.

→ Monsoon Climate: Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompained by corresponding changes in precipitation.

→ Range of Temperature: The difference between the maximum and the minimum temperature. It may be daily, monthly or annually.

→ Latitude: The angular distance of a place north or south of the earth’s equator or of the equator of a celestial object, usually expressed in degrees and minutes.

→ Loo: The Loo is a strong dusty, hot and dry summer wind blowing from the west which blows over the western Indo-Gangetic Plain region of North India and Pakistan.

→ Freezing point: The temperature at which a liquid turns into a solid.

→ Drought: A period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortage of water supply, whether surface water or groundwater.

→ Marwar: The nearby region of Ajmer and Pali.

→ Tropic of Cancer: Latitude approximately 23°32′ North of the terrestrial Equator. This is the last border of the vertical position of Sun in the Northern Hemisphere, and in its north, the sunrays never fall vertically.

→ Sea: The expanse of saltwater that covers most of the earth’s surface and surrounds its landmasses or a body of saline water; not as large as an ocean and often nearly surrounded by land.

→ Bay or Gulf: A part of the coast where the land curves in so that the sea is surrounded by land on three sides.

→ Isohyet: A line drawn on a weather map connecting places that receive equal amount of precipitation during a given time period.

→ Semi-arid climate: It is a climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate region.

→ Desert: It is a large area of land usually in a hot region, where there is almost no water, rain, trees or plants.

→ Summer Season: It is the hottest temperate season, falling after spring and before autumn.

→ Rainy Season: It is the time of year, wherein most of the region’s average annual rainfall occurs due to the Monsoon winds.

→ Autumn: Autumn is the third season of the year, coming sifter summer and before winter and coinciding with the shedding of leaves from the trees as they go into a winter rest.

→ Winter Season: It is the coldest season of the year in polar temperate zone (winter does not occur in the tropical zone). It is caused by the axis of the Earth in the hemisphere being oriented away from the sun.

→ Mavath: The rainfall during the winter season, caused by temperate cyclones.

→ Environment : The surroundings or conditions in which a person, animal or plant lives or operates.

→ Ecology: The branch of biology that deals with the relationship of organisms with one another and with their physical surroundings.

→ Erosion: Removal of top soil or cutting of rocks due to various natural powers, which is mainly the result of transfer of air, flowing water, oceanic currents and glaciers.

→ Drainage: The flow of water according to the gradiant of the ground.

→ Industry: An economic activity concerned with the processing of raw materials and manufacturing of goods in factories.

→ Canal: A canal is a long man-made strip of water used for irrigation or boat access to a bigger body of water.

→ Autumn forests: The vegetation in which trees shed most of their leaves in the dry season to maintain moisture in it.

→ Evergreen Forests: Tropical evergreen forests are usually found in areas receiving more than 200 cm of rainfall and having a monthly average temperature of 18° C or heigher in the coldest months. They are dense, multi-layered and home to many types of plants and animals.

→ Reserved Forest: An area of forest set aside and preserved by the government as a wildlife national park or sanctuary and in which grazing of animals or wood-cutting is prohibited.

RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 13 Rajasthan: Climate, Vegetation and Soil

→ Conserved forests: The forest in which wood-cutting and animal grazing is permitted under some rules and regulations.

→ Unclassified forests: The forests where there is no boundation on wood-cutting and animal grazing.

→ Grazing: It is a method of feeding in which a herbivore feeds on plants such as grasses, or other multicellular organisms such as algae.

→ Agriculture: The science, art or occupation concerned with cultivating the land, raising crops and feeding, breeding and raising livestock.

→ Occupation: A person’s usual or principal work or business, especially as means of earning a living.

→ Relief: The difference between the highest and lowest elevation in an area that show. the topography of the area.

→ Humus: A dark-brown or black organic substance made up of decayed plant or animal matter.

→ Weathering: It is the breaking down of rocks-soils and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth’s atmosphere, water and biological organisms.

→ Physical weathering: Physical weathering is caused by the effects of changing temperature on rocks causing the rocks to break apart.

→ Salinity: Salinity is the saltness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water.

→ Metamorphic Rock: Rock that was once a form of rock but has changed to another under the influence of heat, pressure, or some other agent without passing through a liquid phase.

