Go through these RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 4 Development of Nationalism in the World contain important concepts so that students can score better marks in the exam.
Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 4 Development of Nationalism in the World
The original natives of America before Columbus
- The American continent is known by the name of ‘New World’. It was discovered by Christopher Columbus in 1942 AD.
- European historians have called the original inhabitants of America by the name ‘Red Indians’.
The Ancient Civilization of Original inhabitants
- The Aztec and Mayan civilizations emerged in North America.
- North America is known for Mayan and Aztec culture and South America is known for Incan culture.
- The information about the original culture of America is obtained from the travelogues, daily accounts, diaries of contemporary travellers, and from the remains of grand architecture. The Mayan, Aztec and Incan civilizations were urban civilizations.
- The original sources of livelihood in Ancient America were agriculture and its related business.
- The Mayan culture is related with Mexico. The basis of this civilization lay in the cultivation of maize.
- The Aztec community of Mexico was divided into classes, similar to the society in Ancient India.
- The principal deity of Aztec civilization was Maxilli. Mexico is named after it.
Reasons for the arrival of European countries in America
- America was named after the Italian sailor, Amerigo Vespucci, who reached the American shores in 1501 AD.
- There were many reasons for the inhabitants of European countries to visit America. The main among these were:
i) To obtain gold, silver and other precious things
ii) The spirit of imperialism and expansionism
iii) To preach and propagate the religion of Christianity.
Effect of the arrival of European countries on Natives of America
- The arrival of Europeans in America had a very bad effect on the original inhabitants of the continent. The Europeans completely destroyed the culture, cuisine, lifestyle, thoughts and conduct, religious belief and architectural style of the natives.
- The Europeans forced the original inhabitants of America to live in a very small part of the continent, because of which these tribes came to the brink of extinction due to wars, massacres and disease.
Struggle for American Independence
- The struggle for American independence in the 18th century is considered to be the most important event that influenced the entire world.
- In context of the American war of Independence, Carl. L. Baker remarked that this revolution was a conflict between the economic interests of the colonies and Britain.
Reasons for American War of Independence
The main reasons for the American War of Independence were:
- Lack of goodwill and affection towards England
- Rise of intellectual consciousness
- The unsympathetic and exploitative British policies for their colonies
- the tension between the governor and local legislative councils
- The faulty economic policies and regulations of Emperor George III.
Major Events in American War of Independence
The American freedom struggle witnessed these major events:
- Boston massacre
- Boston Tea party
- Organisation of the First Continental Congress o Lexington massacre
- Organisation of the Second Continental Congress.
Declaration of Independence
- Richard Henry put the proposal of American independence in the Continental Congress of June 1776, which was seconded by John Adams.
- On July 2, 1776, the Congress passed the resolution of American independence and on July 4, 1776, America got its freedom from British rule.
- Washington’s armies defeated the British army in the Battle of Trenton (1776), Sarragota War (1777), and Battle of Yorktown (1761).
- In 1783, the Treaty of Paris was signed between representatives of England and American colonies.
- America’s 13 colonies were declared free from British rule in the Treaty of Paris.
Causes of England’s Defeat
The main causes of England’s defeat were:
- The great geographical distance between England and America
- Recruitment of most of the soldiers in British army from Germany on rent
- Lack of enthusiasm is British Soldiers
- incompetence of the British monarch and ministers etc.
Effects of American Independence
The major effects of American independence were:
- Rise of America as a democratic nation and making of its written constitution
- End of commercial imperialism
- Inspiration for the French Revolution
- Birth of British Commonwealth
- Increase in the powers of the British Parliament
- More facilities for Ireland.
The French Revolution
- The Glorious Revolution of England in 1688 and the American War of Independence in 1776 were not as important as the French Revolution (1789).
- The French Revolution was against the autocratic regime, unjust social system, economic exploitation and inequality that prevailed in the country.
