Go through these RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 3 The Renaissance, Reformation Movement and Industrial Revolution in Europe contain important concepts so that students can score better marks in the exam.
Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 3 The Renaissance, Reformation Movement and Industrial Revolution in Europe
→ In between the 13th to 16th century the thinking power, human intellect and vision underwent a revolutionary transformation. This new awakening of consciousness is called renaissance.
→ The time period of renaissance is estimated to be between 1350 to 1550 AD.
→ The word Renaissance has come from the French word Renaissa.
→ For the first time this word was applied for revolutionary changes in Art & Architecture in 16th century in Italy.
→ Renaissance was a kind of intellectual & liberal cultural movement in which human being came out from the bondage of medieval age towards independent and progressive thinking.
→ The birth of new awakening consciousness (Renaissance) took place in Italy. Italy was the main centre of foreign trade through which interaction of western and eastern cultures occurred.
→ The conflict of war between Muslim & Christian world and trade relation & ties with different countries led to the spread of renaissance among people.
→ The renaissance gave place to the concept of logic & reasoning by which scientific innovations for human betterment took place.
→ During the phase of renaissance, the French, Spanish, Portuguese, German, English & Swedish and other regional languages were developed. As a result of this, new literature was created, in which Divine comedy by Dante, Canterbury tales of Chaucer and Leonardo” of Sir Thomas Moore were well known.
→ During renaissance the application of canvas and oil painting as a trend got initiated.
→ The painting of Monalisa, The Last Supper and Virgin of Rocks by Leo nardo da Vinci are the best examples of that time.
→ The architectural style of renaissance period was the combination of ancient Greek and Roman style. The best example of that are-Cathedral of Florence and Saint Peter’s Church.
→ Many new scientific theories & principles came into existence at that time. The best examples are principles of Copernicus and gravitational laws of Newton.
→ In the period of renaissance the philosophical thinkers gave up detachment and spirituality of religious books for the sake of Beauty, Human love and worldly pleasure as the source of life.
→ The renaissance gave freedom of expression to the human being, by which feeling of nationalism developed.
Reformation Movement (Religious Reformation) in Europe
- The people influenced by renaissance during 16th century, tried to stop religious monopoly, to set aside the wrong rituals of church and to end the religious hypocracy and backwardness. This movement that was started was known as Reformation.
- The immediate reason behind the rise of religious reform movement was the sale of apology letters by the Pope that was opposed by Martin Luther.
- The consequences of religious reform movement gave rise to the feeling of nationalism in Europe.
- In order to protect the Catholic Church and to stop the protest and movement, the progressive religious reform movement was started.
- By the spread of education, the field of literature & language developed further. The reformatory movement helped in the developmental movement of economic growth and capitalistic thinking.
- The moral discipline flourished through this movement in the society.
- In England in the years in between 1780 to 1850 AD, the changes in industry and economic structure was known as the industrial revolution.
- The foremost use of the word “Industrial revolution” was made by Gregory Michel of France and Cedric Anganum of Germany.
- According to Davie “Industrial revolution occurred because of the changes that made it possible for humans to give up old methods of production for the manufacturing of goods in industries.
- Britain became the pioneer of industrial revolution.
- Why did industrial revolution begin in Britain?
- Britain had sufficient resourcees, raw materials and investment along with a progressive regime.
- Britain had iron and coal mines.
- The country had the facilities to fulfil demand and supply of production.
- The rise in British population led to increase in demand of things.
- The effectiveness of Business class.
- The availability of money in abundance and the establishment of banking system.
- Political sustenance and good rule.
- Britain’s favourable geographical position.
- The non-interference of local authorities in the market structure.
- By industrial revolution the changes were brought in different sectors of Agriculture.
- The land owner of Yorkshire, JethroTull produced a seed-sowing machine called the seed drill.
- Townshend gave the principal theory of crop cycle.
- In 1793 AD, American resident Withing made the machine to separate straw from grains.
- In 1834 AD, H. McGormak of Cyrus invented the crop cutting machine.
- Cloth Production Field.
- In 1733 AD, a weaver named John, discovered the flying shuttle that accelerated the cloth weaving method.
- In 1764 AD, James Hargreaves invente’d ‘Spinning Jenny5.
- In 1764 AD, Richard Arcbright produced thread making machine named as ‘Water Frame’. Technical changes in iron industry.
- In 1709 AD, Abraham Durby invented the blast furnace in which coke was used for the first time.
- Henry Courts invented the Allodan Furnace, this made possible the production of pure and good iron.