→ Plateau: A plateau is a flat, elevated landform that rises sharply above the surrounding area on at least one side.

→ Shifting Agriculture: A form of agriculture practiced especially in tropical Africa, in which an area of ground is cleared of vegetation and cultivated for a few years and then abandoned for a new area until its fertility has been naturally restored.

→ Flood: An overflow of a large amount of water beyond its normal limits, especially over what is normally dry land.

→ Dam or Embankment: A barrier constructed to hold back water and raise its level, forming a reservoir used to generate electricity or for water supply.

→ Leaching: A natural process by which water-soluble substances (such as calcium, fertilizers, pesticides) are washed out from soil or wastes.

→ Conservation: Careful preservation and protection of something.

→ Soil Conservation: It is the prevention of soil loss from erosion or reduced fertility caused by over-usage, acidification, salinization or other chemical soil contamination.

RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 12 Rajasthan: Introduction, Physical Features and Drainage System

Go through these RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 12 Rajasthan: Introduction, Physical Features and Drainage System contain important concepts so that students can score better marks in the exam.

Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 12 Rajasthan: Introduction, Physical Features and Drainage System

→ Rajasthan has an important place in Indian history.

→ Rajasthan has been a centre of world’s ancient civilizations.

→ In Rajasthan, the remnants of ancient civilization are found in Tilwara, Ahad, Gilunda, Kalibanga and Ganeshwar Tila.

→ Rajasthan is a land of braves and martyrs.

Regional Names on Geographical Basis in Rajasthan

  • Different regions in Rajasthan were known by different names, i.e. Ganganagar and its neighboring area was known as f‘Yauddheya.” The neighboring area of Nagaur was famous as “Ahichchatrapur,” Jalore and its nearby area was called as “SwarnaGiri” and Abu and its neighboring area was called as Chandravati.
  • Other famous regions in Rajasthan were Shiva, Vagar, Kuru, Shoorsen, Hadoti, Virat, Jangal, Shakambhari and Dhundhar etc.
  • Due to exuberance of estates and chiefships of Rajput emperors, the British called Rajasthan as “Rajputana.”
  • Before independence, there were 19 estates and 3 chiefships in Rajasthan.
  • Ajmer-Merwara was a union territory.

Unification of Rajasthan

  • The unification of Rajasthan was completed in 7 phases which was initiated from 17th March, 1948 to 1st November, 1956.
  • In the first phase, Matsya Sangh, in the second phase, Rajasthan Sangh, in the third phase, Joint Rajasthan Union, in the fourth phase, Greater Rajasthan Union, in the fifth phase, Joint Greater Rajasthan, in the sixth phase, older Rajasthan (second-grade state), and in the last and seventh phase, Rajasthan (A grade state) was formed.

RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 12 Rajasthan: Introduction, Physical Features and Drainage System

Administrative Structure of Rajasthan

  • At present, state of Rajasthan has been divided into seven divisions and 33 districts.
  • There are 9 Sub-Districts, 314 Tehsils, 295 Panchayat Associations, 222 Nagar Palikas and 990 Village Panchayats in Rajasthan.

Location and Extension

  • Rajasthan is located in the North -Western part of India and is situated between 23° 3′ to 30° 12′ Northern latitude and 69° 30′ to 78° 17′ Eastern longitude.
  • The Tropic of Cancer passes through Banswara situated at the southern extreme of Rajasthan.
  • Total length of Rajasthan from North to South is 826 km and width from East to West is 869 km.
  • The total surface area of Rajasthan is 3,42,239 square km, which is 10.43 per cent of the total area of India.
  • With the point of view of area, it is equal to Germany, larger than Japan, 5 times greater than Sri Lanka and more than 17 times larger than Israel.

Border and Shape

  • The determination of borders of Rajasthan is made by Punjab in the North, Haryana in the North-East, Uttar Pradesh in the East, Madhya Pradesh in the South-East, Gujarat in the South-West and by Pakistan in the west through a 1070 km long international boundary line.
  • The border line between Rajasthan and Pakistan is known as Radcliffe Line.
  • Rajasthan is kite-shaped (trapezoid).

