RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 1 World’s Major Civilizations

Go through these RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 1 World’s Major Civilizations contain important concepts so that students can score better marks in the exam.

Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 1 World’s Major Civilizations

→ History of primitive human beings (History of early humans)

→ Modern civilized human life is the result of a long and continuous development.

→ From the emergence of humans to the present, many civilizations in the world have developed and collapsed.

→ The evolutionary period of the primordial is believed to be 5,00,000-500 B.C., on the earth. This period of human development is known as ‘Ice age’.

→ Prehistoric carved human relics have been found in the form of old tools, pottery, shelters, human and animals bones.

→ The prehistoric humans hunted animals and collected products from plants to obtain food.

→ About 10,000 years ago, the primitive man started to developing rapidly.

→ In the course of human development, a reflective, intelligent and knowledgeable human was born who walked on the ground, and this species was called homosapiens.

Stone Age

  • In stone age, humans stone tools were divided in three parts: Kuthar, gandase, rohani or shalkar (peeling) tools.
  • Stone tools have been obtained from many places in Europe, Asia and Africa.
  • The bowman used the arrow and the spear to fight with their enemy and hunt animals.
  • In the later stone age, hunting and collecting fruits from the forests were the main human activities.
  • In later stone age, humans also learned to get support from fellow humans in finding food.
  • The status of men and women during the stone age was equal.
  • In stone age humans made pictures by drawing lines on the walls of caves.
  • Stone age man made stone tools for himself and used to wear ivory ornaments, stones and shells, as earrings and wrist-bands.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 1 World’s Major Civilizations

Neolithic Era

  • In the Neolithic period, man reared cattle farming and agricultural activities began. Evidence of which has been obtained from Thailand, Arabia and Iran.
  • Neolithic humans started living in homes built of clay, wooden pillars and grass pallets, etc.
  • In this period, animals were reared mainly to obtain milk and meat.
  • The main tool used by humans in this period was a smooth axe made of granulated stone.
  • In this period, humans started making pottery for storing food and cooking.
  • In this period, humans began wearing flax, cotton and wool, due to which social life improved.
  • In Neolithic times, the human worshipped the sun, moon, stars and other powers of nature, and dead people were buried.
  • Neolithic settlements have revealed small female statues of clay which were called ‘Matradevi’.
  • The Neolithic man invented the wheel and first used it for making pottery, after which the wheels were used to pull the cart.

Metal Era

  • The discovery and use of metals is an important event in the history of mankind. The metals were used to make various stensils, tools and weapons.
  • As a result of the spread of human civilization, trade started between different parts of the world and produce exchange (bartering) was replaced by currency exchange.

Ancient Civilization of Egypt

  • The origin and growth of ancient Egyptian civilization occurred in the Nile Valley.
  • Egypt is a country irrigated by the Nile and located in the north-west of the continent of Africa. It is called ‘Gift of the Nile’.
  • Political unity in Egypt was originally conceived by king Menes.
  • The ancient Egyptian society was developed but inequality was seen in the society.
  • In Egyptian society, the ruler had the highest status. The ruler was called ‘Pharaoh’ here.
  • The Egyptian society was mainly divided into three sections, (i) The Elite (ii) Middle class (iii) Poor class.
  • The feudal lords and priests formed the upper class, in middle class there were clerks, traders, crafsmen, intellectuals, artisans and some independent farmers and the farmers’, workers and slaves were included in the lower classes.
  • The basic unit of Egyptian society was the family, in which parents, sibling, sons and daughters lived together.
  • In the civilization of Egypt, women had great respect. They had enough social freedom.
  • The people of Egypt used wheat, rice, oil seeds, meat and various types of vegetables in their diet.
  • In the civilization of Egypt, music, dance, jugglery, animal fights, dice games, etc. were the means of entertainment.
  • Religion had a prominent place in the lives of ancient Egyptians.
  • The chief deities of Egyptians were Umanray (sun), orisis (son of sun) and sin (Moon).
  • Egyptians believed that after death the soul resides in the body, so they preserved the body with the help of different spices which was called ‘Mummy’.
  • Huge stone structures were built for the protection of dead bodies by the Egyptians, which are called ‘pyramids’.
  • The main occupation of the people of Egypt was agriculture. Major agricultural crops were wheat, barley, peas, mustard, figs, olives, dates, flax and grapes.
  • Egyptians also used to eat the bull, mule, horse, goat, sheep, donkey, poultry and duck.
  • In Egypt, skilled craftsmen working on metal, wood, clay, glass, paper and cloth were present.
  • The trade of Egypt was through the Nile river. It used to export foodgrains, utensils, glass products, paper and furniture and important metals, wood, colours, spices, sandalwood, and ornaments.
  • The rulers of Egypt were considered to be the representatives of the Sun god. They were called ‘pharaohs’.
  • There was a council named ‘Sarie’ to assist in their work.
  • There were provisions for severe punishments in Egyptian society.
  • Among Egyptian pyramids, the one made in Giza for Khafu is world famous.
  • There was also a substantial development of the art of sculpting in Egypt. The Great Sphinx situated before the pyramid of Giza is the world’s largest statue.
  • Excellent samples of Egyptian painting are found in the form of paintings made with various colours on the walls inside the pyramids and temples.
  • The ancient pictographic script of Egypt is called ‘Heiroglyphics’.
  • The Egyptians had made their calendar on the basis of stars and Sun and calculated 360 days in a year.
  • The science of preserving dead bodies by placing the dead bodies in medicinal spices was prevalent in Egypt.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 1 World’s Major Civilizations

