RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 22 Impact of British Rule on Indian Economy

Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 8 Social Science Chapter 22 Impact of British Rule on Indian Economy

RBSE Class 8 Social Science Impact of British Rule on Indian Economy India InText Questions and Answers

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 22 Impact of British Rule on Indian Economy

RBSE Class 8 Social Science Impact of British Rule on Indian Economy India InText Questions and Answers

(Activity-1)
(Page-147)

Question 1.
European countries got prosperity to buy to Indian goods. How?
Answer:
In 15-16th century, the people of Spain after the discovery of America, looted America. Huge amount of gold and silver was brought in Spain from America. Due to this the European countries became prosperous enough to buy Indian goods.

Question 2.
Who was the Portuguese sailor who discovered the sea route from Europe to India?
Answer:
The name of the Portuguese sailor was Vasco-da-Gama.

Question 3.
What are checkpoints?
Answer:
The Portuguese had checkpoints on the Arabian Sea route. They used to take tax from every ship goes through the same route and attacked on those who denied paying tax.

(Activity-2)
(Page 148)

Question 1.
What is the intent of revenue?
Answer:
Revenue was another form of exploitation. Revenue charged by the company, was a direct way to rob Indian farmers. The officers of the company used to charge revenue arbitrarily.

Question 2.
How revenue was a type of exploitation?
Answer:

  • The officers of the company recovered revenue arbitrarily.
  • As a result, farmers stopped Revenue Cultivation. By this way, the farmers were destroyed. Revenue collection was the direct way to loot the farmers.
  • As a result of this, the Indian formers stopped cultivation and the fields of the farmers were destroyed.

(Activity-3)
(Page 149)

Question 1.
Who was known as ‘East Indian Man’?
Answer:
The Britishers used very big ships for trade with India during that time. These ships were called East Indian Men. ,

Question 2.
Who was the first Indian person oppossing the exit property?
Answer:
Dada Bhai Nauroji, was the first Indian to oppose the drain of wealth.

Question 3.
Why England Parliament banned the use of Indian clothes?
Answer:
At the end of 17th century, huge amount of cheap and superior clothes were imported to England. These clothes were appreciated by the Britishers and the producers of England became worried and fearful. Hence the British Parliament of England put a ban of the use of Indian clothes. ( Activity-4]

(Page 150)

Question 1.
British established only those industries in India, where establishment was compulsion for them. Rest all industries were established in England.
Answer:
The British capitalists were opposed to industrialization in India. So, they established only those industries in India which were compulsory due to the geographical form, such as jute industry. So they established all the remaining industries on England.

(Activity-5)
(Page 151)

Question 1.
List out the objects of ancient time having importance in-foreign countries.
Answer:
The following items were in great demand in foreign countries in ancient India—

  • Pearls
  • Costly Stones
  • Scent
  • Clothes
  • Spices
  • Indigo
  • Medicines
  • Muslin
  • Teeth of elephant
  • Sandal
  • Ornaments of gold.

RBSE Class 8 Social Science Impact of British Rule on Indian Economy India Text Book Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Write the answer of questions no. one and two in the bracket—

1. The direct way to rob farmers by British was—
(a) By direct loot
(b) By Revenue
(c) By making law
(d) By free trade policy
Answer:
(b) By Revenue

2. Property exit was first opposed by—
(a) Motilal Nehru
(b) Mahatma Gandhi
(c) Dada Bhai Naroji
(d) Sardar Patel
Answer:
(c) Dada Bhai Naroji

2. Match Part ‘A’ with Part ‘B’ :

Part ‘A’ – Part ‘B’
1. Plassey war was fought in – : 1717 B.C.
2. Farukh Siyar, Mughal Emperor allowed British Company to trade in the country without paying Tax. – : 1762 B.C.
3. Mir Kasim wrote a letter to Company Governor for not torturing Indian farmers – : 1700 B.C.
4. British Parliament imposed full ban on Indian clothes keeping few exceptions. – : 1757 B.C.
Answer:
Part ‘A’ – Part ‘B’
1. Plassey war was fought in – : 1757 B.C.
2. Farukh Siyar, Mughal Emperor allowed British Company to trade in the country without paying Tax. – : 1717 B.C.
3. Mir Kasim wrote a letter to Company Governor for not torturing Indian farmers – : 1762 B.C.
4. British Parliament imposed full ban on Indian clothes keeping few exceptions. – : 1700 B.C.

3. Answer the following questions :

Question 1.
What is De-industrialisation?
Answer:
Handicrafts were destroyed in Bengal and other parts of India. This process has been called as de-industrialisation by the HistoriAnswer:

Question 2.
What is one sided Free Trade policy? How it made loss to Indian Foreign Trade?
Answer:
England wanted to sell the items which were made in their factories into Indian markets. But it was not possible because these items were inferior in comparison to Indian goods. Therefore, Indian industries were destroyed deliberately. At this time, unilateral free trade policy was adopted by the Govt. Under this policy heavy duty’ was imposed on exports of cotton clothes made in India. But on other hand, there was no duty on the imports from England by India.