- Feudal system, economic exploitation and inequality, and religious superstition were rife in all the countries of contemporary Europe, and in such a situation, the spirit of renaissance awakened in France, which was an extremely momentous event of that period.
The main reasons for the French Revolution were:
- faulty political system
- social inequality o bad economic conditions
- Intellectual awakening
- the unwise policy adopted by France in the American War of Independence
- Religious dissatisfaction
- emergence of the middle class.
Major Events and phases of the French Revolution
- There was a council named ‘Estates Generale’ in France. It had the representation of the elite class, clergy class, intellectual class and common citizenry in it.
- The first conference of the Estates General was held in 1320 during the reign of Phillip the fair, but the session was not called after 1614.
- A session of the Estates General was convened on 5 May 1789 after a gap of 175 years. It had a total of 1214 members.
- When the members of the third assembly came for the conference on 20 June 1789, the king had the assembly hall locked in favour of the elite class. As a result, the common class members held their assembly in a nearby Tennis ground.
- On July 14, 1789, the enraged people of Paris attacked the fort of Bastille, freed the prisoners held there and thus began the Revolution.
- The fall of Bastille was an indication of the success of popular revolt against the autocratic rule of the king.
- On August 4, 1789, the National Assembly abolished all the privileges of the elite and clergy classes.
- On October 5, 1789, thousands of women stormed the Palace of Versailles, and raised the slogan of ‘Give us bread’. The king’s family became prisoners in their palace.
- The new constitution of France was prepared in 1791, whose fundamental basis was the ‘will of the people’.
- The king of France, Louis XVI was hanged to death on 21 January 1793.
- The National Convention was the third Parliament of France, in whose monarchy was abolished and democracy was established on September 21, 1792.
- Directory regime system was in force in France from 1795 to 1799.
Effect of French Revolution
The main effects of the French Revolution were:
- Abolition of the feudal system
- Rise of nationalism
- Emergence of democratic spirit and declaration of human rights
- Formationof political parties
- Abolition of the privileges of the Church
- Emergence of socialism
- Educational reforms
- Emergence of the spirit of liberty, equality and fraternity etc.
- Napoleon Bonaparte was born in Ajasinco city in the island of Corsica near Italy, on August 15, 1769.
- Napoleon gained popularity by saving the members of National Assembly from an agitated mob on 16 September, 1793.
- Napoleon abolished the Directory system and handed over the governance to three councils. Napoleon himself became the Chief Counsel.
- Napoleon was appointed Counsel for life in 1802.
- Napoleon Bonaparte was declared the emperor of France on December 2,1804.
- Napoleon Bonaparte defeated the combined armies of Austria and Prussia on December 2, 1805 in the Battle of Austerilitz.
- Napoleon formed the ‘Rhine Federation’ by amalgamating the many small states of Germany through the Treaty of Pressburg.
- Napoleon employed the influence of religion to lend stability to the regime in a very effective manner.
- Napoleon removed education from the control of the Church and put it under the State. Napoleon aimed to strengthen his administration through the medium of teachers.
- Napoleon abolished irrelevant and outdated laws, and formulated new laws. The ‘Code of Law’formulated in 1804 was named the ‘Napoleonic codes’.
- Napoleon gave legal aceptance to the right to private property and made the farmers the rightful owners of the land they tilled.
- Napoleon emphasised the code of family discipline and order.
- Napoleon occupied Spain in an unauthorised manner, but he could not succeed in his Moscow campaign.
- Sweden, Prussia, England, Russia and Austria came together to from a ‘Fourth Alliance’ in order to defeat Napoleon.
- Napoleon suffered a crushing defeat in the Battle of Waterloo on June 18, 1815. He surrendered before the British Naval officer, Metland, on July 15, 1815.
- Napoleon died on 5 May 1821, living a prisoner’s life on the island of St Helena.