Ancient Babylonian Civilization

  • In present Iraq, civilizations like Sumeria, Babylonia, Assyria etc. were developed between Dajla and Farhat rivers.
  • The ruler of Babylonia, Hammurabi, made a code of law for his people, which was engraved on a 8 feet high rock.
  • Throughout the reign of Hammurabi, the entire empire was divided into several provinces, which were governed by to the feudal lords.
  • The concept of Hammurabi’s penal code was ‘tit for tat’ and ‘blood for blood’.
  • The Babylonian society was divided into upper class, middle class and lower or slave class, whose members were called Avilambh, Mascenam and Aradu.
  • Family life in the Babylonian society was patriarchal but women had a respectable place.
  • The main food of the people of Babylonian civilization was foodgrains, fruit, milk, meat and fish. People were entertained by music and dance.
  • Babylonian society believed in gods and goddesses. The chief gods and goddesses were Ann (Akash), shamas (sun), sin (Moon), Bael (Earth), etc.
  • The main sources of livelihood of the people of Babylonian civilization was agriculture and animal husbandry. The land here was fertile.
  • In this civilization the main industries were, making garments, making cotton yarn, making pottery, making sculptures, making metal weapons and jewellry, and making wooden items.
  • The people of Babylonia used to import mainly luxury items, timber, lead, bronze, copper, gold and silver.
  • A building named ‘Ziggurut’ was a typical example of Babylonian architecture.
  • Babylonian sculptures are more famous for the finesse of artistry. The statues were a mixed shape of animals and humans.
  • The main themes of the Babylonian paintings were wild animals and birds.
  • The people of Babylonia were music lovers. These people played a variety of musical instruments.
  • The people of Babylonia developed the Sumerian alphabet script. This script used articles, symbols, signs and images.
  • The residents of this place created the world’s first epic, which is known as ‘Gilgamesh’.
  • The achievements of the people of Babylonia in the field of science were important, they made calculations based on the decimal and schematic system
  • The people here had a lot of interest in astrology. This learning was only with the priests.
  • The Babylonian knew the right time of sunrise, sunset, moonrise and moonset.
  • They calculated the day and night time and divided it in 24 hours. 1 (one) minute of 60 seconds and 1 (one) hour of 60 minutes further divided the day.

Ancient Civilization of China

  • The rise of China’s civilization occurred in the lower basin of the ‘Hummany-Ho’ (Hwang Ho) river.
  • China has been ruled by the Shung, Chang, Ming and Han dynasty. The oldest dynasty was Shung dynasty.
  • In China, the king was considered as the son and representative of God. He was the highest authority of religion, governance justice and law.
  • The Chinese Empire was divided into several parts. The ‘Gram’ (village) was the smallest unit of the local body.
  • In China, there was a public service commission for the selection of administrative officers, which regularly conducted competitive examinations.
  • The Great Wall of China is a world famous specimen of ancient Chinese architecture.
  • Chinese painters liked making images of natural scenes instead of human figures. The art of painting was very advanced during the Han dynasty’s rule.
  • Chinese artists were very skillful in making bronze objects. These were also used for decoration and embellishment.
  • The society of ancient China was divided into several classes, namely mandarin, agriculturist, artisan, businessman and military men.
  • There was a joint family tradition in Chinese Society. The head of the family was an old man.
  • The situation (condition) of women in ancient times was quite respectable in China. The situation of women deteriorated as compared to men with passage of time. They started to be seen property of men, and the parda system and divorce system were also popular.
  • In Chinese civilization, eating and living were also divided on the basis of classes. In the lives of Chinese people, there was a special place for festivals, fairs and rituals.
  • The major religions of ancient China were Taoism and Confucianism. The people here were worshippers of holy and natural powers.
  • Confucius, Laotse, Motesu and Mentheus were the main thinkers of China who taught the lessons of love, cooperation and tolerance.
  • The main occupation of the Chinese was agriculture. These people used to cultivate wheat, rice and tea. Sheeps, pigs, cows, bulls, dogs were pets. Irrigation was done by canals.
  • The main activities under the Chinese handicraft industry were silk preparation, knit fabric, paper-making pottery-making, etc.
  • Chinese cities were the main centers of trade. Business (trade) was done by both water and land routes.
  • The invention of paper, printing press, ink, gunpowder, painting, kutubnuma, water wheel and water clock was also done by the Chinese.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 1 World’s Major Civilizations