Question 3.
How European Industrial Revolution in 19th century affected Indian Economy?
Answer:

  1. Due to the beginning of the industrial revolution in Europe, especially in England, in the 19th century’, goods were made by machines there.
  2. The goods made by the machines were superior than the hand made goods. Prices of these goods were also low. In this situation, the demand of the hand-made goods decreased in the market.
  3. Consequently, artisan who worked -by hand, craftsmen etc. were unemployed,
  4. In this way, many handicrafts in Bengal and other parts of India were destroyed.
  5. Due to this, de-industrialisation started in India.

Question 4.
Give the reasons behind the lowering importance of Machlipattnam port.
Answer:
Machilipatnam port was an important port in the 17th century. By the end of 18th century, when trade was centralised in the new British ports of Bombay, Madras and Calcutta, the importance of Machilipatnam port began to diminish.

RBSE Class 8 Social Science Impact of British Rule on Indian Economy India Important Questions and Answers

I. Objective Questions

Question 1.
From which country huge amount of gold and silver was brought in Spain?
(a) England
(b) France
(c) Germany
(d) America
Answer:
(d) America

Question 2.
Which Portuguese navigator discovered a sea- route to India?
(a) Columbus
(b) Amerigo
(c) Vasco-da-Gama
(d) Drake
Answer:
(c) Vasco-da-Gama

Question 3.
When did the Mughal emperor Farrukh Sivar give an order to the company?
(a) 1700
(b)1800
(c) 1757
(d) 1717
Answer:
(d) 1717

Question 4.
Who were the opponents of industrialisation of India?
(a) Indian capitalists
(b) Mughal emperor
(c) British capitalists
(d) East India Company
Answer:
(c) British capitalists

Question 5.
Which industry was destroyed in Bengal due to the policy of exploitation of Britishers?
(a) Textile industry
(b) Pearls industry
(c) Gem industry
(d) Ornaments industry’
Answer:
(a) Textile industry

(II) Fill in the blanks :

1. The people began to believe that the East India Company had cut the thumbs of the artisans of making in Dhaka.
2. In the 19th century Industrial revolution began in Europe especially in
3. The process of destruction of the traditional industries is called
4. The Britishers established only those industries in which were compulsory in geographical firm.
5. Malguzari collected by was a direct way to rob the farmers.
Answer:
1. Muslin sari
2. England
3. de-industriali-sation
4. India
5. company

(III) Find out the true/false statements in the following questions :

1. England was called a ‘Golden Bird’ in the ancient time. (✗)
2. The Portuguese navigator, Columbus discovered a sea-route to India. (✗)
3. In 1717. the Mughal emperor Farrukh Siyar gave an order to the company. (✓)
4. In between 1700 and 1712, the Parliament of England put a ban on the use of Indian clothes. (✓)
5. Surendra Nath Baneiji first of all opposed the drain of wealth. (✗)
Answer:
1. False
2. False
3. True
4. True
5. False

(IV) Matching Type Questions :

Match the contents of Column ‘A’ with Column ‘B’ :
Column ‘A’ – Column ‘B’
1. Golden Bird – 1. Portugal
2. Vasco-da-Gama – 2. India
3. Destruction of Textile – 3. de-industrialisation industry
4. Process of destruction – 4. Bengal of traditional industries
5. Drain of wealth – 5. Malguzari
6. Direct way of robbery – 6. Dada Bhai Naoroji of the farmers
Answer:
Column ‘A’ – Column ‘B’
1. Golden Bird – 1. India
2. Vasco-da-Gama – 2. Portugal
3. Destruction of Textile industry – 3. Bengal
4. Process of destruction of traditional industries – 4. de-industrialisation
5. Drain of wealth – 5. Dada Bhai Naoroji
6. Direct way of robbery – 6. Malguzari of the farmers

(V) Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
In ancient time, why was India called a ‘Golden Bird’?
Answer:
In ancient time, gold had came into India, but it did not go out from here. Due to this, India was called a ‘Golden Bird’.

Question 2. What is meant by ‘Colony’?
Or
What is a Colony? Explain in brief.
Answer:
When a’ powerful country establishes his control over another country economically and politically than that country which is controlled, is called a ‘Colony’.

Question 3.
In the middle of the 15th century, who was the Portuguese navigator who discovered a sea-route to India?
Answer:
Vasco-da-Gama was the Portuguese navigator who discovered a sea-route to India in the middle of 15th century.

