RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 National Movement

Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 National Movement

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 National Movement

RBSE Class 8 Social Science National Movement InText Questions and Answers

(Activity)
(Page 157)

Question 1.
Prepare a list comprising of the countries which became free from British Rule, after the freedom of India.
Answer:
After the independence of India, the British rule from the following countries of the world came to an end.

The list of such countries is given below :

  • Burma,
  • Sri Lanka,
  • Malaya,
  • Sudan,
  • Ghana,
  • United Arab Republic,
  • Somali,
  • Nigeria,
  • Tanzania,
  • Uganda, RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 National Movement
  • Kenya,
  • Zanibar,
  • Nyasaland,
  • Zambia,
  • Gambia,
  • Mauritius,
  • Guyana,
  • Botswana,
  • Lisotho,
  • Barbados,
  • Girinada,
  • Roshels,
  • Zimbabwe,
  • Wellis,
  • Antigua.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 National Movement

(Read and Explain)
(Page No. 159)

Question 2.
What was the reaction of Bengal Dividation (1905) in Surat Conference (1907)?
Answer:

  1. There was a heated debate on the topic of the partition of Bengal at Surat Conference.
  2. Now Indian National Congress was divided into two group—
    • Moderates,
    • Extremists.

The extremists criticized the policy of making demands through application and petition. They laid emphasis that strong steps should be taken against the British Government such as, strikes and economic boycott of the Britishers. The main leaders of the extremists were—Lala Lajpat Rai, Vipin Chandra Paul and Bal Gangadhar.

(Activity)
(Page No 164)

Question 3.
Search the persons related to the Prajamandals and know about the working system of Prajamandals.
Answer:
The main leaders of Jaipur State Praja Mandal were Aijun Lai Sethi, Karpur Chand Patni, Seth Jamnalal Bajaj, Hira Lai Shastri, Chiranji Lai Agrawal, Gulab Chand Kasliwal, Daulat Ram Bhandari, Devi Shankar Tiwari. The main objective of Praja Mandal was to establish responsible Government in Jaipur and safeguard the fundamental rights of the citizens.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 National Movement

When the State Government imposed a ban on the entrance of Seth Jamna Lai in Jaipur State, Jaipur Praja Mandal started a movement against the Government. At last the Government had to remove the ban imposed on Jamna Lai’s entrance in Jaipur State.

(Activity)
(Page No. 166)

Question 4.
Compile the information regarding contribution of these revolutionaries in the Indian freedom movement. (Sukhdev, Rajguru, Ram Prasad Bismil, Chandra Shekhar Azad, Chapekar Brothers etc.)
Answer:

  1. Sukhdeo—Sukhdeo was bom in 1907. He was a member of the ‘Hindustan Socialist Republican Association’ He was hanged on 23 March, 1931 along with Bhagat Singh and Rajguru. RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 National Movement
  2. Rajguru—Rajguru was bom in 1909. He was a close friend of Sardar Bhagat Singh. He shot the Superintendent of Police Saunder dead : on 23 March, 1931, Rajguru was hanged along with Bhagat Singh and Sukhdev.
  3. Ram Prasad Bismil—Ram Prasad Bismil was a great revolutionary leader. On 9 August, 1925, ten revolutionaries under the leadership of Ram Prasad Bismil, plundered the Government treasury at Kakori near Lucknow. This is known as ‘Kakori Case’. But at last they were arrested. Ram Prasad Bismil was sentenced to death.
  4. Chandra Shekhar Azad—Chandra Shekhar Azad was born in 1906. He founded the ‘Hindustan Republican Association’. He participated in many revolutionary activities. He had exploded a bomb in Central Assembly along with Sardar Bhagat Singh. On 27 Feb., 1931, he was surrounded by the British Police in Alfred Park at Allahabad. Chandra Shekhar shot him dead; RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 National Movement
  5. Chapekar Brothers—Damodar Chapekar, Balkrishna Chapekar and Hari Chapekar were famous revolutionaries. They are called Chapekar brothers. He inspired the feelings of nationalism and patriotism in the people of Maharashtra. The plague commission of Puna, Rand used to commit atrocities on the IndiAnswer: At this, Chapekar Brothers shot Mr. Rand dead. Chapekar Brothers were arrested and they were hanged.

