Go through these RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 6 The World Between 1919 and 1945 contain important concepts so that students can score better marks in the exam.
Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 6 The World Between 1919 and 1945
League of Nations
- On 10th January, 1920 the League of Nations was founded with the efforts of US President Woodrow Wilson at the Paris Peace Conference to save the world from the devastating consequences of war.
- The main office of this union was in Switzerland’s Capital Geneva. Initially it had 43 members.
- The main parts (components) of the League of Nations were General Assembly, Council, Secretariat, International Court and International labour organization.
- There were five permanent members in the council of League of Nations – Britain, France, Italy, Japan and America.
- The main function of the League of Nations was to implement the treaty of peace of Disarmament of the Paris Peace Conference and establish peace and security in the world.
- Another important task of the League of Nations was to protect the interests of the minorities, to promote social, economic and humanitarian activities in the world.
- The League of Nations achieved success in settling many disputes in the political field. In those, the border dispute of Albania, the mediteranean dispute, the Hungarian dispute, the Yovarjano conflict, the Lotlesia dispute and the controversy over Bulgaria and Greece were main ones.
- Because of fierce nationalism, global economic crisis, rise of autocratic rule and non-cooperation of superpowers, the League of Nations failed to resolve many vital disputes of international importance.
- In the year 1929 AD, the global financial crisis saw an explosive decline and a period of global economic slowdown began.
- Currency was devalued and there was a sharp decline in agricultural production. Farmers and laboures became unemployed.
- From 1929 to 1934 AD, there was a crisis of economic recession all over the world.
- The main reasons for the economic slowdown were effects of 1st World War, mechanization of industries, excess of production, economic nationalism, uneven distribution of gold and decline in the American stock market.
- In order to reorganize the economy, US president Roosevelt started a famous programme called New System (New Deal) in 1933.
- Japan’s imperialistic aspirations started to grow due to the economic recession. As a result Japan invaded Manchuria.
- During the economic recession, democratic governments were unable to cope with unemployment, inflation, volatility and insecurity. As a result, people became disillusioned with democratic system.
- As a result of the economic downturn, most of Europe’s lands came under the control of dictators.
- As a result of the downturn, there was an increase in government control in the economic sector. The masses dissatisfied with economic system were attracted rapidly towards communism.
- Countries with a sense of insecurity started developing their own military power.
- The economic crisis brought the attention of the nations away from global security and put it on national security, which deeply hurt the purposes of the League of Nations.
- The economic crisis disrupted the entire international order. This affected the entire nations of the world.
- The organization formed by Mussolini and the ideology of his governance is termed as Fascism.
- Taking advantage of the feelings of the people of Italy, who were disappointed by the treaty of Versailles, Mussolini spread Fascism in Italy.
- Due to first world war there was great loss to industry, trade and agriculture, so that the people of Italy turned against the then government and Mussolini’s fascist ideology gained the advantage of this situation.
- The people of Italy saw a national correctional personality in Mussolini in that state of chaos.
- In the election of 1920, the Fascist party got the absolute majority and Mussolini declared himself as dictator.
- After the establishment of totalitarianism in Italy, the League of Nations was weakened resulting in the breakdown of global peace.
- Seeing the growing influence of Mussolini, Capitalist nations adopted the policy of appeasing Italy.
- In 1923 AD, Italy recovered its territories of Rhodes and Dardenielles from Greece by the treaty of Lausanne.
- After Mussolini came to power, differences between Italy and France over France’s dominance in Mediterranean sea increased.
- In 1956, Mussolini acquired Abyssania in October 1935, to seek retribution for the defeat of Eduova.
- In view of security and mutual co-operation, there was a ‘steel settlement’ between Germany and Italy on May 22, 1939.
- Nazism emerged under the leadership of Hitler in Germany. His ideology is called Nazism.
- The Weimar republic of Germany failed to establish an efficient government, burdened by the treaty of Versailles. The benefit of this situation was received by the Nazi party.
- Hitter’s attractive programmes and speeches influenced German youth, soldiers and politicians, due to which Hitler received their support.
- The success of the Nazi party caused fear of insecurity in many European nations.
- As a result, Germany received co-operation from countries such as Hungary, Poland, etc. Britain also adopted a policy of appeasement towards Germany.
- Hitler cancelled the treaty of Versailles and started the process armament.
- On 6 November 1937 AD, Italy-Germany-Japan built Rome-Berlin-Tokyo axis.
- In the treaty of Versailles Germany had coded large land portions to Poland. To avenge this insult, Germany invaded Poland in September 1939.
II World War
- After Twenty years of the end of first World War, second World War started in 1939.
- This world war engulfed the entire world with its deadly consequences.