- Between 1800 to 1830 AD, Britain showed healthy growth in iron production.The invention of power from steam.
- The serious problem of water contamination in mines was solved by the invention in 1712 AD of the steam engine.
- In 1769 AD, James Watt produced a low cost and efficient steam engine.
- The changes in public transportation.
- For the transportation of heavy material at low cost, Britain built canals. From 1788 to 1796 AD, 46 projects of canal building were started.
- Wossloy canal, the first one, was built in 1761 AD by James Brindley.
- In 1869 AD, the French Engineer, Ferdinand-de-Lesseps constructed the Suez Canal.
- In 1814 AD, railway engineer, George Stephenson produced the rail engine named ‘Bulchar’.
- In 1825 AD, for the first time in between Stockton and Dodington cities, on a 9 mile long railway track a railway train was run.
- The results of industrial revolution.
- The production capacity increased, as a result, the goods became cheap. The villagers in order to get employed migrated to cities and this increased the population of cities.
- Cottage industries came to an end and as a result therefrom the people had to work in industries.
- Banking system got established and international markets grew.
- The buying and purchasing improved that led to inter-dependency of countries in trade and commerce.
The Renaissance, Reformation Movement and Industrial Revolution in Europe Important Dates and Connected Occurrences/Persons
- 1272 AD – Famous Venetain traveller, Marco Polo reached the court of Mongol King Kublai Khan.
- 11th to 13 th century – Among Muslim and Christian world, a series of wars broke out that were called ‘Crusades’.
- 1350 AD – 1550 AD – In Europe the period of renaissance.
- 1453 AD – Ottoman Turks defeated Constantinople’s by zantine ruler.
- 1455 AD – Johannasen Gutenberg invented the Printing Press.
- 1473 AD – The birth of famous scientist Copernicus.
- 1483 AD – The birth of German reformer Martin Luther.
- 1484 AD – Idealistic and humanistic thinker philosopher Svengalil’s birth at Togenberg province in Switzerland.
- 1509 AD – The supporter of protestant sect Calvin’s birth.
- 1511 AD – A native of Holland, Erasmus created the book titled ‘In Praise of Folly’.
- 1516 AD – Erasmus published the new edition of ‘New Testament’
- 1517 AD – Martin Luther in Germany spread movement against Britain Catholic Church.
- 1519 AD – In a place called Leipzig, the follower of Pope and Luther had arguments, Luther proved the role of Pope in between God and human being to be useless.
- 1520 AD – Martin Luther was ordered by Pope that he should stop his thoughts from getting broadcast/published.
- 1521 AD – In the assembly of Warners, Luther was asked to end the anti-church menages spread by him.
- 1525 AD – Srengali laid roots of improvements in church.
- 1526 AD – The first religious gathering of Spear tried to get solutions for religious sects.
- 1529 AD – In Spear the second religious assembly or gathering was organized.
- 19th April 1529 AD – The supporters of Luther ideology opposed the proposal against the reformation movement that gave acceptance in principal to protestant theory.
- 1530 AD – The Protestants received principal acceptance.
- 1531 AD – In the Civil war of Switzerland, Svengali dies. (Internal insurgency)
- 1534 AD – Ignesius Loyola established ‘Society of Jesus’
- 1546-1555 AD – Internal insurgency in Germany.
- 1555 AD – Between King Ferdinand and Protestants, the agreement of Augsberg happened.
- 1564 AD – Calvin’s death.
- 1709 AD – Abrahim Durby invented Blast Furnace.
- 1712 AD – Thomson Nukeman invented steam engine.
- 1733 AD – A weaver named John invented flying shuttle
- 1761 AD – James Brindley constructed the Worsley canal.
- 1764 AD – James Hargreaves invented spinning jenny.
- 1764 AD – Richard Arkwright produced thread spinning machine named as Water frame.
- 1769 AD – James Watt produced low cost and more effective steam engine.
- 1793 AD – American native Whitton constructed a machine to separate straw from grains.
- 1788-1796 AD – In this period 46 canal projects in England were started.
- 1801 AD – Richard Trevithick constructed ‘Puffing devil engine’ that was called Dragon.
- 1814 AD – Steam Rail engine was constructed that was named ‘Stephenom’s rocket’ and George Stephenson constructed Rail Engine.
- 1825 AD – Between Stockton and Dolygrton in England a railway train was run.
- 1830 AD – Liverpool and Manchester were connected through a railway line.
- 1834 AD – H. Mac Komic of Cyrus invented the crop cutting machine.