RBSE Class 8 Social Science National Movement Text Book Questions and Answers

Write the correct answers of questions no.l and 2. in the bracket—

Question 1.
Indian National Congress was established in—
(a) 1885
(b) 1919
(c) 1942
(d) 1905
Answer:
(a)

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 National Movement

Question 2.
First freedom fight was held in—
(a) 1897
(b) 1857
(c) 1947
(d) 1950
Answer:
(b)

Question 3.
Who is the author of ‘Chetavani Ra Chungatya’?
Answer:
Kesari Singh Barhat is the author of “Chetavani Ra Chungatya’.

Question 4.
Write the names of the revolutionaries of Rajasthan.
Answer:
The names of revolutionaries of Rajasthan are—

  • Aijun Lai Sethi,
  • Rao Gopal Singh Kharwa,
  • Kesari Singh Barhat,
  • Pratap Singh Barhat and
  • Jorawar Singh Barhat.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 National Movement

Question 5.
What was the Rowlatt Act?
Answer:
The British Government passed the ‘Rowlatt Act’ in 1919 under which any person who opposed the government, could be sent to jail for a long time.

Question 6.
Who were popular in the names of ‘LaP, ‘Bal, ‘Pal’? Write the names.
Answer:
Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Bipinchandra Pal were popular in the name of Lai, Bal and Pal.

Question 7.
Describe the incident of Massacre held in Jalian Wala Bagh.
Or
Describe the Jalianwala Bagh massacre.
Answer:
On 13th April, 1919, people gathered in Jallian Wala Bagh of Amritsar to protest against the Rowlatt Act. British General Dyer, ordered the people to disperse. But before the people could disperse, the army opened fire on the people. Thousands of innocent people were killed. General Dyer was honoured in England for this act.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 National Movement

Question 8.
Describe about the ‘Civil Disobedience’.
Answer:
In 1930, the Civil Disobedience Movement was started by Mahatma Gandhi. Gandhiji declared that there should be no violence or ill- will in the movement. The British Government adopted a repressive policy to curb the movement but the people remained non-violent and peaceful and continued disobeying the rules of the Government.

Progress of the Movement—The Indians could not make salt without the permission of the British Government. So the people decided to make salt under the leadership of Gandhiji. People in large number marched to Dandi to make salt. The British police attacked the people with lathis but the people tolerated it peacefully.

They continued to march further raising the slogan ‘Bharat Mata ki Jai Impact of the Movement—This movement created an awareness in the whole country. Many film producers and journalists came to India. They told the world how the British Government was committing atrocities on Indian people. Now the people of the whole world came to know that infact the Indian people were fighting to get freedom from the Britishers.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 National Movement

Question 9.
Describe about the ‘Quit India Movement’.
Answer:
Quit India Movement—
There was a great resentment in the people of India against the repressive policies of the British Government. During the Second World War, in 1942, Gandhiji gave the slogan “Britishers, Quit India”. The British Government adopted the repressive policy and arrested all the leaders. This annoyed the people and they began to oppose the British Government with great enthusiasm.

Those people who had not participated in the movement, came forward and began to struggle. All these events took place in August, 1942. Therefore, it is called ‘August Kranti’ or ‘Quit India Movement’. It was a mass movement of the national freedom. It had ah impact on the whole India. The youth participated in this movement in large number.

Question 10.
Describe the main incidents of Indian National Movements.
Answer:

  1. In 1885, A.O. Hume established the Indian National Congress.
  2. Bal Gangadhar Tilak opposed the repressive policies of the British Government. He wrote articles against the British Government in his newspapers ‘Maratha’ and ‘Kesari’. He raised the slogan of ‘Swarajya’. Chapekar brothers killed plague commissioner. Tilak was arrested and sentenced for 18 months of imprisonment.
  3. The British Government partitioned Bengal in 1905. RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 National Movement
  4. In 1907, in Surat Conference, congress was divided into two groups—
    • Moderates,
    • Extremists.
  5. In 1911, the partition of Bengal was cancelled.
  6. On 13th April, 1919 Jallianwala Bagh Massacre took place.
  7. In 1920, the Non-cooperation Movement was started by Gandhiji.
  8. Due to the violence of Chauri-Chaura, in 1922, Gandhiji suspended the Non-cooperation Movement.
  9. Simon Commission came to India in 1928. But the people of India opposed it. Due to the lathicharge, Lala Lajpat Rai became wounded and after sometime he died.
  10. In 1929, Sardar Bhagat Singh exploded a bomb in the Central Assembly. Sardar Bhagat Singh was arrested and hanged on 23 March, 1931. RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 National Movement
  11. In 1930, Civil Disobedience Movement was started by Gandhiji.
  12. In August, 1942, Quit India Movement was launched by Mahatma Gandhi.
  13. In 1943, Subhash Chandra Bose took the command of the Azad Hind Fauz.
  14. There was revolt of the naval soldiers in 1943 against the British Government.
  15. Subhash Chandra Bose died in a aeroplane accident on 18th August, 1945.
  16. The country was partitioned in 1947 and India got freedom on 15th August, 1947.

RBSE Class 8 Social Science National Movement Important Questions and Answers

(I) Objective Questions :

Question 1.
‘Maratha’ and ‘Kesari’ were published by—
(a) Gandhiji
(b) Jawahar Lai Nehru
(c) Bal Gangadhar Tilak
(d) Lala Lajpat Rai
Answer:
(c) Bal Gangadhar Tilak

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 National Movement

Question 2.
Who was the first President of the Indian National Congress?
(a) A.O. Hume
(b) Vyomesh Chandra Banerjee
(c) Surendranath Banerjee
(d) Dada Bhai Naoroji
Answer:
(b) Vyomesh Chandra Banerjee

Question 3.
Bengal was partitioned in
(a) 1911
(b) 1905
(c) 1907
(d) 1917
Answer:
(b) 1905

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 National Movement

Question 4.
Who is known as Father of Extremism?
(a) Gandhiji
(b) Lala Lajpat Rai
(c) Bal Gangadhar Tilak
(d) Bipinchandra Pal
Answer:
(c) Bal Gangadhar Tilak

Question 5.
When did the British Government cancel the partition of Bengal?
(a) 1917
(b) 1907
(c) 1921
(d) 1911
Answer:
(d) 1911

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 National Movement

Question 6.
When was Rowlatt Act imposed?
(a) 1919
(b) 1930
(e) 1927
(d) 1921
Answer:
(a) 1919

(II) Fill in the blanks :

1. On …………………. Indian National Congress was born.
2. …………………. wrote articles against British Government in his newspapers Maratha and Kesari.
3. The incident of partition of Bengal in 1905, regarded as the beginning of …………………. in the country.
4. Bhagat Singh and his friends were hanged on ………………… .
5. The British Government imposed Rowlatt Act in ………………… .
Answer:
1. 28 December, 1885,
2. Bal Gangadhar Tilak,
3. Swadeshi Movement,
4. 23 March, 1931,
5. 1919

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 National Movement

(III) Find out True/False statements in the following questions :

1. A.O. Hume named his new organisation as ‘Indian National Congress’. (✓)
2. Surendranath Baneijee was the first President of the Indian National Congress. (✗)
3. In 1917, in Surat Conference of Congress, Congress was divided in two groups. (✗)
4. On 13th April, 1919, a protesting assembly was held in Jallianwala Bagh at Amritsar. (✓)
5. Simon Commission reached Bombay in 1929. (✗)
Answer:
1. True
2. False
3. False
4. True
5. False.

(IV) Matching Type Questions :

Match Column ‘A’ with Column ‘B’ :

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 National Movement

Column ‘A’ – Column ‘B’
1. Maratha and Kesari 1. Vyomesh Chandra Banerjee
2. First President of Indian National Congress – 2. Bal Gangadhar Tilak
3. Surat Conference of Congress – 3. In 1905
4. Partition of Bengal 4. 1907
5. In 1930, people marched – 5. 1914
6. Beginning of First World – 6. Dandi War .
Answer:
Column ‘A’ Column ‘B’
1. Maratha and Kesari – 2. Bal Gangadhar Tilak
2. First President of Indian National Congress Banerjee – 1. Vyomesh Chandra
3. Surat Conference of Congress – 4.1907
4. Partition of Bengal – 3. In 1905
5. In 1930, people marched to – 6. Dandi
6. Beginning of First World War – 5. 1914

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 National Movement

(V) Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Why did A.O. Hume establish Indian National Congress?
Answer:
A.O. Hume established Indian National Congress to give a legal form to the anti-British movement.