- After the loss of immense wealth, human lives and destruction, the second World War ended in 1945.
- The harsh and abusive conditions of the treaty of Versailles.
- Rise of authoritarianism.
- Weakness of the League of Nations.
- Rise of imperialist sentiment.
- Disarmament – Failure of disarmanent and fierce nationalism
- Policy of appeasement towards Italy and Germany.
- Minority caste discontent and international economic crisis.
- Split into two groups of the world.
- Germany invades Poland.
Result (effect, outcome)
- Nuclear age begins
- Splitting of the world into two ideologies
- Germany split into two segments
- Fall of national sentiment
- Force on the establishment of all authoritarian regimes
- End of European domination
- Start of the cold war
- Rise of Non-alignment
- The emergence of new independent states in Asia and Africa.
- Establishment of United Nations Organization.
United Nations Organization
- United Nations Organization was formed on August 14, 1941, by a joint declaration of the British prime minister and US president Roosevelt aboard a warship in the Atlantic ocean.
- San Francisco convention: In 1945, this charter was signed by 50 nations. UN charter of the United nations came into force on October 24, 1945.
- The main objective of this organization was to promote international cooperation in the social, economic, cultural and humanitarian areas and to establish international peace and security by establishing disarment and new international economic system.
- By promoting peace and accepting the responsibility of charter, any nation could become a member of the United Nations.
- According to section 5 and 6 of the charter, any member can be suspended by the General Assembly for continuous violation of the charter.
- The official languages of the United Nations are: English, French, Chinese, Arabic, Russian and Spanish.
- United Nation’s headquarters is in Manhattan island of New York city of America.
- United Nation’s flag has two upright olive branches in the white background and has a world map in its light blue background.
- The General secretary is the Chief administrative officer of the United Nations. At present Ban Ki Moon is the general secretary of this organization.
- The United Nation has six major components: The General assembly, the security council, the council of trustees, the Secretariat, the economic social council and the international court of Justice.
Special bodies (organs) of the United Nations
- United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization-UNESCO (4th November 1945 AD)
- International Labour Organization-ILO (11 April, 1919)
- Food and Agriculture Organization-FAO (16 October, 1945 AD)
- World Health Organization-WHO (1th April, 1946 AD)
- International Monetary Fund-IME (December 1945 AD)
- International Reconstruction and Development Bank-IRDB (World Bank)
- United Nations Child Crisis Fund-UNISEF (1946 AD)
- World Trade Organization-WTO (1st January, 1995 AD)
- Human Rights Declaration-HRD (10 December, 1948 AD)
- Nelson Mandela was born on 15th July, 1918 in a 6 lack family of South Africa.
- Seeing the atrocities of white people on his society. He resolved to end apartheid policy.
- Mandela remained in Jail for twenty seven years, and due to his efforts and the agreement with South Africa’s white regime resulted in the formation of a democratic constitution in South Africa.
- Mandela became South Africa’s first black president in 1994. Nelson Mandela was awarded the Nobel Peace prize, the Nehru Peace Award, Bharat Ratna, etc.
India’s Contribution to the United Nations
- India signed the declaration of United Nations and became its founding member.
- India played an active role in the Labour Organization Food and Agriculture organization, World Health Organization and UNESCO.
- The president of the 8th session of the United Nations General Assembly was Smt. Vijaylaxmi Pandit.
- Dr. Radhakrishanan and Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad assumed UNESCO’s head post.
- Dr. Nagendra singh was appointed as the Chief justice of international court and Dr. H. J. Bhabha was appointed on the post of commission constituted for peaceful use of Nuclear power.
- Princess Amrit Kaur was the president of World Health Organization.
- Gautam Kagi is the first Indian to be appointed managing director of the World Bank.
The World Between 1919 and 1945 Important dates and events
29 July 1883 AD – The father of Fascism and the Italian supremacist Bennito Mussolini was born.
20 April, 1889, AD – Birth of German dictator Adolf Hitler
1912 AD – Mussolini started editing the socialist magazine ‘Avanti’
18 July, 1918 AD – Birth of Nelson Mandela
11 November, 1918 AD – End of 1st World War
11 April, 1919 AD – Establishment of International Labour Organization
10 January, 1920 AD – League of Nations was legally established
1920 – League of Nations established a permanent state commission
1920-22 AD – The League of Nations Vienna controversy
1920 AD – The factionist party became a political party. Oland Island Controversy
1921-24 AD – Albania border dispute happened.