Physical Form of Rajasthan

  • With physical viewpoint, Rajasthan has been divided into four parts western deserted area, Aravalli hills area, eastern plains area and south-eastern plateau area.
  • Western deserted region has been divided into dry area with excess sand, Luni basin, the plains of internal drainage, and the plains of river Ghaggar.
  • The Aravalli is the the oldest mountain range of the world. It is extended in 9.3 per cent part of Rajasthan. It’s length in Rajasthan is 550 km.
  • Aravalli mountain range has been divided into three parts – Northern Aravalli, Central Aravalli and Southern Aravalli.
  • The heighest peak of Aravalli in Rajasthan is Guru Shikhar, which is 1722 meters high, while its average height is 930 meters.
  • The Eastern plain is spread on 23.9 per cent part of Rajasthan and is situated between Aravalli mountain range and Hadoti plateau.
  • The Eastern plains region has been divided into Banas-Banganga Basin and Central Mahi-Chappan Basin.
  • The South-eastern plateau is extended in 9 per cent of total area of Rajasthan. It has been divided into Vindhyan border land region area and the Lava plateau of Deccan.

RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 12 Rajasthan: Introduction, Physical Features and Drainage System

Drainage System

  • The drainage system in Rajasthan is controlled and operated by Aravalli Mountain range. It is also known as the water divider line of Rajasthan.
  • The drainage system of Rajasthan has been divided into the drainage system of Bay of Bengal, drainage system of Arabian Sea and internal drainage system.
  • The Rivers Chambal, Banas, Banganga, Parvati and Kali Sindh are included in the drainage system of Bay of Bengal.
  • The Rivers Luni, Mahi and Sabarmati are included in the drainage system of Arabian Sea.
  • The Rivers Kantali, Sabi, Kankani and Ghagghar are included in the internal drainage system.

Lakes

  • The lakes in Rajasthan have been divided into freshwater lakes and saline water lakes.
  • Sambhar, Didwana, Pachpadra, Lunkaransar and Kuchaman are the lakes of saline water.
  • Jaisamand, Rajsamand, Pushkar, Siliserh, Ramgarh, Kolayat, Nakki and Kaylana are the lakes of fresh water.

Rajasthan: Introduction, Physical Features and Drainage SystemNotes Important Terms

→ Drainage system: The pattern formed by the streams, rivers and lakes in a particular drainage basin.

→ Basin: A basin is a depression or dip in the earth’s surface.

→ Hadoti: Joint name of Kota, Bundi, Baran and Jhalawar regions.

→ Dhundhar or Dhundhad: The Joint name of of Jaipur, Tonk and Dausa regions.

→ Matsya Sangh: A group formed by joining the estates of Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur and Karauli.

→ Latitude and Longitude: These are the angles that uniquely define the points on a sphere.

→ Latitude: It is a measurement on the globe or map of location north or south of the Equator.

→ Tropic of Cancer: The Tropic of Cancer is the circle marking the latitude 23°32′ northern latitude. This is the final border of the vertical position of sun in the northern hemisphere, beyond which the sunrays never fall vertically in its north.

→ Tropic of Capricorn: The Tropic of Capricorn is one of the major circles of latitude of a map of the Earth. It is 23°30′ south of the Equator.

→ Ocean: The vast body of saltwater that covers almost three-fourth of the earth’s
surface.

→ Lake: A lake is an area filled with water localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, a part from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain.

→ Watershed or water divider: A high land area which divides the drainage of two river basins.

→ Denudation: A combined process of weathering and erosion.

→ Drainage: A drainage system is the pattern formed by the streams, rivers and lakes in a particular drainage system.

→ Plateau: A plateau is a flat, elevated landform that rises sharply above the surrounding area on at least one side.

→ Desert: A desert is a landscape form or region that receives very little precipitation and has a very little coverage of plants or vegetation.

→ Alluvial: Alluvial soil is typically made up of a variety of materials including fine particles of silt and clay and larger particles of sand and gravel. Alluvial is mainly a region of alluvial soil.

→ Inland Drainage: Inland drainage is that drainage in which rivers do not reach the ocean or sea but empty their waters in a lake or in desert area.