The Main Reasons behind Napoleon’s decline
The main resons for Napoleon’s decline were:
- Lack of vision
- Continental system
- Unauthorised occupation of Spain
- Campaign against Russia
- Derogatory behaviour towards the Pope
- England’s strong position
- High ambitions
- Favouritism towards relatives (nepotism)
- Centralisation of power in one person (autocratic style).
The Concept of Nation (in context of Germany and Italy)
- The essential elements for a state, nation or country to exist are: people, territory, sovereignty and culture.
- In context of India, four essential elements have been defined for an ideal state: (i) people, (ii) culture, (iii) territory, (iv) sovereign power.
- European scholars do not accept similar culture to be an essential element for a state to exist, but the Indian concept considers culture to be an integral part of state.
The Political Unification of Germany
- After the French Revolution and Napoleon’s conquests, a nation named Germany was founded due to the rise of feelings of nationalism in European countries.
- Before Napoleon, Germany was divided into a number of small states, and was under the authority of the Roman Empire.
- Napoleon formed a federation of 39 states of Rhineland in place of the numerous small states of the region and established a simple, uniform, administrative system. The federation was called the ‘Rhine Federation’.
- 18 states combined together in 1834 and formed the ‘Zollverin’; an economic federation, under the leadership of Prussia.
- The establishment of ‘Zollverin’ strengthened the path for the political unification of Germany in future, under the leadership of Prussia.
- In 1815, the University of Zenna formed a patriotic organisation named ‘Birchenshaft’. This organisation emphasised the moral upliftment of the German people.
- Economic unification began in Germany after the formation of Zollverin, that reached the various smaller states of Germany through railways.
Contribution of Bismarck
- Bismarck wanted to unify Germany by armed might under the leadership of Prussia.
- On August 14, 1865, a pact was reached by king Wilhem I of Prussia and king Francis Joseph of Austria at a place called Gestine.
- The Treaty of Prague was made between Prussia and Sardinia on 23 August, 1866, according to which the confederation of North Germany was formed under Prussia’s leadership.
- A battle ensued between France and Prussia on September 1, 1870 at Sedan in which France was defeated.
- Wilhem I was declared the emperor of unified Germany on 18 January 1871. Berlin was made capital of unified Germany, and Bismarck was declared the Chancellor of Germany.
- In the Frankfurt Treaty of February 26, 1871, the unification of Germany was completed, and a powerful nation was founded under the leadership of Prussia.
- Bismarck used diplomacy to give Germany the identity of a powerful nation. Now Germany became the centre of European politics, in place of France.
Political Unification of Italy
- Due to the invasions of Napoleon, an era of national movements began in Italy.
- Geographically, Italy was divided into Northern, Central and Southern states. Rome, Italy’s capital, was under the authority of the Pope.
- Napoleon conquered the various states of Italy, integrated them into a single entity and established a national state.
- Organisations like the ‘Carbonneirri’ and ‘Young Italy’ made important contributions in the unification of Italy.
- Mazzini made vital contribution to the unification of Ialy. He founded the organsation named ‘Young Italy’.
- Cavour wanted to exclude Austria from Italy. He turned the national issue of Italy into an international problem to gain the support of European nations.
- A pact was reached between Napoleon and Cavour at a place called Plombiers, according to which France would send 2 lac soldiers to Sardinia, in event of a war between Sardinia and Austria.
- The Treaty of Villa Franca was signed between Napoleon III, the emperor of France, and Austrian monarch Francis Joseph on 11 July, 1859, according to which it was decided that an Italian federation be formed under the authority of the Pope.
- Guissepe Garibaldi was born in 1807 at Nice. Initially, he became a member of Mazzini’s ‘Young Italy’.
- Garibaldi founded an orgnisation of patriots named ‘The Red Coats’ and through its influence, he entered Sicily.
- In 1860, the people of Sicily revolted against the autocratic rulers of the Boubom dynasty under the leadership of Garibaldi. Garibaldi annexed Sicily.
