RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 23 Indian Administration during the British Period

Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 8 Social Science Chapter 23 Indian Administration during the British Period

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 23 Indian Administration during the British Period

RBSE Class 8 Social Science Indian Administration during the British Period InText Questions and Answers

(Activity)
(Page 156)

Question 1.
What changes were done in the British period which are still continuing? Find these.
Answer:
Following are the changes made during the British rule and which prevail even today—

  1. Introduction of the electoral system in India.
  2. Establishment of federal court in India.
  3. Formation of two houses in the Central Legislature, named as
    1. Council of States
    2. House of Union.
  4. Division of subjects into three lists—
    1. Union list,
    2. State list,
    3. Concurrent list.
  5. According to Wood Dispatch, 1854, English was made as the medium of education.
  6. Expansion of modem education, establishment of Universities for higher education.
  7. According to sargent scheme for primary and higher education were established.
  8. Establishment of Post Offices, Public Works Deptt. and Public Service Deptt., constmction of railway lines.
  9. Abolishing of social evils such as Sati system, Dowry system, child marriage etc. by making laws.
  10. Administration of the districts by the Collector was done. Judicial functions were performed by the Distt. Magistrate and the work of law and order was performed by the Police Officer.
  11. By 1930, at the time of judgement, there w ould be no discrimination on the basis of caste, religion, personal status.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 23 Indian Administration during the British Period

RBSE Class 8 Social Science Indian Administration during the British Period Text Book Questions and Answers

Write the correct answers of question no. One in the bracket—

Question 1.
Who was the first viceroy of India?
(a) Lord Canning
(b) Lord Dalhousie
(c) Sir John Laurens
(d) Lord Mayo
Answer:
(a)

Question 2.
Federal court was formed under which Act?
Answer:
The Federal Court was formed under the India Government Act, 1935.

Question 3.
What is known as the commercialisation of Agriculture?
Answer:
Production of cash crops by the farmers for the benefit of the Britishers is called the commercialisation of agriculture.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 23 Indian Administration during the British Period

Question 4.
Why the Lord Minto is called the ‘Originator of Communal Election System’?
Answer:
Under the Indian Council Act of 1909 a separate right to vote and separate formed voting and separate constituencies were made for Muslims. This Act is also known as Morley-Minto Reform. Due to this reason, Lord Minto is called the ‘Originator of Communal Electoral System’.

Question 5.
What do you mean by the Dual Administration?
Answer:
Under India Government Act, 1919, the administration system was imposed in the provinces is called Dual administration. Now a partially responsible government was established in provinces.

The subjects were divided into two categories—

  • Central list
  • Provincial list.

Question 6.
What was the aim of the Britishers in attracting the society in their favour by doing social-reforms and education?
Answer:
The aim of the Britishers giving British education was to provide Indian employees to the company at a low salary, to spread Christianity and to get the assistance of the Indians for administrative posts.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 23 Indian Administration during the British Period

Question 7.
Write a brief note on Vernacular Press Act.
Or
Write a short note on Vernacular Press Act.
Answer:
In 1878, the British Government passed the Vernacular Press Act, to impose ban the Indian newspapers. Under this Act, the District Magistrate was given the power to get signed a bond paper of every Indian language newspaper that it would not publish any material against the British Government. This Act imposed a ban on the freedom of the newspapers of regional languages.

Question 8.
What changes took place in the military department on the recommendations of Peel Commission?
Answer:
Following changes were made in the military department on the report of the Peel Commission—

  • The ratio of Europeans was increased in the army in comparison to Indian soldiers.
  • Following the policy of ‘Divide and Rule’, army regiments were divided on the basis of caste, community and religion.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 23 Indian Administration during the British Period

Question 9.
Why the ‘Guardian Council’ was formed by British Government in the Princely States of Rajasthan?
Answer:
The British Government established the ‘Guardian Council’ in the princely states, when a minor prince used to became a king in these states. Through this, the administrative management of the princely state, came under the control of the British Government.