→ Irrigation: Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at required intervals. Irrigation helps to grow agricultural crops, maintain landscapes and re-distribute water in dry areas and provides water during periods of less than average rainfall.

→ Sand Dune: A sand dune is a mound, hill or ridge of sand that lies behind the part of the beach affected by tides.

→ Barkhan: Barkhan is an exclusive type of singular crescent-shaped dune formed in deserts or on sandy sea coasts.

→ Isohyet: A line on a map joining the places having same amount of rainfall in a given period.

→ Rann: The Great Rann of Kutch is a salty marsh located in the Thar Desert in the Kutch district of Gujarat.

RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 12 Rajasthan: Introduction, Physical Features and Drainage System

→ Intensive farming: Intensive farming is a kind of agriculture in which a lot of capital and labour is used to increase the yield that can be obtained per hectare area of land. It is also called Intensive Agriculture.

→ Relief: The difference between the highest and the lowest elevation in an area.

→ Bangar: Bangar is the slightly elevated, terreced land of older alluvium.

→ Khadar: Khadar Plains are those that are low-lying next to a river. Khadar areas are prone to flooding and sometimes include portions of former river beds that became available for agriculture when a river changes its course.

→ Walra Agriculture: The local name of Jhooming or Shifting cultivation practiced in the districts of Dungarpur and Banswara in Southern Rajasthan.

→ Escarpment or Scarp: An escarpment is a steep slope or long cliff that forms as an effect of faulting or erosion and separates two relatively-leveled areas having differing elevations.

→ Canal: A canal is a long man-made strip of water used for irrigation or boat access to a bigger body of water.

→ Gulf or Bay: A gulf is a portion of the ocean that penetrates the land. Gulfs vary greatly in size, shape and depth.

→ Sea: A sea is a large body of saltwater that is surrounded in whole or in part by land.

→ Dbm or Embankment: A barrier formed to hold back water and raise its level forming a reserve or used to generate electricity or for water supply.

→ Flood: An overflow of a large amount of water beyond its normal limits, especially over what is normally dry land.

RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 11 Natural Disasters and Management

Go through these RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 11 Natural Disasters and Management contain important concepts so that students can score better marks in the exam.

Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 11 Natural Disasters and Management

Flood and Drought

  • An overflow of a large amount of water out of its normal limits, especially over what is normally dry land. It may be unusual build-up, run-off of surface water or abnormal erosion or undermining of shoreline.
  • Floods can also the be overflow of mud caused by build-up of water underground.
  • A drought is a period of below average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortage in water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water.
  • A drought can last for months or years or may last for as few as 15 days.
  • Excess rainfall causes floods, while very little rainfall causes drought.
  • During rainy season, uneven distribution of rainfall in India causes floods as well as drought.
  • India has a large surface area and monsoon climate and both of these cause flood and drought here.
  • More than 4 million hectares of land is affected every year in India due to flood disaster.

Reasons of Flood

  • When the water in rivers overflows all around, it takes the form of flood.
  • When it is excessive rainfall in the river flow zone, it is unable to get proper and enough way to flow out and when it spreads all round the plains, it is called flood.
  • Due to deposition of sediment at the river bottom, its water containing capacity is reduced and so water overflows to cause flood.
  • Deforestation, depasturation, settlement in the flow routes of rivers, unplanned development of roads and railways and destruction of traditional water resources are some other reasons for flood in India.

RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 11 Natural Disasters and Management

Flood Affected Areas in India

  • The form of rainfall controls the situation of flood in India.
  • The awful condition of flood is seen in north and north-eastern part of India.
  • The rivers that flow in western India lead to lesser flood than that of rivers flowing in eastern India.
  • Due to destructive floods in the Rivers Kosi and Damodar, River Kosi is called as the Sorrow of Bihar and River Damodar is known as the Sorrow of West Bengal.
  • An awful view of flood can be seen in Brahmaputra river in north-eastern part of India and in Chambal, Son, Betwa rivers in the central part of India.
  • In the peninsular coastal regions of India, there are floods due to Rivers Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Cauvery.

