Go through these RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 5 First World War contain important concepts so that students can score better marks in the exam.
Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 5 First World War
First World War
- Before the first world war, there was domination of European countries on the whole world.
- Before the first world war, the colonies of different European countries had been established in Asia and Africa.
- Fierce competition and rivalry had arisen between European countries regarding the control over the colonies which resulted in the form of first world war.
- Besides this there were many other causes of the first world war:
i) The rise of fierce nationalism.
ii) Imperialistic competition between England and Germany
iii) Competition between Germany and France
iv) Partition of European Countries in two groups
v) Mercantile and colonial rivalry
vi) Servoslav movement and Balcan politics
vii) Diplomatic policies of Nations
viii) Role of Newspaper
ix) Rise of International anarchy.
- The immediate cause of the first world war was the invasion of Austria on Serbia on 28 July 1914 CE.
- In the first world war, all the nations of the world were divided into two groups which were known as Allied Powers and Central Powers.
- Allied Powers: England, France, Russia, Serbia, Japan, Portugal, United States of America, Italy, Romania, Greece, Siam, Serbia, Cuba, Panama, Brazil, Gueatemala, etc.
Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungry, Bulgaria and Turkey.
- Not only one nation was responsible for the first world war but also all the nations were responsible equally for creating the circumstances for this world war.
- The first world war as fought for four years, three months, and eleven days. 80 lakh solidiers were killed in it and around 2 crore people were wounded.
- On 6 April 1917, due to sinking of an American ship, America declared war against Germany.
- Along with the defeat of Germany this war came to an end on 11 November 1918 CE.
In 1919 CE, after the end of first world war, in order to establish enduring peace, a peace conference was organised in Paris.
- In Paris conference, 32 countries were invited. Woodrow Wilson (the president of America), Lyold George (Prime Minister of England), Climensc (Prime Minister of France) and Orlando (Prime Minister of Italy) were specially invited in it.
- In this peace conference, many treaties were performed with defeated nations: Treaty of St. Germain (i) Treaty of Trango (iii) Treaty of Neuli (iv) Treaty of Sebre (v) Treaty of Versailles (vi) Referendum in Schelswig.
Consequences of the First World War
- Along with the decline of feudalism and Autocracy, democratic rule became established.
- Nationalism, Socialism, Facism, Nazism and militarism emerged. An arms race started between different nations.
- Ten trillion rupees were spent in this war and huge loss of money was incurred.
- Due to extraordinary expenditure public loans of the world increased.
- Governments of different nations increased import duties by which the world trade was badly effected.
- Paper currency was devalued.
- Efforts were made for the solution of the problems of minorities.
- The demand of rights and representation for women began to rise in each nation.
- International Labour Union of League of Nations was established by which the feelings of internationalism were created.
The First World War and India
- India was an important colony of England during the first world war.
- India fought for the interests of England in this war.
- India supported England with this expectation that after winning the war England will provide democratic rule to India.
- But the British tricked the Indians and contrary to Indian expectations the British continued with their oppressive policies which resulted in famine, pandemics, economic exploitation suppression of press and cruelty towards Indians.
- To suppress the revolutionary activities of Indians, Rowlatt Act was passed in 1919 CE.
Russian Revolution in 1917 CE
- The superiority of Russia was challenged by their defeat in war with Japanese in 1904-05.
- The Russian society was divided into three categories of elite, middle and proletariat class.
- Dissatisfaction and feeling of opposition were increasing continuously among the Russian people due to different reasons.
- The causes of this dissatisfaction were the oppressive policies of Czarist regime.
- Some immediate circumstances made this dissatisfaction explode suddenly.
- On 8 March 1917 CE workers of factories in Petrograd struck work because they didn’t get enough food to eat.
- On 10 March all the factories of Petrograd remained closed.
- The Czar sent his army to suppress the revolutionaries but the soldiers favoured them.
- On 11 March the Czar dissolved the ‘Duma’.
- Workers and soldiers together formed “Revolutionaries Soviet.”
- On 14 March, Revolutionary Soviet and the members of Duma formed a temporary government in which prince Luov became their leader. ,
- In this temporary government the leader of the revolutionary socialist party Alexander Kerensky was made the minister of Justice, the leader of Octoberist Party Gushkov was made war minister, the leader of constitutional democratic party professor Milokhov was made foreign minister and Terevenko was appointed as finance minister.
- Thus, as a result of the revolution, a temporary liberal government was formed.
Bolshevik revolution and Lenin
- Lenin is credited for the establishment of the first communist government of the world and implementation of Marxist model.
- Lenin was born on 22nd April 1870 at Russia’s Volga Province near the city of Simbrisk.