RBSE Class 8 Social Science Indian Administration during the British Period Important Questions and Answers

(I) Objective Questions :

Question 1.
Who is regarded as the Father of Communal Election System?
(a) Dalhousie
(b) Hastings
(c) Camwallis
(d) Minto
Answer:
(d) Minto

Question 2.
Which commission was formed by the British Government for reorganising the army?
(a) Walter Commission
(b) Peel Commission
(c) Frazer Commission
(d) Hunter Commission
Answer:
(b) Peel Commission

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 23 Indian Administration during the British Period

Question 3.
When was Dual administration imposed in the provinces?
(a) 1909
(b) 1861
(c) 1919
(d) 1892
Answer:
(c) 1919

Question 4.
Which Act is known as Morley-Minto Reform?
(a) Indian Council Act, 1861
(b) Indian Council Act, 1892
(c) India Government Act, 1919
(d) Indian Council Act, 1909
Answer:
(d) Indian Council Act, 1909

Question 5.
Under which Act the first Union Government was formed in India?
(a) Indian Council Act, 1861
(b) Indian Council Act, 1892
(c) India Government Act, 1919
(d) India Government Act, 1935
Answer:
(d) India Government Act, 1935

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 23 Indian Administration during the British Period

(II) Fill in the blanks :

1. The most important provision of Indian Council Act, 1892, was starting the …………………… .
2. The founders of Indian Council Act, 1909 were Morley and …………………… .
3. The administrative system imposed in provinces by India Government Act, 1919 is known as …………………… .
4. …………………… was established by India Government Act, 1935.
5. India Government Act, 1919 is known as …………………… .
Answer:
1. electoral system
2. Lord Minto
3. Dual administration
4. A Federal Court
5. Montague- Chelmsford Reform.

(III) Find out the True/False statements in the following questions :

1. Morley and Minto are called the founders of communal electoral system. (✓)
2. Through India Government Act, 1919, Dual administration was imposed in the provinces. (✓)
3. Through India Government Act, 1919, a federal court was established in India. (✗)
4. Through India Government Act, 1935, subjects were divided into two categories. (✗)
5. Charles Wood Despatch of 1854, is called the ‘Magna Carta’ of India. (✓)
Answer:
1. True
2. True
3. False
4. False
5. True

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 23 Indian Administration during the British Period

(IV) Matching Type Questions :

Match the contents of Column ‘A’ with Column ‘B’ :
Column ‘A’ – Column ‘B’
1. Mayo College – 1. Bikaner
2. Judicial System – 2. Ajmer
3. Charleswood Despatch – 3. 1878
4. Vernacular Press Act – 4. 1854
5. 1st Union Govenment in India – 5. District Magistrate
6. Administration of Districts – 6, Through India Government Act, 1935
Answer:
Column ‘A’ – Column ‘B’
1. Mayo College – 2. Ajmer
2. Judicial System – 1. Bikaner
3. Charleswood Despatch – 4. 1854
4. Vernacular Press Act – 3. 1878
5. 1st Union Govenment in India – 6. Through India Government Act, 1935
6. Administration of districts – 5. District Magistrate

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 23 Indian Administration during the British Period

(V) Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Who was the Governor General and the first Viceroy of India?
Answer:
Canning was the Governor General and the first Viceroy of India.

Question 2.
What was the aim of passing the Indian Council Act, 1861?
Answer:
The aim of passing the Indian Council Act, 1861 was to try to satisfy the Moderates.

Question 3.
Into how many provinces was British India divided?
Answer:
British India was divided into centrally governed states and 11 provinces.

Question 4.
What was the most important provision of Indian Council Act, 1892?
Answer:
The most important provision of Indian Council Act, 1892 was to introduce electoral system in India.

Question 5.
Who were the founders of Indian Council Act, 1909?
Answer:
The founders of Indian Council Act, 1909 were Secretary of India Morley and Governor General, Lord Minto.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 23 Indian Administration during the British Period

Question 6.
Who are called ‘Fathers of Communal Electoral System’?

Answer:
Morley and Lord Minto are called Fathers of Communal Electoral System.

Question 7.
Through which Act was Dual administration imposed in the provinces?
Answer:
Through India Government Act, 1919, Dual administration was imposed in the provinces.