- 1869 AD – French engineer Ferdinand T Lesseps constructed the Suez Canal by connecting sea and the Mediterranean and the Red Seas.
The Renaissance, Reformation Movement and Industrial Revolution in Europe Notes Important terms
→ Renaissance: The atmosphere of sadness and vigorlessness in society came to an end and new awakening of consciousness came to be known as Renaissance.
→ Orthodoxy: Ancient illusionary traditions, backwardness and unscientific customs were called Orthodoxy.
→ Scientific observations: In the field of science, important discoveries and inventions are called scientific observation.
→ Crusade: The wars between 11th century and 13th century among Muslim and Christian world are called ‘The Crusades’.
→ Humanitarianism: This is the part of history in which humanity and the life of good deeds are given special importance.
→ Medieval Age: The history of Europe from 5th century to 14th century is called Medieval Age.
→ Letter of forgiveness: Pope X prepared sin redemption letters, after purchasing them any follower of Christian faith could free self from sins. The letters produced by churches were called letter of forgiveness or apology letter.
→ Jesuit: The organization established by Ignasius Loyola to struggle against Protestants of Spain was called Society of Jesus and its followers were called Jesuit.
→ Reformation Movement: This was against Pope’s control and supremacy and church’s evils. For evil faith, blind faith and suppression to be destroyed, a movement started that was called reformation movement.
→ Protestant: Protestant word has come from English word ‘protest’ and its meaning is to revolt. The revolt against Pope is called protestant movement.
→ Interdict: This was a special power or authorization by which any state’s church could be closed.
→ Ladders: The progressive thoughts of John Wycliff and his followers were called Ladders.
→ Industrial Revolution: Industrial revolution related to those changes that came up from machines in productivity, transportation and communication.
→ Canal System: In Europe between 1788 and 1796 AD, 46 new projects of canal development were run. This period was named as the Canal Age.
→ Johannes Gutenberg: Gutenberg was a native of Germany. He invented printing press in the 15th century. He published 150 copies of the Bible in his printing press.
→ Jacob Birkhart: He was a historian of Bresslay university. He emphasized on Renaissance. In 1860 AD Birkhart created the book ‘The Civilization of the Renaissance.
→ Petrarch: Petrarch is called the father of humanitarianism. He criticized blind faith and religious orthodoxy in life.
→ Dante: Italy’s native of Florence, Dante (1265-1321) is called the messenger of renaissance. He created the books ‘Divine Comedy’ and ‘The Monarchy’.
→ William Shakespear: Shakespear (1564-1616 AD) was a great poet and narrator. His prominent plays are ‘Merchant of Venice’, Romeo Juliet, Hamlet and Macbeth.
→ Erasmus: He was a resident of Holland. His work ‘In the Praise of Folly’ was about humour on life of equality.
→ Machiaveli: Machiaveli (1469-1527) is called modem Chanakya because he reformed the political principles and wrote a book named ‘The Prince’.
→ Leonardo Da Vinci: Leonardo Da Vinci was Ital/s famous painter, sculptor, scientist, mathematician, engineer, musician and historian. He produced ‘the last supper’ a world famous painting and ‘Mona Lisa’.
→ Copernicus: Copernicus was a famous scientist, who declared that earth along with other planets of solar system revolves round the sun.
→ Newton: Newton was a British scientist and mathematician. He propounded the theory of laws of Gravitation.
→ Galelio: Galelio was a native of Italy. He invented the principle of pendulum, wind measurement instrument and telescope.
→ John Wycliff: John Wycliff (1320-1384) was employed at Oxford University. He was a progressive thinker and forward thinking person. He is called the ‘Morning Star of Reformation.
→ Martin Luther: Martin Luther (1483-1546) was a young German Monk. In 1517 AD he wrote the holy text ‘Ninety Five Thesis’ and revolted against Catholic Church.
→ John Hans: John Hans (1369-1415 AD) was a resident of Bohemia. He supported the thoughts and sayings of John Wycliff.
→ Sevonrola: Sevonrola (1452-1488) was a native of Florence. He believed that religious authorities must live straight, simple and religious life. He opposed the tenets of Pope and for this he was given punishment and burnt alive.
→ Svengali: Svengali (1484-1531) was a contemporary historian. He was born in 1484 AD at Toggenburg in Switzerland. He was idealistic and humanistic thinker and ancient history lover. In 1525 AD he established reformist church.
→ Calvin: Calvin (1509-1564) was a native of France. He supported the establishment of protestant sect. He created the book ‘Institute of the Christian Religion’.
→ James Watt: He was native of England. He invented the steam engine in 1764 AD.