Flood as a Problem and Hazard

  • In India, flood is the most harmful natural disaster in which thousands of lives are lost every year.
  • According to an estimate, there is a loss of 12 lakh livestocks, 12 lakh houses and more than one thousand crore rupees every year due to flood in India.
  • Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Assam and Orissa are the most flood-affected regions.
  • Floods disturb the daily life. They block the road and railway network, destroy the crops and water sources are polluted.
  • More than 60 per cent of total loss due to floods occurs in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar alone.

Management of Flood

  • Management of flood is done at government, society and individual level.
  • To check the flood, Flood Control Scheme was started in 1954 in which planning of construction of embankments and water flow drainage was made.
  • Under multipurpose projects, dams were built in the flood prone zones and on the Rivers Mahanadi, Damodar, Sutlej, Beas, Chambal and Narmada.
  • To control the floods, development of forests, cleaning the river bottom is done, and the embankments are also made strong.

RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 11 Natural Disasters and Management

Drought and Its Reasons

  • Insufficient rainfall, its uneven distribution and uncertainty are the chief causes of drought.
  • Some of the reasons of drought are deforestation, uninterrupted flow of rainwater, destruction of natural water resources, lack of proper water conservation policy and increasing population etc.
  • Mainly, shortage of water is the main cause of drought.

Drought Affected Areas in India

  • Western India is the most drought-affected area. There is drought in the states of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Haryana, some regions of Madhya Pradesh, central Maharashtra and central and eastern Karnataka at large.
  • More than 5 crore people are affected due to drought every year in India.
  • India has been divided into two parts on the basis of drought. Western Rajasthan and western Gujarat are included in such areas where affected areas with more than 25 percent uncertainty of drought are found.
  • Eastern Gujarat, Eastern Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Uttarakhand, central Maharashtra and southern Andhra Pradesh are included in such areas where affected areas with less than 25 per cent uncertainty of drought.
  • Almost 77 districts in India are drought-prone.

Drought as a Problem and Hazard

  • More the scarcity of water, more the fierce form of drought.
  • There are three forms of drought: famine of food grains, famine of food grains and fodder, and famine of food grains, fodder and water. These three forms are respectively called mono, bi-famine and tri-famine.
  • There was a tri-famine in 1987 in Rajasthan, in which thousands of livestock and other living beings were killed.
  • The tri-famine which occured in Vikram Samvat 1956 is called the “Trikal of Chhappan” and it is considered as the most horrible famine up till now.

Drought Management

  • There is official, social and individual management of drought.
  • The remedies of drought include rainwater-harvesting, construction of anicuts, search for new water sources, construction of underground water-tanks in the houses, fencing of the agricultural lands, cultivation of the crops that need less water, and manual cooperation etc.
  • The storage of underground water is a simple way to reduce the possibility of drought.

Sea Storm

  • These are also known as cyclone and are mostly seen in the tropical regions. These cyclones enter into India from Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea.
  • On reaching the internal part of India, speed and intensity of these cyclones is reduced.
  • Due to fast blowing with heavy rainfall, they cause great loss of life and property in the coastal regions.

Reason of Origin of Sea Storms

  • There are many reasons of origin of sea storms, Some scholars consider that they occur due to fronts. These fronts are formed by the conjunction of different types of winds.
  • Some scholars believe that sea storms are the result of convection process. Atmospheric pressure is the main cause of their occurrence.

RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 11 Natural Disasters and Management

Sea Storm Affected Areas, Problem and Management

  • The affected areas of sea storms in India include the coastal regions of Gujarat, Bay of Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and West Bengal.
  • Activities like getting information related to sea storms from satellites and its broadcasting through radio, television and other means of communication, banning the entry of sailors in the sea during the storm period, implementing collective insurance plan, showing individual honesty and loyalty to carry the elderly, children and women to safe places and social cooperation are included under sea storm management.
  • For minimizing the intensity of floods, Forecast Organisation was established in 1954 by the government of India. Other remedies for avoiding the intensity of flood include keeping distance from water resources and individual safety.

Natural Disasters and Management Notes Important Terms

→ Natural Disasters: The natural changes harming the human society are called natural disasters.

→ Flood: An overflow of a large amount of water beyond its natural limits, especially over what is a normally dry land.

→ Sea storm: A centre of low pressure, popular in the name of cyclone, in which the wind, violently blow from the outside towards the centre. These are called tropical cyclones.