Question 8.
Through which Act was a partially responsible Government was formed in the provinces?
Answer:
Through India Government Act, 1919, a partially responsible Government was formed in the provinces.

Question 9.
In which categories were the subjects divided according to India Government Act, 1919?
Answer:
The subjects were divided into two categories according to India Government Act, 1919—(1) Subjects of Central list, (2) Subjects of Provincial list.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 23 Indian Administration during the British Period

Question 10.
Which Act is known as Montague- Chelmsford Reforms?
Answer:
India Government Act, 1919 is known as Montague-Chelmsford Reforms.

Question 11.
Under which Act, was Unitary Government formed in India for the first time?
Answer:
Under India Government Act, 1935, the unitary government was formed in India for the first time.

Question 12.
Which court was established through India Government Act, 1935?
Answer:
A federal court was established through India Government Act, 1935.

Question 13.
Into how .many categories, were the subjects divided through India Government Act, 1935?
Answer:
Through India Government Act, 1935, the subjects were divided into three categories—

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 23 Indian Administration during the British Period

  • Union list,
  • State list,
  • Concurrent list.

Question 14.
Which was called the ‘Magna Carta of India’?
Answer:
Charles Wood Depatch of 1854 was called the ‘Magna Carta of India’.

Question 15.
Which Act put a ban on the freedom of local language newspapers in India?
Answer:
The Vernacular Press Act, 1878 put a ban on the freedom of local language newspapers in India.

Question 16.
Where did English education start in Rajasthan?
Answer:
English education started from Ajmer region in Rajasthan?

Question 17.
Which college was established in Ajmer to educate the princes?
Answer:
Mayo college was established in Ajmer to educate the princess.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 23 Indian Administration during the British Period

Question 18.
What is meant by ‘Power Separation Theory’?
Answer:
Power Separation Theory means to distribute Government powers into different agencies, so that any agency, by becoming a super power, could not do anything against law.

(VI) Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the salient features of Indian Council Act, 1861.
Answer:
Following are the salient features of Indian Council Act, 1861—

  • The British Parliament passed Indian Council Act, 1861. The aim of passing this Act was to satisfy the Moderates.
  • By this Act, the number of common members of the executive council of the Governor was increased from 4 to 5.
  • The Governor General was given rights to make rules and laws in order to run the executive smoothly.
  • Power was given to the legislative council to make law s and rules for the British India.
  • It was essential to take the approval of the Governor General to convert a bill into a law
  • Any bill passed by the Legislative Council could be dismissed by the British Crown after consulting with Secretary and Council of India.
  • The Governor General was given special right.
  • The Governor was given the right to amend or dismiss any law made by any provincial government.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 23 Indian Administration during the British Period

Question 2.
Describe the Indian Council Act, 1892.
Answer:
After the establishment of Indian National Congress, there was a demand for constitutional reforms. Consequently, the British Parliament passed the Indian Council Act, 1892. Following were the main characteristics of this Act—

  • The most important provision of this Act w as the introduction of the electoral system in. India.
  • The method of election was completely indirect and the elected members were given the status of nominated member.
  • The number of members of central and provincial councils was also increased.

Question 3.
Describe the salient features of Indian Council Act, 1909.
Answer:
The founders of this Act were Secretary of India Morley and Governor General Lord Minto. This Act is also known as ‘Morley-Minto Reform’. Following were the salient features of Indian Council Act, 1909—

  1. By this Act, a separate voting right give to Muslims and separate polling booths were formed for them. Due to this, Morley and Minto are known as fathers of communal electoral system.
  2. To rule over India, the Britishers adopted the policy of ‘Divide and Rule’.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 23 Indian Administration during the British Period

Question 4.
Describe the main characteristics of India Government Act, 1919.
Answer:
Following are the main characteristics of India Government Act, 1919—

  1. By India Government Act, 1919, Dual administration was imposed in the provinces. Now a partially responsible government was established in the provinces.
  2. By this Act, the British Government wanted to make the influencial class of India as its supporters.
  3. By this Act, the Secretary of India started to receive his salary from the British Treasury, which was paid earlier by the Government of India.
  4. Subjects were divided into two categories— (1) Central list (2) Provincial list.
  5. Main subjects of the central list were— Foreign matters of Defence, Post, Telegram, Public loan.
  6. Main subjects of the provincial list were— Local administration, education, medical department, land revenue, famine relief, agriculture system etc.
  7. This Act is known as Motague-Chelmsford Reform.