Indus Valley civilization

  • The Indus-Saraswati civilization developed in India in the land between the Indus and its tributaries and the Saraswati river.
  • The main sites of Indus-Saraswati civilization like Harappa, Mohanjodaro, Ganeriwal, Kotadiji etc., are located in Pakistan and Kalibanga, Rakhighari, Dholavira, Rangpur and Lothal are in India.
  • The period of Indus Saraswati civilization is believed to be between 5000 BC to 3000 BC.
  • The Indus Saraswati civilization was famous for its town planning.
  • The management of water and drainage was a major feature of this civilization. This civilization was the best symbol of urban cleanliness.
  • Huge baths, the great Granary, dock (Harbour), reservoir, huge stadium were the most important features of this civilization.
  • The society of the Indus-Saraswati civilization was made up of people who worked in different types of occupations.
  • Family was the main unit of the society of Indus-Saraswati civilization. Women had respect in family and society.
  • People of this civilization used to eat wheat, barley, rice, milk, meat, etc., in their diet.
  • People of Indus Saraswati civilization also engaged in animal husbandry as well as agriculture. They used to cultivate wheat, barley, rice, sesame, etc. The cow had a great importance at that time.
  • The residents here were skilled in making pots and tools of copper and bronze as well as in the art of making glazed clay pottery.
  • In this civilization, internal and foreign trade was in an advanced state. The commodity exchange system for trade was prevalent.
  • People of this civilization were worshippers of natural powers. They worshipped mother godness and Shiva.
  • Agni vedika has been found in the excavation of Kalibanga, Lothal, Banawal and Rakhigiri, which shows that there should have been the practice of ‘Yagya’ and ‘Agnipooja’.
  • In this civilization, the cremation of a dead person was performed by burying or cremating the dead body.
  • We do not get any clear information about the political system of Indus-Saraswati civilization.
  • The remains of this civilization include the highest number of clay statues.
  • The pieces obtained in the relics of this civilization are manufactured from the shelkhari. These artifacts have been found in city locales only.
  • More than 2500 artifacts are available from the Indus-Saraswati civilization as of now. Approximately 419 pictures of the Indus script have been identified.

Greek civilization

  • Greece is the first European country, where civilization was developed.
  • According to an estimate the Greek civilization was originated in about 1500 B.C.
  • The inhabitants of Greece lived in Tribes and the lord of many tribes was the king.
  • Among many city states of Greece, the two major cities were Sparta and Athens. Sparta had military rule while in Athens there was democracy.
  • A battle took place between Greeks and Persians at a place named Marathon. Greece won this war.
  • After the loss of Athens, the ruler of Macedonia. Philip occupied most of the states of Greece.
  • Alexander’s commander Talmi made a temple of Goddess of arts, literature and education in Sinduriya.
  • Homer of Greece wrote the famous epics Iliad and Odyssey.
  • Many political and social principles were developed in ancient Greece. Democritus, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle etc., were the main plilosophers of Greece.
  • After the victory of Alexander, there was a lot of progress in science in Greece. Alexandria became a famous center of the study of medicine.
  • The best examples of Greek architecture and sculpture are seen in their temples. Parthenon temple of Athena is the best example of Greek architecture.
  • The Greeks had a great respect for human beauty and courage.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 1 World’s Major Civilizations