Question 4.
What order was given by the Mughal emperor Farrukk Siyar to the Company in 1717 A.D.?
Answer:
In 1717 A.D. the Mughal emperor Farrukh Siyar gave an order to the Company that the Company would pay Rs. 3,000/- every year to the Mughals and in returns the company could trade in India without paying toll tax.

Question 5.
What was the result of the exploitation of Indian weavers by the Britishers in Bengal?
Answer:
Due to the exploitation of Indians weavers by the Britishers, the textile industry of Bangal was destroyed.

Question 6.
Which item of Dhaka was in great demand in the foreign countries?
Answer:
Muslin sari of Dhaka was in great demand in the foreign countries.

Question 7.
What was Malguzari?
Answer:
Malguzari collected by the Britishers was a direct way of robbing the Indian farmers.

Question 8.
Who was the first Indian to oppose the drain of wealth?
Answer:
Dada Bhai Naoroji was the first Indian to oppose the drain of wealth.

Question 9.
Why did the Parliament of England put a ban on the use of Indian clothes and when?
Answer:
In between 1700 and 1717, the Parliament of England put a ban on the use of Indian clothes because these clothes were appreciated by the Britishers and the producers of England became worried.

Question 10.
Who were opposed to industrialisation in India?
Answer:
The British capitalists were opposed to industrialisation in India.

Question 11.
Which were in the industries developed by the Britishers in plantation industries?
Answer:
The Britishers developed tea, kehwa and indigo in the plantation industries.

Question 12.
Which commercial ports had began to develop since 1780?
Answer:
Mumbai and Kolkata had begun to develop as commercial ports since 1780.

Question 13.
How did unilateral free trade policy prove to be harmful for India’s foreign trade? State one reason.
Answer:
Under free trade policy in the British period, heavy taxes on import in India were levied over the cotton clothes made in England whereas cotton clothes made in India, were not put heavy taxes on import. Due to this foreign trade of India had to bear heavy loss.

(VI) Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the trading relations of India with the external world.
Answer:
Trading relations of India were established with Southern Asia, Western Asia, Eastern Asia and Rome. Clothes, foodgrain, metal items etc. were sent to the world from India. In return, gold and silver came to India. It appeals that there was no demand of goods made in foreign countries in India. There was gold in abundance in India. Gold used to come in India but it did not go out from India. Due to this reason, India was called ‘Golden Bird’.

Question 2.
Describe the impact of the rule of company on the industries of India.
Answer:
After the victory of battle of Plassey in 1757, the company established a rule of terror in Bengal. The officers of the company gave the raw material to local artisans on increased prices and used to buy finished goods at less prices than a quarter from them. Consequently, the artisans left their job on account of their very low income. As a result the whole textile industry of Bengal was destroyed by the end of the 18th century.

The muslin sari was very famous in Dhaka. But this industry was also destroyed. People had begun to believe that the East India Company had cut the thumbs of the artisans who made muslin sari in Dhaka. It was famous about these craftsmen that the muslin sari made by them was so fine that it could be taken out from the ring. But the .Britishers exploded them excessively and destroyed the textile industry.

Question 3.
What do you mean by ‘Drain of Wealth’?
Answer:
Amount collected through taxes and amount collected as huge profits, was carried away by the Britishers to England. They used it in their country. Due to this, drain of country’s wealth to England continued. As a result of this, citizens of India could not take advantage of their own wealth. This is called drain of wealth. Dada Bhai Naoroji was the first Indian to oppose the drain of wealth.

Question 4.
Describe the anti-industrialisation policy of the Britishers.
Answer:
The British capitalists were opposed to industrialisation in India. So they established only those industries these which were compulsory due to the geographical form such as jute industry. They established all the other remaining industries in their country. Raw material was sent to England from India and the finished goods were sold in the Indian markets. Due to this, the industrialists of India could not compete with the Britishers and they were destroyed.

Similarly, jute industry was established in Bengal Tea, kehwa and indigo industries were developed in plantation industries. In the areas, where there was mineral wealth in huge quantity, industries were not established there. Instead mineral goods were taken away from there to their country’.

Question 5.
Write a short note on ‘Malguzari’.
Answer:
Malguzari was also another form of exploitation. Malguzari, collected by the company, was a direct way of robbing the farmers. In Malguzari, the officers of the Company collected malguzari arbitrarily from the formers. As a result of this, the farmers left cultivation and their fields were desolated. A British official said, “The villages of Bengal were filled with people of different races and there were stores of commerce, wealth and industry in the past, but our misrule has made barren a large parts of these villages in 20 years only.” The field are not cultivated now. The farmers are robbed. The industrial manufactures have been crushed.

(VII) Essay Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the effects of the ‘British Company’ on Indian industries.
Or
What was the impact of the ‘British Company’ on Indian industries.
Answer:
Impact of the Company on Indian Industries After winning in the Battle of Plassey (1757), the British started exploiting India. They started exploiting the artisans of Bengal. They gave the artisans of Bengal the raw material or the increased prices and bought furnished goods. As a result, the artisans left their work and ran away. By the end of 18th century, Bengal was destroyed. They became victim of hunger and starvation.