- Garibaldi attacked the then leadership of France on 19 August 1860, and was victorious.
- Italy obtained Venetia through the Treaty of Prague between Prussia and Austria.
- Taking advantage of the defeat of France in the Franco-Prussian war of 1870, Italy occupied Rome.
- The people of Rome voted overwhelmingly in favour of ceding to Italy. Rome was made the capital of unified Italy.
- The unification of Italy was completed due to Mazzini’s moral strength, Cavour’s diplomacy, Garibaldi’s sword and wisdom of Victor Emmanuel.
Development of Nationalism in the World Important dates and events
1320 – First convention of Estates Generale of France organised.
1453 – Turkish conquest of Constantinople, and decline in European trade.
1492-1636 – Christopher Columbus discovered the American continent; founding of Harvard College
1704 – Publishing of Boston’s first newspaper ‘Boston Newsletter’ begins.
1757-1763 – Seven-year war between England and France; banning of liquor imports by America and imposition of tax on molasses.
1764-1765 – Stamp Act promulgated in America. It made mandatory for all newspapers magazines, books, licenses, leases to pay stamp duty.
1767 – England’s Finance Minister Townshend imposes import duty on glass, dyes, tea.
June 1767 – New York Legislative Assembly dissolved.
15 August 1769 – Napoleon Bonaparte was bom on the Island of Corsica.
5 March 1770 – Tension grows between British soldiers and citizens in America.
26 December 1773 – Boston Tea Party in America.
5 September 1774 – Convening of First Continental Congress in America.
19 April 1775 – Lexingon massacre in America
10 May 1775 – Convention of Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia, America, under the Chairmanship of John Hancock.
15 June 1775 – George Washington appointed commander of American Continental Army.
1776 – George Washington defeats British army in the Battle of Trenton.
2 July 1776 – American Continental Congress passes the motion of American independence.
4 July 1776 – Declaration of American independence. The manifesto declaring separation from England accepted by all American states.
1777 – British defeat in the Battle of Saragotta.
1781 – Lord Cornwallis, the British commander forced to surrender by Washington and Roshamby with help of French army.
3 December 1783 – Paris Treaty signed between representatives of Britain and American colonies.
5 May 1789 – Convention of Estates Generale organised in France.
17 June 1789 – Declaration of their own assembly as the National Assembly by common class of France.
20 June 1789 – Gates of Assembly Hall locked to appease the elite class by king of France and holding of Assembly by common class in a nearby tennis ground.
27 June 1789 – French monarch orders a joint convention of all three houses of legislature.
14 July 1789 – Mob of agitators storm and capture Bastille fort. 14 July declared a national holiday.
4 August 1789 – abolition of special privileges in France.
5 October 1789 – Thousands of women enter Royal Versailles palace of France to demand bread.
1791 – Written constitution prepared for the first time in France.
20 June 1791 – King Louis XVI caught near Baren village while unsuccessfully trying to fie.
21 September 1792 – Monarchy abolished and democracy established in France during the tenure of the third Parliment of France ‘National Convention’.
21 January 1793 – French Monarch Louis XIV put to death.
27 July 1794 – fall of Robbespeire in France.
1795 – National Convention frames new constitution in France.
16 September 1793 – Napoleon Bonaparte saved members of National Grand Assembly from violent mob.
(October 1795 to November 1799) – Directory regime enforced in France.
January 1797 – Napoleon defeats Austria in battles of Vivoli and Australitz.
August 1798 – Napoleon defeated by Commander of English fleet, Nelson, in the battle of Nile.
1800 – Founding of Bank of the France
1801 – Treaty of Concorde
1802 – Napoleon appointed Counsel for life
2 Decmber 1804 – Napoleon declared emperor of France.
21 October 1805 – British commander Nelson defeats Napoleon in battle of Trafalgar.
2 December 1805 – Napoleon defeats combined armies of Prussia and Austria in the battle of Australitz.
14 June 1806 – France defeats Prussia in battles of Zenna and Oersted.
1807 – Guissepe Garibaldi born in the city of Nice.