- On 8th May 1887 Lenin’s brother Alksandr Ulyanov was hanged on a rope for the murder of Czar Alexender III. Infuriated with this event Lenin decided to remove the Czarist rule from its roots.
- In 1903 CE, the Social democratic party was divided into two groups: Bolshevik and Menshevik.
- Bolsheviks considered them staunch revolutionaries and Menshivks were reformists and opportunists.
- According to Lenin’s direction, the armed revolutionaries decided to capture power on 23 October 1917 and a ‘Politburo’ was appointed for the implementation of their plan.
- Trotski founded the Military revolutionary committee of Soviet.
- On 25 October, 1917 CE the Bolshevik revolution started suddenly at night and under the leadership of
- Bolsheviks, workers and soldiers captured the palace of Czar in Petrograd.
Kerenski fled from capital.
- On 8 November 1917 CE under the leadership of Lenin, first cabinet of new government was formed. In this new government Trotsky was appointed as foreign minister. Stalin was made Minister of ethnic groups and Raikov was made home minister.
- In the initial years of its rule Bolshevik party had to face civil war.
First World War Important dates and events
- 22 April 1870 CE – Birth of Lenin the hero of Bolshevik Revolution
- 1879 CE – Birth of Stalin, Successor of Lenin.
- 1882 CE – Formation of triad by Germany, Austria and Italy
- 8 May 1887 CE – The brother of Lenin hanged till death for murder of Czar Alexander III.
- 1898 CE – Social Democratic party was formed.
- 1903 CE – Social Democratic party was divided into two parties: Bolshevik and Menshevik.
- 1904-05 CE – The war between Russia and Japan.
- 1905 CE – Period of Russian Revolution.
- 1907 CE – Treaty between England, Russia and France.
- 1914 CE – The first world war started. Austria declared war against Serbia.
- 1915 CE – Mahatma Gandhi returned India from Africa.
- 1917 CE – Bolshevik Revolution in Russia.
- February 1817 CE – The conference of Elite classes in Moscow.
- 7 November 1917 CE – Bolshevik party took over the rule.
- 8 November 1917 CE – First cabinet of new government in the leadership of Lenin was formed.
- 1918 CE – Treaty of the Brest Litovask between Lenin and government of Germany.
- 11 November 1918 CE – End of first world war.
- 1919 CE – Peace conference in Paris.
- 28 June 1919 CE – Treaty of Versailles with Germany.
- 1919 CE – Indian government act was passed. Third international or ‘Comintum’ was established in Moscow.
- 1923 CE – Treaty of Lausanne.
- 1924 CE – The Death of Lenin.
- 1925 CE – Nihilist organisation was formed.
- 6 March 1953 – Death of Stalin.
- CE 1991 CE – Soviet Union was disintegrated.
First World War Notes Important terms
→ Colony: The area which is ruled by a foreign power and the native people have no political rights.
→ Dictator: A ruler with absolute power over a country, typically one who has obtained control by force.
→ Imperialism: A policy of extending a country’s power and influence through colonization, use of military force or other means.
→ Traid: Germany, Austria and Italy form an alliance for mutual co-operation against rival powers.
→ Militarism: It is a belief or the desire of a government or a people that a state should maintain a strong military capability to use it aggressively to expand or promote national interests.
→ Armament: The process of equipping military forces for war.
→ Mandate system: It was the system of the League of Nations in which the victors of world war-I were given responsibility for governing former German and Ottoman territories as mandates from the League.
→ Fascism: Fascism is a form of government which is a type of one-party dictatorship. It is against principles of democracy.
→ Nazism: Nazism is the ideology and set of practices associated with the 20th Century German Nazi party in Nazi Germany and of other far right groups.
→ Republican government: A form of government in which a state is ruled by representatives of the citizen body.
→ Rowlatt Act: The act passed by the British government in 1919 CE. This allowed certain political cases to be tried without juries and permitted internment of suspects without trial
→ Duma: The name of Russian parliament.
→ Industrial Revolution: The industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
→ Nihilism: The rejection of all religions and moral principles, in the belief that life is meaningless.
→ Capitalism: An economic and political system in which a country’s trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.
→ Red Army: Strong organized army formed by Bolsheviks to confront foreign armies and chieftains of the Czar.
→ Prince Coptic: Chief promoter of Nihilism.
→ Lenin: Great hero of Bolshevik revolution and leader of Bolshevik party.
→ Stalin: Follower of Lenin.
→ Trotsky: The foreign minister of Bolshevik government.
→ Alexander Kerenski: Leader and minister of Justice of Socialist party.