31 October, 1922 AD – Mussolini was appointed the Prime Minister of Italy
1923 AD – There was a ‘Lausanne treaty’ between Greece and Italy.
1923-29 AD – Yavorjano dispute
1923-30 AD – Hungarian dispute
1925-26 AD – Bulgaria and Greece dispute
1928-33 AD – Granchaco dispute
1929-34 AD – Period of economic crisis in the world
1931 AD – Japan invaded Manchuria
1932-33 AD – Lotesia dispute
1932 AD – Hitler was appointed chancellor of Germany. Disarmanent conference was held in Geneva under the auspices of the League of Nations.
1933 AD – US President Roosevelt launched famous programme called ‘New-Wystem’ (New Deal)
1934 AD – America took the membership of League of Nations.
1935 AD – Italy and France have friendship treaty. Hilter announced re-armament.
21 November 1936 AD – Germany and Italy signed on Anti-communism pact in which there was no provision for political agreement with Russia.
1936 AD – There was an agreement between Germany and Italy.
6th November, 1937 AD – Japan-Italy-Germany built Rome-Berlin-Tokyo axis.
1937-45 AD – China-Japan war
1939-40 AD – Russian-Finnish war
22 May 1939 AD – Italy had a iron pact with Germany
1939 AD – The beginning of II World War
14th August, 1941 – British Prime minister Churchill and US President Roosevelt jointly announced, the ‘Atlantic Charter’
6th August, 1945 AD – United States of America dropped nuclear bomb on Hiroshima.
9th August, 1945 AD – Nuclear (Atomic) bombs dropped on Japan’s Nagasaki city.
1945 AD – The San Francisco conference happened.
16th October, 1945 AD – Food and Agriculture Organization was established.
24th October, 1945 AD – United Nations Organization (UNO) was formed.
1945 AD – International Monetary Fund was established.
1946 AD – Trigaveli became the first Secretary General of the UNO
4th November, 1946 AD – Establishment of UNESCO
1946 AD – Functioning of World Bank started.UNICEF was established
1947 AD – The UNO’s flag was adopted
7th April, 1948 AD – Establishment of World Health Organization (WHO)
10th December, 1948 AD – Human rights declaration was released
21st September, 1949 AD – German Federal Republic was established (West Germany)
7th October, 1949 AD – Democratic Republic was established in Germany (East Germany)
1990 AD – Unification of Germany
1994 AD – Nelson Mandela became South Africa’s first black president
1st January 1995 AD – Establishment of World Trade Organization
18th July, 2009 AD – The UNO passed the resolution to declare Mandela day
2013 AD – Nelson Mandela died
The World Between 1919 and 1945 Notes Important Terms
→ League of Nations: A consortium of nations formed after the end of 1st World War. Its purpose was to establish peace and security in the world.
→ General Secretary: The head of the third part, secretariat of the League of Nations was called General Secretary.
→ Mandate: An arrangement in which the League of Nations provided the presentation of the Colonies which were taken from Germany and Turkey and given to countries like Japan, France, Belgium and England.
→ Economic Crisis: There was a huge decline in the financial world from 1929 to 1934 AD. The currency was devalued, the value of agricultural production declined drastically, it was called economic crisis (downturn)
→ New deal: To re-organize the economy, US President Roosevelt introduced new eronomic system called New deal.
→ Democratic system: The government (ruling system) in which power is in the hands of the general public is called democratic system.
→ Dictatorship: When the power is centered in the hands of a person or in some people’s hands, it is called totalitarianism or dictatorship.
→ Communism: In the manner of which all the resources of the country are owned by the people of the society and society is without category, it is called communism.
→ Fascism: The ideology of governance, established by Mussolini in Italy is called Fascism.
→ Nazism: In Germany, the ideology of the party that was led by Hitler was called Nazism.
→ Mein Kampf: It is the creation of Hitler. It is also called the Bible of the Nazis.
→ Appeasement policy: Such a diplomatic policy that pacifies any other power to avoid the war.
→ Non-alignment: Non-alignment means to be neutral by not supporting any faction’s policies.
→ Colonialism: The ideology that promotes the exercise of power over the resources of another nation’s resources, which is weak but rich in natural resources. This was done by a powerful nation for its various interests.
→ Disarmament: It is an arrangement whose purpose is to reduce the specific threats of the existence of weapons and their nature.
→ Veto power: The right to reject a proposed act or policy.
→ Human Rights: This declaration accepted on December 10, 1948 ensured that no person
→ Declaration: will be discriminated against on the basis of dynasty, colour, gender, religion, language, property and birth, etc.
→ Benito Mussolini: The dictator of Italy and creator of Fascism.
→ Adolf Hitler: Germany’s world famous dictator, who led the Nazi party.
→ Nelson Mandela: South Africa’s first black president, who campaigned against apartheid policy.