Question 5.
What do you know about Charles Wood Dispatch, 1854 and Sir John Sergent Plan?
Answer:

  1. Charles Wood Dispatch—Charles Wood Dispatch of 1854, is called the ‘Magna Carta’ of India. Under this, the medium of higher education was declared as English and local languages were also promoted.
  2. Plan of Sir John Sergent—Sir John Sergeant, the education advisor to Government of India, presented a plan under which there were provisions for establishing primary and higher secondary schools in the country and for giving the British Government could force the rulers to go free and compulsory’ education to the boys and girls between 6 to 11 years of age.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 23 Indian Administration during the British Period

Question 6.
What was the dispute regarding Ilbert Bill?
Answer:
During the reign of Lord Ripon, Ilbert Bill was presented. In this Bill, it was stated that all the judges whether they are Indians or Britishers, should have equal rights. According to this Bill, Indian judges could also punish the Britishers. This annoyed the Britishers. So they opposed the Bill strongly.

Question 7.
Evaluate the changes which took place in the social system due to the influence of British time education.
Answer:
Following are the main changes which took place in the social system due to the influence of British time education—

  • By implementing English education, they wanted to propagate Christian religion.
  • By reading English, people started understanding western culture and civilization and grasp it.
  • The educated class protested argumentatively when the British made criticism of Indian religions and traditions and customs.
  • Due to influence of British education, faulty traditions of Indian society were understood and \Sati Pratha\ child-marriage, killing of girl child and slavery etc. were declared illegal by enacting law.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 23 Indian Administration during the British Period

(VII) Essay Type Questions

Question 1.
What changes occurred in the education and social system during the British regime? Explain.
Answer:

Changes Occurred in the Education
and Social System during the
British Regime

  1. ‘Charles Wood Dispalch of 1854’ is called the ‘Magna Carta’ of India. Under this, the medium of higher education was declared as English and local languages were also promoted.
  2. Plan of Sir John Sergeant—Sir John Sergeant, the education advisor to Government of India, presented a plan under which there were provisions for establishing primary and higher secondary schools in the country. By doing so, the British Government could force the rulers to continue free and compulsory education to the boys and girls between 6 to 11 years of age.

Changes in Social System during the British Regime—

  • Propogating Christianity by introducing English language.
  • By learning English people started understanding western culture and civilization and politics and imbibing it.
  • The British criticized Hindu religion and customs. However, educated Indians raised arguments critically.
  • Law was enacted and enforced against Sati Pratha, child marriage, infanticide and slavery etc.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 23 Indian Administration during the British Period

Question 2.
Discuss the main characteristics of the India Government Act, 1935.
Answer:
Following were the main characteristics of the India Government Act, 1935—

  1. First Union Government was established in India by this Act.
  2. Dual administration established in the provinces was abolished. Dual administration was introduced in centre.
  3. A federal court was established by this Act.
  4. Under this Act, Burma was separated from India.
  5. The Governor General had complete control over the Executive of the Central Government.
  6. The Central legislature had two houses—
    • Council of States—Council of States was a permanent house. It was called the upper house. It had 260 members, out of which 104 members were from princely states and the remaining 156 members were from the British provinces. Its one-third members retired after every three years and in their place, new members were elected,
    • Union Council—It was called the Lower house. Its duration was five years. It could be dissolved even before time also. It had 375 members, out of them 125 members were from the princely states and the remaining 246 members were from the communal and other classes and 4 members were from business, industry and labour classes.
  7. Division of subjects into three categories—The subjects of this Act were divided into three categories—
    • Union list
    • State list
    • Concurrent list.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 23 Indian Administration during the British Period

(1) Union list—The subjects of this list were— Army, foreign affairs, Post, Telegraph, Railway, Union Public Service, Communication, Insurance etc. There were 59 subjects in this list.