→ Climate: The composite or generally-prevailing weather conditions of a region such as temperature, air pressure, humidity, precipitation, sunshine, cloudiness and winds throughout the year, averaged over a long time period.

→ Season: The seasons are the main periods into which a year can be divided and each of which have their own typical weather conditions.

→ Sedimentation: It is the tendency for particles in suspension to settle out of the fluid in which they are contained and come to rest against a barrier. This is due to their motion through the fluid in response to the forces acting on them. These forces can be due to gravity, centrifugal acceleration or electro-magnetism.

→ Desert: An arid land with usually sparse vegetation, especially, such land having a very warm climate and receiving 25 cm and lesser rainfall annually.

→ Sea storm: Storm conditions out at sea are defined as having sustained winds of 48 knots (90 km/h) or greater.

→ Tsunami: A long high sea wave caused by an earthquake or other disturbance or volcanic eruption.

→ Peninsula: An area of land almost completely surrounded by water from three sides or projecting out into a body of water.

→ Wharf: A structure built on the shore or projecting into a harbour, stream etc. so that vessels may be moored alongside to load or unload cargo, or to lie at rest, Guay, Pier, to tie up at a wharf.

→ Drought: A drought is a period of below average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortage in water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water.

→ Gulf or Bay: A deep inlet of the sea almost surrounded by land, with a narrow mouth, a deep ravine, chasm or abyss.

→ Communication: The imparting or exchanging of information by speaking, writing or using some other medium.

→ Dam or Embankment: A barrier constructed to hold back water and raise its level, forming a reservoir used to generate electricity or for water supply.

→ Soil: The upper layer of earth in which plants grow, a black or dark-brown material typically consisting of a mixture of organic remains, clay and rock particles.

→ Erosion: A dynamic process in which surface soil and rock are worn away through the action of glaciers, water and wind.

→ Soil Erosion: It is the displacement of the upper layer of soil; one form of soil degradation.

→ Irrigation: The supply of water to land or crops to assist in their growth, typically by means of channels in dry season.

→ Underground water: Ground water is also called underground water. The water beneath the surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.

→ Industry: A change of primary products into more beneficial and useful objects is called industry.

→ Remote sensing: It is the science of obtaining information about objects or areas from distances, typically from aircraft or satellites.

→ Geographic Information System: The latest system of collecting data.

→ Tanka: It is a traditional rainwater harvesting technique common to the Thar Desert region of Rajasthan. A tanka is a cylindrical underground rainwater storage system.

→ Torrid tropical zone: The part of the Earth’s surface between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, charaterized by hot climate. Also known as Torrid zone.

RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 11 Natural Disasters and Management

→ Front: A front is a weather system that is the boundary separating two different types of air.

→ Equator: The imaginary great circle around the earth’s surface, equidistant from the poles and perpendicular to the earth’s axis of rotation. It divides the earth into the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere.

→ Airmass: An air mass is a volume of air defined by its temperature and water vapour content.

→ Convection: It is the circular motion that occurs when warmer air or liquid air which has faster moving molecules, making it less dense, rises, while the cooler air or liquid settles down.

→ Atmospheric Pressure: The pressure exerted by the earth’s atmosphere at any given point, being the product of the mass of the atmospheric column of the unit area above the given point and of the gravitational acceleration at the given point.

→ Atmosphere: It is a thin layer of gases that surrounds the earth.

→ Turbulence or disturbance: A state or condition of confusion, movement or agitated disorder.

→ Latitude: Latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north-south position of a point on the Earth’s surface.

→ Temperate zone: The part of the Earth’s surface between the Arctic Circle and the Tropic of Cancer or between the Antarctic Circle and the Tropic of Capricorn, characterised by temperate climate.

→ Mavath: The rainfall in North-Western India during the winter season caused by tropical cyclones.

→ Satellite: An artificial body placed in the orbit round the earth or another planet in order to collect information or for communication purpose.

→ Citizen: An inhabitant of a city or town, especially one entitled to the rights and privileges of a freeman.

→ Pressure Gradient: Pressure Gradient describes in which direction and at what rate the pressure changes most rapidly around a particular location.