Roman Civilization

  • The main center of Rome’s civilization was Italy. The first inhabitants of Italy came from North Africa, Spain and France and settled here.
  • The establishment of the city of Rome took place in the district of Latium in the south of the Tiber River in approximately 1000 BC.
  • In ancient Rome there was a king, a council and a senate for administration.
  • There were several wars between the inhabitants of Carthage city on the northern coast of Africa and Rome.
  • Julius Caesar was a brilliant general of Rome, who suppressed all his opponents and established peace and order.
  • Julius Caesar’s adoptive son, Octavian, won the Actium war and became the sole owner of Mediterranean countries. He became famous as Augustus Caesar.
  • Constantine was a good natured, moderate, discriminate, efficient and thoughtful ruler. He built a new, huge capital for the Roman Empire named Constantinople.
  • Most of the early residents of Rome took up farming and animal husbandry and used clay and wooden utensils.
  • Life of slaves was very difficult. After working hours, they were kept locked in cells.
  • Ancient Rome was the biggest propounder of law and governance in the world. The ruler of Rome could mostly establish union governance in his large wide empire because of his law and governance.
  • There was considerable development in philosophy, art, literature, architecture, science, etc. in ancient Rome.
  • Roman civilization collapsed due to imperialism.

World’s Major Civilizations Important Dates and Events

  • 500000 BC-5000 BC – Human development period. Early civilization began to emerge in some parts of the world.
  • 5000 BC-3000 BC – The period of Indus Saraswati civilization (Based on the evidence obtained from new excavation).
  • 3400 BC – King Minis unified the states of Egypt.
  • 3400 BC-2160 BC – Pyramid era or ancient kingdom in Egypt.
  • 3000 BC – Cotton began to be grown in the Indus valley.
  • 2300 BC-1750 BC – The period of Indus Saraswati civilization (on the basis of radiocarbon dating).
  • 2160 BC-1580 – BC The feudal era or medieval kingdom in Egypt.
  • 2123 BC-2081 BC – Medieval kingdom in Egypt. The ruling period of Hammurabi, ruler of the Amorite dynasty of Babylonia.
  • 1766 BC-1122 BC – Rule of the Shung dynasty in China.
  • 1600 BC – A man from Babylonia made a map of Shasta Alza province in a square inch.
  • 1580 BC-1650 BC – Era of empires and new state in Egypt.
  • 1122 BC-225 BC – Chang dynasty’s rulers reigned in China.
  • 604 BC – Chinese thinker Laotse was born in Hunan province of China.
  • 551 BC – Confucius, birth in China’s ‘Lou’ province.
  • 469 BC-429 BC – The summit of the advancement of Athen’s democracy under the leadership of Pericles.
  • 378 BC-288 BC – Promoting the views of Confucius by a Chinese philosopher named Maunshiyas.
  • 332 BC – Alexander exercises control over Egypt.
  • 326 BC – Alexander defeated king Porus on the banks of the Jhelum river on the border of India.
  • 264 BC-146 BC – The wars between Carthage and Rome, known as the Punic wars.
  • 225 BC-203 BC – Chang dynasty rule over China.
  • 203 BC-220 AD – Han dynasty rule over China.
  • 200 BC – Crossing the Alps mountain, the people who spoke the Indo-European languages, start settling in Rome.
  • 44 BC – Roman Emperor Julius Caesar was murdered by followers of Pompiee Ceccius and Brutus.
  • 31 BC-14AD – The reign of Augustus Caesar in Rome.
  • 618 AD – Kaotse established the Tang dynasty in China.
  • 960 AD – Chao Kuang Ching of the Shung Dynasty in China founded the new dynasty.
  • 1921 AD – Raibahadur Dayaram Sahni discovered the archaeological mound located on the left bank of river Ravi which flows near the town of Harappa in Montgomery district of undivided India.
  • 1922 AD – Rakhal Das Banerjee discovered Mohanjodaro, a mound located on the eastern bank of the Indus river flowing in the Larkana district of undivided India.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 1 World’s Major Civilizations

World’s Major Civilizations Notes Important Terms

→ Civilization: The world literally means the rules of discipline of those human behaviours, which allow humans to conduct collective life in society.

→ Culture: The meaning of culture is a way of living, behaviour, finding a better way of earning a living, finding new knowledge, expressing your thoughts in art and literature.

→ Archeology: Antiquities of ancient times on whose basis the old unknown history is established.

→ Archeologist: The scholars who carry out the excavations of the dunes and ruins to highlight the daily life of ancient humans and their occupations.

→ Carbon-14: In all things, one type of radioactive Carbon-14 always remains.

→ Carbon-14 Method: The quantity of Carbon-14 contained in an object is detected by the scientists which can tell us how old an object roughly is.