Question 2.
When and where was Indian National Congress bom?
Answer:
Indian National Congress was bom on 28 December, 1885 in Bombay.

Question 3.
Where was the first Congress meeting held?
Answer:
The first Congress meeting was held at Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit College, Govalia Talab in Bombay.

Question 4.
Why is Bal Gangadhar Tilak known as father of Extremism?
Answer:
Bal Gangadhar Tilak showed the path of political movement, hence he is known as the father of Extremism.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 National Movement

Question 5.
Who is known as ‘Lok Manya’?
Answer:
Bal Gangadhar Tilak was known as ‘Lok Manya’.

Question 6.
Why was Bal Gangadhar Tilak called as ‘Lok Manya’?
Answer:
On his arrest, the reaction of the public made Bal Gangadhar Tilak ‘Lok Manya’.

Question 7.
After releasing from the jail, which movement was started by Bal Gangadhar Tilak and when?
Answer:
After releasing from the jail, ‘Home Rule Movement’ was started by Bal Gangadhar Tilak in 1916. ’

Question 8.
Which newspapers were published by Bal Gangadhar Tilak?
Answer:
‘Maratha’ and ‘Kesari’ were published by Bal Gangadhar Tilak.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 National Movement

Question 9.
When was Congress partitioned?
Answer:
Congress was partitioned in 1907 in Surat Conference of the Congress.

Question 10.
Who were the main extremist leaders? By which names they are known as?
Answer:
The main extremist leaders were—

  • Bal Gangadhar Tilak,,
  • Lala Lajpat Rai,
  • Bipin Chandra Pal.

They are known as Bal, Lai, Pal.

Question 11.
What was Rowlatt Act?
Answer:
Rowlatt Act was passed in 1919 under which any person opposing the Government could be sent to jail for a long time.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 National Movement

Question 12.
When did the Jallianwala Bagh massacre take place?
Answer:
Jallianwala Bagh massacre took place on 13 th April, 1919.

Question 13.
Who was responsible for Jallianwala Bagh massacre. By whom was he killed later on?
Answer:
British General Dyer was responsible for Jallianwala Bagh massacre. Later on, he was killed by Udham Singh in London.

Question 14.
When was the non-co-operation movement started and under whose leadership was it started?
Answer:
In 1920, under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, non-co-operation movement was started.

Question 15.
When did Gandhiji suspend the non-co-operation movement and why?
Answer:
In 1922, Gandhiji suspended the non-co-operation movement due to the violent incident of Chauri-Chaura.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 National Movement

Question 16.
What was Chauri-Chaura incident?
Answer:
In 1922, the Satyagrahis attacked a police station in Chauri-Chaura and killed many policemen.

Question 17.
Why did the people of India decide to boycott the Simon Commission9
Answer:
There was not even a single member of Simon Commission an Indian. Hence the people of India decided to boycott this commission.

Question 18.
When was Sardar Bhagat Singh hanged on and why?
Answer:
Sardar Bhagat Singh shot dead the British Police Officer Sanders and exploded a bomb in the central legislative assembly at Delhi. Bhagat Singh alongwith his friends was hanged on 23rd March, 1931.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 National Movement

Question 19.
Write the names of four revolutionaries?
Answer:

  • Sardar Bhagat Singh,
  • Sukh Dev,
  • Raj Guru,
  • Chandra Shekhar Azad.

Question 20.
When was civil disobedience movement started and under whose leadership was it started?
Answer:
In 1930, under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, the civil disobedience movement was started.