It was said that Dhaka silk sari artisan’s thumbs were cut off. It was very popular during those days that saries made by these artisans were very expensive and could be passed through a ring easily. However, the British exploited these artisans too much. The company treated these artisans’ inhumanly so their trade and industry were flopped badly.

Question 2.
According to your view, what was the result of economic policy of the British and Indian wealth drain? Discuss.
Answer:
Result of Economic Policy of the British and Indian Wealth Drain

  1. Scarcity of Capital—Scarcity of capital was created because the wealth of India was sent to England.
  2. Decline of Cottage Industry—Cottage industry of India was almost destroyed because of economic policy of the British.
  3. Downfall in Agricultural Produce—The British compelled the farmers to grow commercial crops due to which fertility of land decreased and at last it was destroyed. The officers of the company charged land revenue arbitrarily. As a result, the farmers stopped farming and the farm lands of the farmers were destroyed and they became landless.
  4. Loss of Trade—Business policy of the company caused heavy loss to the business of India.
  5. Poverty and Starvation—Due to strictness of realization of land revenue and export-import policy, there was huge drop in grain production. It created a condition of poverty and starvation in the country.
  6. Policy against Industrialization—Due to huge drain of wealth, industrial progress got a jolt.

Question 3.
India was very prosperous before British Rule. Explain three ways of the exploitation of Indian economy by the English.
Answer:
Exploitation of Indian Economy by the Britishers—Exploitation of Indian economy by the Britishers can be described under the following points—

(1) Direct Plundering—
The Britishers directly plundered in the name of business. The agents of the Company forcibly took the goods and production of the farmers and traders by giving them one- fourth prices to them. They thrashed the farmers and sold their goods worth Re. 1 at Re. 5. Those who did not accept the unreasonable demands of the company, were punished or put in prison.

(2) Malguzari—
Malguzari was another form of exploitation. Malguzari, collected by the Company was a direct way of robbing the farmers. In this, the officers of the Company used to collect malguzari arbitrarily from the formers. As a result of this, the farmers gave up cultivation and the fields of the farmers were desolated.

(3) Unilateral Free Trade Policy—
The Britishers wanted to sell item made in their factories in the Indian markets. But this was not possible because these items were inferior than the Indian items. So the Indian industries were destroyed deliberately by the Britishers. During this period, unilateral free trade policy was adopted under which heavy duty was imposed on exports of cotton clothes made in India while there was no duty on the imports from England by India.

(4) Drain.of Wealth—
Huge amount collected in the form of taxes and profits was taken away by the Britisher to England. They used this amount in their country. Due to this, drain of amount of our country to England continued. Consequently the citizens of India could not take advantage of their own wealth in India. This is called drain of wealth.

(5) By Making Laws—
At the end of 17th century, large quantity of cheap and superior clothes were imported to England. These clothes were appreciated by the Britishers. Due to this, the producers of England became fearful. So in between 1700 and 1712 the Parliament of England put a complete ban on the use of Indian clothes except some certain clothes.

(6) Anti-industrialization Policy—
The British capitalists were opposed to industrialisation in India. So they did not establish any industry in India except jute industry. Raw material was sent to England from India and finished goods were sold in the Indian markets. Hence the industrialists of India could not face competition from the British industrialists and they were destroyed.

Question 4.
Analyse economic condition of erstwhile India.
Answer:
Economic condition of erstwhile India—In the ancient time India w as a ‘golden bird’. In the time of company and British rule time also, economic condition of India became miserable gradually. Sea route to India was discovered by Vasco-de-Gama. Due to this discovery, large number of Europeans started coming to India. The Portuguese had established collection centres at different places on the sea route to the Arabian sea. Every’ ship which went and came back had to pay a toll tax. Whosoever did not pay the toll, was attacked. This went on till the ships of the English company, on the strength of their cannons had established their strategic supremacy over the seas.

During the earlier part of the 18th century, the English Company had become the biggest European trading company engaged with Hindustan. At times, the company tried to fight with the Mughal empire at Surat but were defeated. They even had to beg pardon for their arrogance.

In 1717 A.D., the Mughal Emperor Farrukh Siyar was pleased with the trading system of the English company and gave a fireman to the company. The company would pay the Mughal Emperor Rs. 3000/- per year. In return, the company established its trade supremacy throughout the country’.

Now the company had started increasing its trading strength through its military’ might and showed its supremacy. It was on the basis of the military’ strength that they were able to suppress the Nawab of Bengal and the Mughal Emperor. Thus, at that time economic condition of the Mughal government became pathetic and by extending its business frontier, the company was earning huge profit and exploiting people.

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