→ Small amounts: In middle stone age (Mesolithic age) people used small tools, they were known as small amount.

→ Dhankavarka Faju Pradesh: In the world first of all, agricultural work began on the borders of the deserts of Thailand, Arabia and Iran, in the valley where there was no shortage of water. This is called Dhankavarka Faju Pradesh.

→ Mixed farming: Neolithic people started farming as well as animal husbandry. This was called mixed farming.

→ Total sign: For a separate identity of its existence, if any group of families had assumed the shape of an animal or plant as sign of its caste or group, it was called the total sign of that group.

→ Mother Goddess: In Neolithic age small female statues of clay were found in settlements which were called Mother Goddess.

→ Chalcolithic period: The time in which man used stone and copper together, is called the chalcolithic period.

→ Lifeline of Egypt: The Nile river is said to be the Lifeline of Egypt.

→ Pharaohs: The kings of Egypt were called Pharaohs.

→ Pyramid: In the civilization of Egypt, huge structures were made for the protection of dead bodies, which were called pyramids.

→ Mummy: In Egyptian civilization, the dead bodies kept in the pyramids, were called ‘Mummies’. They were kept preserved with the help of special spices.

→ Aman-Ray: In northern Egypt, the sun was called ‘Aman-Ray’.

→ Osiris: In the civilization of Egypt, the representative of the sun on earth was known as ‘Osiris’.

→ Nom: In the civilization of Egypt, the province was named ‘Nom’.

→ Nomen/Nomark: In Egyptian civilization, the provincial officer was known as ‘Nomen’ or ‘Nomark’.

→ Hieroglyph: Egypt’s ancient pictorial script is called ‘Hieroglyph’.

→ Mesopotamia: In present the land situated in between the Dajla-Farhat rivers in Iraq, was called Mesopotamia.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 1 World’s Major Civilizations

→ Abelam: In high class of Babylonia society, there were ministers, landlords and merchants etc., who were called Abelam.

→ Mascenum: The middle-class members of the Babylonian civilization were known as Mascenum.

→ Aardu: The lower class of the Babylonian society, which consisted of slaves was called Aardu.

→ Ann: Ann was considered to be the Akash devta (Sky God).

→ Shamas: Sun God of the inhabitants of Babylonia

→ Sin: Moon God of the inhabitants of Babylonia.

→ Bell (Beil): Name given to Earth by inhabitants of Babylonia.

→ Nigengal: In Babylonian civilization, the wife of Moon God was worshiped in the name of Nigengal.

→ Marduck: God of agriculture in Babylonian civilization, which later became the God of storm.

→ Ziggurat: The buildings of Babylonian civilization, which were conceived as goddess Venus.

→ Sumerian alphabetic script: Script adopted by people of Babylonia.

→ Gilgamesh: The world’s first epic, written in the Babylonian civilization.

→ Hummany-Ho (Hwang-Ho): The river of China which is known as Hummany Ho (Hwang-Ho), yellow river, wandering river, China’s sorrow and the river of thousand curses.

→ Heen: In the Chinese civilization a group of villages was called ‘Heen’ (Hein)

→ Mandarin: Class of scholars in China were called ‘Mandarin’.

→ Shang-V: Sky-god worshipped by people of Chinese civilization.

→ Hou-To: Earth goddess, worshipped by people of Chinese civilization.

→ E-Chin: Book of philosophy written by Chinesee philosopher Confucious.

→ Shi-Ching: Chinese poetry texts written by Confucius.

→ Di-Ching: Book of virtue written by Confucius.

→ Shu-Ching: Documents of history written by Confucius.

→ Lunuchaui: The text made by the disciples of Confucius through his teachings and principles has been called Lunuchaui.

→ Taoism: Chinese thinker Laotse’s ideology is called Taoism.

→ Indus River: River originated from the Sengenkhb Singhukn glacier located in the north of Kailash Mansarovar in Tibet.

→ Saraswati River: River originated from the Shivalik hills. At present the river does not exist physically.

→ Zeus: Zeus was the god of heaven in Greek civilization.

→ Posideon: The god of the sea in Greek civilization.

→ Athena: The goddess of victory in Greek civilization.

→ Tyrant: The dictator is known as Tyrent in Greek civilization.Their rise was due to the struggle among the Landlords, Middle and poor class.

→ Apollo: Sun god worshipped in Greek civilization.

→ Lyrics: The small Greek poems were called lyrics in Greek civilization.