8 July 1807 – Treaty of Tilsit between France and Russia.
1813 – Napoleon defeats Austria in the battle of Dresden.
1814 – Allied forces defeat Napoleon and force a treaty at Fountainbhau.
1815 – Zenna University in Germany founds a patriotic organisation called Birschenshafft.
30 March 1815 – Napoleon Bonaparte escapes from Island of Elba and reaches Paris.
15 July 1815 – Napoleon surrenders before British naval officer Metland.
1818 – The ‘toll tax federation’ treaty by Zollverin with Schwarzburg Sonderschausen states
5 May 1821 – Napoleon’s death at St Helena Island.
1831 – Mazzini establishes organisation named ‘Young Italy’.
1852 – Two estates of German federation Schelswig and Holstein sign the London treaty.
1854 – Cavour helps armies of England and France against Russia in the Crimean war with 1800 soldiers.
3 May 1859 – France helps Italy in its conflict with Austria, and Austria is defeated.
11 July 1859 – Treaty of Villa Franca between Napoleon III of France and Austrian emperor Francis Joseph.
1861-1888 – Reign of Prussian emperor Wilhem I.
January 1864 – Schelswig and Holstein estates were the issue on which Prussia and Austria reached an agreement due to Bismarck’s efforts.
February 1864 – Combined armies of Austria and Prussia defeat Denmark.
14 August 1865 – Pact of Gestine reached between Prussian emperor Wilhem I and Austrian monarch Francis Joseph.
1866 – Pact between Prussia and Sardinia
3 July 1866 – War between Austria and Prussia, Austria defeated
23 August 1866 – Treaty of Prague between Prussia and Austria.
15 July 1870 – War begins between France and Prussia.
1 September 1870 – Decisive war between France and Prussia at Sedan in which France was defeated.
18 January 1871 – German emperor Wilhem I coronated in Versailles palace.
12 June 1871 – Victor Emmanuel inaugurates Parliament of unified Italy.
Development of Nationalism in the World Notes Important Terms
→ Nationalism: Sense of unity felt by such people who share the same language, history and common culture.
→ Civilization: Civilization means those resources and artistic skills through which people fulfil all the needs the their life.
→ Culture: The manner in which man lives his life is called culture. It includes man’s lifestyle, thought and behavioral processes, attire, dance, arts, music, religious faith, philosophy, language and literature.
→ Architecture: Art of constructing building in various styles/designs.
→ Tribe: Such a community of people living in inaccessible areas, who have their own unique and distinct culture, customs, lifestyle, cusine and attire, is called a tribe.
→ Aztec Civilisation: The civilization that emerged in the Central valley of Mexico. The Aztec people came from the North to settle in the Central Valley of Mexico in the 12th Century. This society was class-based.
→ Mayan Civilisation: The civilization that developed in Mexico. This civilization made considerable progress between the eleventh and fourteenth century. Maize cultivation was extensive here, and the inhabitants used progressive methods of agriculture. The Mayan people made remarkable advancement in the fields of architecture, astronomy and mathematics.
→ Maxilli: The main deity of the Aztec people of Mexico
→ Incan Civilization: The biggest civilization of American countries that developed in Peru. The Incan empire extended from Ecuador to Chile over 3000 miles.
→ Red Indians: Wheatish-complexioned people, whose habitation was mistaken by Columbus to be India, while in fact, they were America’s orginal natives.
→ Capitulaision: a kind of deed in which the Pope promised the ownership of new lands to their discoverers/conquerors.
→ Colonisation: governance of another country or region by a country or a company in accordance with its own policies.
→ Colony: A weak country under the rule of a powerful country is called the colony of the powerful country. For example, India was a colony of England.
→ Pope: Religious leader of all Catholic community in Europe.