Question 21.
Who started Quit India Movement and when?
Answer:
In 1942, Gandhiji started ‘Quit India. Movement’.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 National Movement

(VI) Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
(i) Who are popularly known by the names of ‘Lai’, ‘Bal’ and ‘Pal’? Write their full names.
(ii) What impact was noticed of the Division of Bengal on the Surat Conference (1907).
Answer:
(i) ‘Lai’ was Lala Lajpat Rai from Punjab. ‘Bal’ was Bal Gangadhar Tilak from Maharashtra. ‘Pal’ was Bipin Chandra Pal from Bengal.

(ii) Effect of the partition of Bengal (1905 A.D.) on the Surat Conference (1907 A.D.)—In 1905, the British government partitioned Bengal. It had great impact on the Congress conference at Surat. Now the Congress was divided into two groups. People sent petitions against the partition. One group said that something else must be done rather than pass proposals like—strikes and economic boycott of the English. Then people came to be known as the ‘extremists’. In the Congress Surat Conference was divided into ‘Extremists’ and ‘Moderates’.’

Question 2.
(i) Who wrote ‘Chetawani ra Chungeta’ and why?
(ii) What was Simon Commission? Why was it opposed?
Answer:
(i) Kerher Singh Bareth wrote ‘Chetawani Ra Chungeta’ when Mharana Fateh Singh went to participate in a meeting in Delhi Darbar, then he sent 13 sorthe to prevent Maharana from taking part in it. On reading there 13 soratha, the Maharana did not attend the Darbar despite reaching Delhi.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 National Movement

(ii) Simon Commission the British government sent a commission consisting of six members, in 1928 under the leadership John Commission. It was named as Simon Commission. But no Indian was member of the commission. So the people of India oppossed it.

Question 3.
(i) What was the name of English General responsible for Jallianwala bagh massacre?
(ii) Throw light on the contribution of Hemu Kalani in the “Freedom Movement”.
Answer:
(i) General Dyer was responsible for Jallianwala bagh massacre. Revolutionary Uddham Singh killed General Dyer in London,

(ii) Hemu Kalani was bom at Sikkher in Sindh province on 23 March 1923. Getting impressed by Gandhiji, he participated in the Freedom Movement. He motivated people to boycott foreign goods and use India made goods. In 1942, he got secret information that British government goodstrain ladden with weapons would pass Rohari city (Sindh) but he was spotted by an English soldier and arrested. He was hanged on 21st January, 1943 at Sakhar. While he was being hanged, he shouted slogan ‘Bharat Mata ki Jai’.

Question 4.
What do you know about the establishment of Indian National Congress.
Answer:
Britisher A.O. Hume knew that there was a great resentment in the people of India against the British Government. So to give a legal form to the anti-British movement, he decided to establish Indian National Congress. On 28th December, 1885, Indian National Congress was established in Bombay. In 1885, the first Congress meeting was held at Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit College, Govalia Talab in Bombay. Vyomesh Chandra Banerjee was its first President.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 National Movement

Question 5.
What was the attitude of the British Government towards Indian National Congress?
Answer:
The British Government did not pay any attention to the proposals of Indian National Congress. In addition to this, the Government was searching new methods of teasing its leaders. When a famine occurred in central India in 1890, the Government did not give any relief to the farmers. Instead of it, the Government collected forcibly land tax from the farmers. Inspite of the miserable condition of the farmers, the Government began to export wheat. The plague spread in the central and western India, but Government remained negligent and inactive.

Question 6.
Describe the role of Bal Gangadhar Tilak in the Indian National Movement.
Answer:

  1. Tilak was a great freedom fighter. He criticised the oppressive policies of the British Government in his newspapers ‘Maratha’ and ‘Kesari’ and created a feeling of nationalism in the people.
  2. He showed the path of political movement, and so he is known as the ‘Father of Extremism’. Tilak did not like the policy of begging. He said, “we cannot get anything from the British bureaucrats just by regarding.”
  3. Tilak created a feeling of awakening in the country by organising Shivaji and Ganapati festivals.
  4. Tilak blew the mantra of Swarajya in the people.
  5. When Chapekar brothers murdered the British Plague Commissioner, the British Government arrested Bal Gangadhar Tilak and sentenced him to 18 months imprisonment.
  6. After releasing from Jail, he launched Home Rule Movement. He died in 1920.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 National Movement

Question 7.
Describe the Non-co-operation Movement.
Answer:
The British Government imposed the Rowlatt Act under which any person opposing the Government could be imprisoned by a long time. On 13th April, the Jallianwala Bagh massacre took place. Gandhiji was hurt by these incidents. The people thought that there was no hope of any agreement between them and the Government. So non-co-operation movement was started in 1920 under the leadership of Gandhiji. Thousands of people took part in this Movement. When in 1922, the Satyagrahis attacked a police station at Chauri-Chaura and killed many policeman, Gandhiji suspended the Non-co-operation Movement.