(2) State list—There were 54 subjects in the State list. The subjects of this list were— Education, revenue, local administration, law and order, public health, agriculture, irrigation, canals, forests, mines, trade and industry, justice, roads and provincial public service, etc.

(3) Concurrent list—There were 36 subjects in the concurrent list. The subjects of this list were—Civil and criminal laws, marriage, divorce, inheritance, adoption, trust, factories, labour welfare etc.

Question 3.
Describe administrative changes made in Rajasthan during the British period.
Or
Describe the major administrative changes in the Princely States of Rajasthan in British Period.
Answer:
Following administrative changes were made in the states of Rajasthan during the British period—
Before independence of India, there were 19 local states in Rajasthan, besides Union territory of Ajmer, under the British rule. The administration of these states was run by the British Residents. Gradually, many states adopted some of the parts of the British judicial system.

In 1839 when Rajmata of Jaipur was dismissed from the post of guardian, then a Government Council under the British Agent was formed. On this occasion, the civil and criminal courts were established in the state. British Agent Thursly separated the judicial department from the administration. This system was followed in Jaipur till 1852.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 23 Indian Administration during the British Period

Formation of Appeal Courts—After sometime, appeal courts were established. These courts had 4 judges. Two of them heard the appeals, and two judges heard the criminal cases. After sometime, this council was divided into two parts named as Tjlas’ and ‘Mahakama khas’. ‘Mahakama khas’ was the Supreme Court of the State.

The Rulers of the States became the servants of the British Government—After 1858, the rulers of the states became the servants of the British Government. The princes were required to talk permission of British Government even for their marriage relations or to go on foreign visits. The ruler of Alwar was forced to go to England.

Formation of the Council of Guardians—A
Council of Guardians was formed under the presidentship of the Political Agent. The administration of the State came under the control of the British Government through this council. The British Government got a chance to do so in Udaipur in 1861. After the state of Jaipur, British laws were imposed in Udaipur, Jodhpur, Kota and Bikaner states.

Imposition of Judicial System in Bikaner— The judicial system on the basis of Power Separation Theory was imposed in Bikaner state. In 1922, a high court was established in Bikaner state in the pattern of the Supreme Court. By 1930, a judicial system having the form of British judicial system had been imposed in all the states of Rajasthan.

Administration of the Districts—During the British period Paraganas were converted into Districts and the Districts were now being administered by District Magistrates. The officers such as Nazims, Tehsildars, Judicial Tehsildars, Girdawars, Patwaris etc. began to work under the District Magistrate. Their main work was to recover taxes and settle the land disputes of the villagers. The main function of the District Magistrate was to perform judicial functions and the work of maintaining law and order was performed by police officer. Beginning of English Education—English education in Rajasthan started from Ajmer region. Mayo College was established in Ajmer to educate the princes of Rajasthan.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 23 Indian Administration during the British Period

Question 4.
Describe main changes that took place in the judiciary system in Rajasthan during the British period?
Answer:
1. Judiciary System in Rajasthan during the British Period—
After 1818 A.D. the states of Rajasthan came under the colonial system. Although these states were largely autonomous yet the Government functioned under the supervision of the ‘English Resident’. Gradually many states adopted some parts of the English judicial system. In 1939 the Rajmata of Jaipur was removed from the post of ‘Abhibhavak’, then a council was organized under the care of a British agent.

On this occasion, civil and criminal courts were established in the state. The British agent named Thursbe separated Judicial Department from Administrative Department. This state was upto 1852. Apellate courts were established. There were four judges out of which two judges heard appeals regarding civil cases and two heard the criminal cases. After sometime the council was divided into two parts—

  • Izlaas
  • Mhakmakhas.

Mhakmakhas was the highest court of the State.

2. Implementation of judicial system according to the British period judiciary— By 1930 A.D., all the States of Rajasthan had imposed a judicial system similar to the British judicial system. It was declared that all men were equal in the eyes of law. No differentiation will be made on the basis of caste, religion, class, post and individual status. All functions of judiciary were conducted in the written manner.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 23 Indian Administration during the British Period

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