→ Continent: an extensive land extent which is usually surrounded by large water bodies.
→ Governor: Official who was responsible for administration in Colonies.
→ Seven-year War: War betwen England and France from 1757 to 1763. England emerged victorious in this war.
→ Sugar Act: America stopped import of English liquor and tax was imposed on molasses.
→ Quartering Act: Law arranging accommodation and food supplies to be ensured by colonies for royal troops in America.
→ Stamp Act: Stamp duty was made mandatory for newspapers, magazines, licenses and leases by this Act enforced in 1765.
→ Constitution: The collection of laws and regulations related to the formation of government, its working and its responsibilities, is called constitution.
→ Religious Freedom: the freedom to follow any religion of one’s choice.
→ Revolution: a sudden activity that manifests itself illegally or by use of force with the objective of changing the government or rule, through revolt.
→ Estates Generale: The representative assembly in France during the reign of kings. Its members included the elite class, the clergy, the intellectual class and common citizens.
→ Palerma: Institution in France that registered laws.
→ Civil Constitution of Clergy: Constitution enforced for priests in France
→ Republic: ruling or governance system based on mandate and representation of the people.
→ Gullotine: a kind of machine invented by Dr Gullotine. It was a saw-toothed implement hung between two pillars on which the head of a criminal was kept to sever it from the body.
→ Bastille: Fortress and prison located in the eastern part of Paris. This fortress was used more as a prison. It was destroyed by a violent angry mob on July 14, 1789.
→ Monarchy: rule of king or such ruling system that was based on power and sword. The ruler in a monarchy was normally not answerable to the people.
→ Nation: Nation is a group of such people who share a common culture, territory and sovereign power.
→ Religion: Life values (ethics) that are ideal for a person to embrace, such is forgiveness, compassion, truth etc.
→ Carbonneirri: A secret organisation established in 1810 under Italy’s leadership. Its main objective was to expel foreigners from Italy and to establish legitimate independence.
→ Young Italy: The organisation founded by Mazzini in 1831. This organsation had three slogans: have faith in God, all brothers unite, and free Italy
→ Christopher Columbus: Italian native, he discovered the continents of North and South America. He had set out to discover India, but reached America.
→ Ptolemy: Author of treatise titled ‘Geography5. He proposed that the earth is round.
→ Thomas Paine: Author of book titled ‘Common Sense’. He evoked the spirit of patriotism amongst American people.
→ John Hancock: The President of second continental congress. This convention was held on May 10, 1775 in Philadelphia, America.
→ George Washington: The great freedom fighter of America. He became the first President of America after indepenence.
→ Richard Henry: He put forward the resolution of American independence in the Continental Congress.
→ Louis XVI: King of France during the French Revolution.
→ Voltaire: Leading philosopher of France. He held the luxurious lifestyle and decadence of the Church responsible for the corruption prevalent in France.
→ Napoleon Bonaparte: He became the emperor of France in 1804. He annexed many European countries and integrated them into France. He was defeated in the battle of Waterloo in 1815.
→ Didero: French philosopher who emphasised establishment of an ideal society in France.
→ Rousseau: Famous philosopher. His book ‘Social Contract’ emphasised the freedom of man. He was the propounder of the principles of liberty, equality and fraternity.
→ Montesque: Famous philosopher, who gave the principle of ‘separation of powers’.
→ Robbespiere: Disciple of famous French philosopher Rousseau. He established a regime of terror in France.
→ Bismarck: Prime Minister of Germany. He very ably managed the unification of Germany.
→ Mazzini: Young Italian revolutionary. He found an organisation named ‘Young Italy5 in 1831.
→ Cavour: Prime Minister of Sardinia Peidmont state of Italy. He was of the opinion that Italy would never gain freedom without foreign mediation.
→ Garibaldi: Freedom fighter of Italy. He made an important contribution to the unification of Italy by founding a patriotic organisation named ‘Red Coats’.