Question 8.
“Sardar Bhagat Singh was a great revolutionary.” Discuss.
Answer:
Sardar Bhagat Singh was a great revolutionary. Police Officer Sanders was responsible for the death of Lala Lajpat Rai. Bhagat Singh was against the repressive policies of the British Government.

Sardar Bhagat Singh and his friendship shot dead the British Police Officer Sanders. They also exploded a bomb in the Central Legislative Assembly. Sardar Bhagat Singh, Sukh Deo and Raj Guru were arrested and hanged on 23rd March, 1931.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 National Movement

Question 9.
Describe the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Answer:
The Indians could not make salt without the permission of the British Government. Gandhiji opposed this policy of the Government. In 1930, he started ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’. Gandhiji alongwith his followers marched to Dandi. On reaching Dandi, he made salt. Gandhiji was arrested. Thousands of people broke the law and made salt at many places. The British police beat the satyagrahis but they remained peaceful and non-violent. They raised the slogan ‘Bharat Mata ki Jai’ and went to jail cheerfully.

Question 10.
Write a short note on Simon Commission.
Answer:
The British Government appointed a commission under the leadership of John Simon. Simon Commission reached Bombay on 3rd February, 1928. There was not even a single member of this commission was an Indian. So there was a great resentment in the people of India. They decided to Boycott the Simon Commission. The British Government adopted the repressive policy to curb the people. In Lahore, a procession was taken out under the leadership of Lala Lajpat Rai to protest against the commission. The police officer Sanders ordered for lathi charge. Due to this, Lala Lajpat Rai became wounded and died after sometime. The people held the British Government responsible for the death of Lala Lajpat Rai.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 National Movement

Question 11.
Write a short note on Bijolia Movement.
Answer:
There was a great resentment in the peasants against the landlords and feudals of Bijolia who used to do atrocities on the innocent peasants. Hence the peasants of Bijolia started a movement against the landlord of Bijolia. The peasants had to pay 84 types of taxes to the landlord of Bijolia. In 1913, the peasants under the leadership of Sadhu Sita Ram opposed these taxes.

In 1916, under the leadership of Vijay Singh Pathik and Manikya Lai Verma, the peasants refused to do forced labour and did not pay the taxes. In the coming times, the peasants from other princely states refused to do forced labour and did not pay taxes. At last the landlord of Bijolia had to accept the main demands of the peasants.

Question 12.
Describe the contribution of Prajamandals in the national movement.
Answer:
Almost in all the princely states, the Praja Mandals, were established. The Praja Mandals raised their voices against the problems of peasants. They also opposed the disorder prevalent in their states. Each princely state demanded the establishment of responsible Government in it. At some places the leaders of Praja Mandal were included in the local a council of ministers when the ‘Quit India Movement started in India in 1942, the Praja Mandals demanded the princely states should break their relations with the Britishers.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 National Movement

Question 13.
What accusations were slapped against Kesari Singh Barahath and what punishment was he given?
Answer:
Kesari Singh Barahath was accused of treason, betrayal, instigating Indian army against the British soldiers. He was also charged with murder of a saint named Pyare Ram. Due to this he was sent to central jail in Hazaribagh from where he was released in 1920.

Question 14.
What was the attitude of Indian National Congress?
Answer:
The. British government did not pay attention to the proposal of Indian Congress. Besides this, the government tried to find different ways to give trouble to the Congress leaders. In this way, the British government had an attitude of prejudice and overlooked the Indian National Congress. It was proved in 1890, when the government did not help the famine victims and realised tax forcefully and had a negligent attitude towards the government at the time of plague in the central India.