→ Sophocles: The exponent of the Third ideology of Greek philosophy in Greek civilization. They believed that there is no absolute truth in the world.

→ Pumic War: A series of wars between the inhabitants of Rome and the residents of Carthage in the north coast of Africa, between 264 BC and 146 BC, were called the Pumic wars.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 1 World’s Major Civilizations

→ Julian Calender: The calendar modified by Roman king Julius Caesar. This has ten months in a year.

→ Gladiator: Swordsmen fighting other men and animals participating in competitions in Rome’s civilization were called Gladiators.

→ Iliad: An epic written by Homer in Greek civilization.

→ Herodotus: Famous historian who called Egypt The boon of the Nile.

→ Miniz: The Egyptian ruler who unified the different states of Egypt in 3400 BC.

→ Maxmuller: Famous historian, he said women had great respect in Egyptian civilization.

→ Hepseptus: Queen of Egypt, who was expert in painting.

→ Shampolpi: French scholar who got success in reading all the letters of Egyptian script.

→ Hammurabi: He was the sixth ruler of Amorite dynasty. He rulled for 42 years (2123-2081 BC).

→ N.D. Margon: Famous French scholar. He discovered the inscribed column of Hammurabi’s code.

→ Kaotse: Chinese ruler who established Tang dynasty in 618 AD.

→ Kunai-Cheih: Famous painter of Hann (Haan) dynasty in Chinesee civilization.

→ Confucius: Famous Chinese philosopher. He was born in 551 BC in the elite caste family of China’s ‘Lu’ state.

→ Laotse: Chinese philosopher. He was born in Hunan province of China in 604 BC.

→ Mancius: Chinese philosopher. He spread the ideas of Confucius from 378 BC to 228 BC.

→ Metesu: Chinese philosopher, minister of the Shung state. He was a pacifist and great economist.

→ Sous-sa-chayen: First Chinese historian.

→ Dayaram Sahani: Famous archeologist. In 1921, he discovered the archaeological mound located an the left bank of the river Ravi which flows near the town of Harappa in Montgomery district of undivided India.

→ Rakhal Das Banetjee: Famous archeologist. In 1922 he discovered Mohanjodaro, a mound located on the eastern bank of the Indus river flowing in the Larkana district of undivided India.

→ Homer: Famous Greek poet. He wrote the famous epics Iliad and Odyssey.

→ Pericles: Great democratic leader of Greece. By his reforms Athens expanded and strengthened democracy.

→ Philip: The king of Macedonia. After the defeat of Athens he took control of most of the Greek states.

→ Alexander: Son of king Philip. Alexander went on to win the world when he was 20 years old. He defeated king Porus on the banks of Jhelum in 326 BC.

→ Seleucus: Commander of Alexander. He invaded India but Chandragupta Maurya defeated him.

→ Ptolemy: Alexander’s commander. Later he became the ruler of Egypt, Palestine and Phoenicia

→ Saifo: Great poetess of Greece. She sang songs on love and nature.

→ Ashilus: He was the writer of tragedy play. He wrote ’Prometheus bound.’

→ Sophavales: Best Tragedy Play author of Greece. She wrote Eeclipus Revas, Antigon and Ilotno.

RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 1 World’s Major Civilizations

→ Socrates: Famous Greek philosopher. He believed that right knowledge shows the path of right conduct and happiness.

→ Plato: Pupil of famous philosopher Socrates. He wrote the text ‘Republic’. In his book he imagined an ideal society.

→ Aristotle: He was a student of Plato’s Academy. He contributed significantly to the field of philosophy, medicine, zoology and astrology.

→ Hippocrates: Medical practitioner of Greece. He is known as the father of medical science.

→ Micron: Famous sculptor of Greece. His most famous masterpiece is the statue of discus thrower.

→ Fieclius: Famous sculptor of Greece. His most famous masterpiece is the statue of Harmuz, in which he is depicted as carrying a baby dinosour.

→ Hannibal: Commandar of Carthage. Carthage was defeated by Rome under his leadership.

→ Julius Caesar: General (ruler) of Rome. He was a versatile and talented soldier, administrator, legislator and politician.

→ Octavian: Ruler of the Mediterranean countries. He became famous by the name of Augustus Caesar.

→ Constantine: Ruler of Roman empire. He built a new huge capital for the Roman empire named Constantinople.

→ Virgil: Great poet of Rome. He wrote a text named Illiad

→ Tacitus: Famous historian of Rome. He described the chaos and corruption of his time in his famous book ‘Annals and Histories’.

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