Question 15.
What were the impacts of ‘Partition of Bengal’ in National Movement?
Answer:
‘Partition of Bengal’ in National Movement had many impacts. Waves of resentment spread across the country due to the ‘Partition of Bengal’. People sent memorandum to the government, spitting anger. Due to the partition of Bengal, ‘Extremist group’ formed Congress. These people went on strike and had economic sanctions against the British government. Revolutionaries movement also took place due to it. Because of anger and resentment of the people, the British Government had to cancel its policy of 2011 of partition of Bengal.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 National Movement

(VII) Essay Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the roles of Vinayak Damodar Sawarkar and Subhash Chandra Bose in the Indian National Movement.
Answer:
(1) Role of Vinayak Damodar Sawarkar in the Indian National Movement—
Vinayak Damodar Sawarkar was bom on 28 May, 1883 at Bhagror village of District Nasik, Maharashtra. He went to London for higher studies. He began to live in Shyamji Krishna Verma’s ‘India House’ in London. He wrote a book ‘1857 ka Swatantrata Samar’ which was later on banned by the British Government.

Due to his revolutionary activities, the British police arrested him and after sometime he was sent to India by a ship. On the way, he jumped into the sea and reached the border of France. But he was arrested and handed over to the British police. The British Government gave Sawarkar two life imprisonments and sent him to Andaman Nikobar.

He was tortured there by the British Police. He spent 11 years in Cellular jail of Andaman Nikobar and bore all kinds of hardships. After returning from there, he was detained in Ratnagiri (Maharashtra). He was released in 1937. Sawarkar opposed the partition of India. He died on 26 February, 1966.

(2) Role of Subhash Chandra Bose in the Indian National Movement—
Subhash Chandra Bose was a great freedom fighter of Indian National Movement. He was bom on 23 January, 1897. He passed the I.C.S. Examination but did not join the service. He participated in the Indian National Movement. He became the President of the Indian National Congress twice.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 National Movement

In 1943, he took the command of Azad Hind Fauz in his hand and fought for freedom of India directly. In 1944, Azad Hind Fauz fought against the British army under the leadership of Subhash Chandra Bose. In 1946, Indian naval soldiers revolted against the Britishers. Due to these incidents, the British Government became worried and understood that now even the soldier of India do not want to live with the Britishers. On 18 August, 1945, Subhash Chandra Bose died in a plane crash mysteriously.

Question 2.
Describe the role of revolutionaries of Rajasthan in the national freedom movement.
Answer:
Role of revolutionaries of Rajasthan in the national freedom movement—
Role of revolutionaries of Rajasthan in the national freedom movement can be described under the following points—

(1) Arjun Lai Sethi—
Arjun Lai Sethi was bom in 1880 in Jaipur. He passed his B.A. examination from Allahabad University. When Aijun Lai Sethi was offered the part of Prime Minister of Jaipur, he said, “Gentlemen! If Aijun Lai does a job, who will throw the Britishers out.” Aijun Lai established a revolutionary institute ‘Vardhman’ in Rajasthan with the help of Kesari Singh Barhat, Gopal Singh Kharwa etc. Due to Nima’s munder and Delhi conspiracy, the British Government arrested him and put him in Jail.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 National Movement

He was detained in Jaipur and after five years was sent to Vellore Jail. He remained on fast for many days against the misbehaviour of jail authorities. He was released from Jail in 1920 and joined the Congress party but due to ideological differences, he quit it soon. He started teaching Arabic and Persian languages to Muslim children in a mosque in Ajmer as a means of his livelihood. Sethiji died on 22 September, 1941 in Ajmer.

(2) Rao Gopal Singh Kharwa—
Rao Gopal Singh Kharwa of Ajmer. Merwada, was a great revolutionary of Rajasthan. During the first World War, Ras Bihari Bose and Sachindranath Sanyal made a plan of armed revolt in North India. Rao Gopal Singh became associated with this plan but one revolutionary gave the information of the plan to the police. Consequently, this plan failed. In June, 1915, the British Government ordered Rao Gopal Singh to leave Kharwa and in 24 hours and go to Tadgarh.

So he went to Tadgarh. But on 10 July, 1915, Rao Gopal Singh ran away from Tadgarh, but was caught in Salemabad and was sent to Tihar Jail, Delhi. In 1920, he was released from Jail and he began to take part in constructive activities. He died in March, 1956.

(3) Kesari Singh Barhath—
Kesari Singh Barhath was bom in 1872 in Devpura village near Shahpura (Bhilwara). Later on, he went to Maharana of Udaipur. He met Shyamji Krishna Verma, Ras Bihari Bose and other revolutionaries at Udaipur. When Maharana Fateh Singh of Udaipur, decided to participate in Delhi Court, Kesari Singh Barhath sent 13 couplets ‘Chetavani Ra Chungatya’ to Maharana Fateh Singh. Reading these couplets, Maharana Fateh Singh did not participate in Delhi Court.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 National Movement

Kesari Singh Barhath was charged with rebellion, provocation to Indian soldiers of the British army and participation in conspiracy of murdering a saint Pyare Ram. He was sent to Hazari Bagh Central Jail for 20 years from where he was released in 1920. Kesri Singh spent his rest of his life in Kota. He died in 1941.

(4) Pratap Singh Barhath—
Pratap Singh Barhath was the son of Kesari Singh Barhath. He was bom on 24 May, 1893 in Udaipur. Kesari Singh sent Pratap Singh to Aijun Lai Sethi’s ‘Vardhman School’ to study. Soon Pratap Singh began to participate in revolutionary activities. When he was going to Bikaner from Hyderabad (Sindh), the station master of Ashananda railway station, betrayed him and got him arrested. Pratap Singh was kept in Bareilly Jail.

The British officer Charles Cleveland put pressure on Pratap Singh to disclose information about Ras Behari Bose and other revolutionaries but he did not oblige him. The Police Officer Cleveland said, “Your mother is sad about you and sheds tears.” Pratap Singh replied, “You say that my mother weeps for me day and night, and she is very sad, but I cannot become the cause of weeping of hundreds of other mothers.” Pratap Singh was tortured by the Jail authorities, due to which he died in jail on 27 May, 1918.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 National Movement

(5) Jawahar Singh Barhath—
Jawahar Singh was the younger brother of Kesari Singh Barhath. In 1912, Jawahar Singh threw bomb on the procession of Lord Hardings in Delhi. The Viceroy escaped but the Mahout died. Jorawar Singh spent rest of his life in Malwa and Bangad regions as Amardas Bairagi. A warrant had also been issued against Jorawar Singh in Ara Murder case. But Jorawar Singh could not be caught by the British Police.

Question 3.
Throw light on the national movement which took place against the British Rule in the twentieth century. If you were a youth at that time, what would your contribution be to the national movement.
Answer:
National Movement against the British Rule in 20th Century—
Following were the main national movements that took place in 20th century against the British Rule—

  1. Protest against Bengal Division—In 1905 A.D., the British government divided Bengal. This resulted in resentment and anger across the country.
  2. Protest against Rowlatt Act—In 1919 A.D., the British government implemented Rowlatt Act. According to this, anyone protesting against the government could be imprisoned for no definite come. The entire government protested against this act. RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 National Movement
  3. Jallianwala Bagh Massacre—A large scale meeting wa§ organized to protest against the Rowlatt Act in the Jallianwala Bagh. General Dyer was the head of the troop which fired randomly at the masses. It was on 13th April, 1919. .
  4. Non-cooperation Movement—In 1920 A.D., under the leadership of Gandhiji, Non-cooperation Movement started. But, due to the Chauri-Chaura incident in 1922, Gandhiji had to call off the movement.
  5. Civil Disobedience Movement—It started in 1930 under the leadership of Gandhiji. A mass support was gathered for this movement. The well-known Dandi March was a symbolic step against the salt act.
  6. Quit India Movement—Quit India Movement started in 1942, under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi ‘Do or Die’ was the slogan of every Indian. Gandhiji along with many others were arrested during the movement.

If I were a youth that time, I would take part in the national movement full of enthusiasm and zeal. I would participate in the demonstrations staged against the anti-nation policies of the ‘ British government. I would also boycott foreign goods and enlighten the public mass so that they might join Public Movement to liberate the country.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 24 National Movement

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