RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 21 Ideological Changes and Social Reforms in Modern India

Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 8 Social Science Chapter 21 Ideological Changes and Social Reforms in Modern India

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 21 Ideological Changes and Social Reforms in Modern India

RBSE Class 8 Social Science Ideological Changes and Social Reforms in Modern India InText Questions and Answers

(Activity)
(Page 139)

Question 1.
Acquire the knowledge regarding the contribution of Gautam Buddha and Mahavir Swami.
Answer:
Gautam Buddha was the founder of Buddha religion. He was bom in Lumbini in 563 B.C. He got ‘Sambodhi’ in Gaya. After this, he sent his whole life in preaching the teachings of Buddha religion. In 483 B.C., he died in Kushinagar.

Main Teachings of Gautam Buddha—
Following were the main teachings of Gautam Buddha—

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 21 Ideological Changes and Social Reforms in Modern India

  1. Four Arya Satya
    • Grief,
    • Cause of grief,
    • Elimination of grief,
    • Path of elimination of grief.
  2. Middle Path
  3. Belief in Karma and rebirth
  4. Ten principles of morality
  5. The world is temporary
  6. Emphasis on ‘Nirwan’
  7. Disbelief in Vedas
  8. Opposition of external conservative rituals
  9. No belief in soul existence of God.
  10. No belief in the

(Activity)
(Page 140)

Question 2.
What is custom? Prepare a list of some customs observed in your neighbourhood. Some customs are good. Name some good customs. Some customs are bad, which are those customs?
Answer:
Custom means Pratha. Traditions that linger on from one generation to another generation is called custom. These traditions and customs are related to the birth, marriage and death of persons. There are many customs which are followed by the society—

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 21 Ideological Changes and Social Reforms in Modern India

  • Sati Pratha,
  • Child Marriage,
  • Widow Marriage,
  • Dowry

Mahavir Swami—Mahavir Swami was the 24th Tirthankar of Jain religion. He was bom in 599 B.C. in Kundgram of Vaishah. He got ‘Kewalya’ (knowledge) and after getting Kewalya, he began to preach his teachings in many parts of India. At last, at the age of 72 years, in 527 B.C., he died at Pawapuri of Patna.

Teachings of Mahavir Swami—
Following are the main teachings of Mahavir Swami—

  • The world is full of griefs
  • Triratna (Balanced knowledge, balanced darshan and balanced character)
  • Belief in Karma and rebirth
  • Five Mahavrat
  • Belief in the existence of the soul
  • Supporter of Syadwad
  • Supporter of Ahinsa (non-violence)
  • Emphasis on attaining Nirwan
  • No belief in the existence of God
  • No belief in the vedas.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 21 Ideological Changes and Social Reforms in Modern India

(Activity)
(Page 140)

Question 2.
What is custom? Prepare a list of some customs observed in your neighbourhood. Some customs are good. Name some good customs. Some customs are bad, which are those customs?
Answer:
Custom means Pratha. Traditions that linger on from one generation to another generation is called custom. These traditions and customs are related to the birth, marriage and death of persons. There are many customs which are followed by the society—

  • Sati Pratha,
  • Child Marriage,
  • Widow Marriage,
  • Dowry System,
  • Veil System,
  • Caste System.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 21 Ideological Changes and Social Reforms in Modern India

Good Customs—

  • Widow Remarriage,
  • Not to follow veil system and dowry system,
  • Spread of education in the girls,
  • International marriages,
  • Promotion to widow marriage.

Bad Customs—
Some customs are bad such as—

  • Child Marriage System,
  • Veil System,
  • Dowry System,
  • Sati Practice,
  • Caste System,
  • Untouchability System etc.

(Activity)
(Page 145)

Question 3.
Some social evils are prevalent in society today. Discuss this in the class and obtain suggestions to abolish them.
Answer:
Even today, many social evils are prevalent in our society such as dowry system, veil system, child marriage, caste system and untouchability, Kanyavadha (Girl child slaughter).

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 21 Ideological Changes and Social Reforms in Modern India

The following suggestions are made to eliminate these evils—

  • Spread of education in men and women,
  • The people should be inspired to work unitedly for the abolition of these evils,
  • Economic standard of the people should be raised. Domestic industries should be developed in the village.

RBSE Class 8 Social Science Ideological Changes and Social Reforms in Modern India Text Book Questions and Answers

Write the correct answer of question no. one and two in the bracket :

Question 1.
Who had established the Theosophical Society in India?
(a) Suiji Bhagat
(b) Swami Vivekananda
(c) Syed Ahmed Khan
(d) Annie Besant
Answer:
(d)

2. Who had founded Satya Shodhak Samaj?
(a) Jyotiba Phule
(b) Swami Dayanand
(c) Raja Rammohan Rai
(d) Govind Guru
Answer:
(a)

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 21 Ideological Changes and Social Reforms in Modern India

Question 3.
Who had formed ‘Brahma Samaj’?
Answer:
Raja Ram Mohan Rai had formed ‘Brahma Samaj’.

Question 4.
Illustrate the contribution of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan.
Answer:
Seeing the backwardness of the Muslim community, Syed Ahmed Khan started a campaign of educating and advancing Muslim Society in a modem way. He wanted the Muslim community to give up his centuries old conservative mentality and get modern education under the new education system. Keeping in mind this aim, he firstly started a school in Delhi.

After this in 1875, he established the Mohammaden Anglo Oriental College at Aligarh. Later this college was known as the Aligarh Muslim University. The credit of bringing the Muslims into the main stream of education goes to Syed Ahmad Khan. In the beginning, he laid emphasis on the communal unity and said that Hindus and Muslims are two eyes of Mother India. He also founded the scientific society. He died in 1898 in Aligarh.

Question 5.
Give a brief description of Mangarh Hatyakaand (massacre)?
Answer:
Govind Gum was a great leader of the tribal movement. He did social reforms in the tribals. He founded ‘Samp Sabha’ in 1883. He wanted to abolish the superstitions of the tribals and create a feeling of self-confidence and selfreliance among them. In the field of economic reform, he laid emphasis on the use of local goods and not to do forced labour. The Britishers and their supporter were annoyed and began to oppose Guru Govind.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 21 Ideological Changes and Social Reforms in Modern India

Thousands of Bhils gathered at Mangarh hill in 1913 under the leadership of Govind Gum. In November, 1913, the British army surrounded the Mangarh hill and attacked the assembly being held there. About 1500 people were killed. Govind Gum was arrested.

Question 6.
What inspiration should be received by the youth from the life of Swami Vivekananda?
Answer:
Swami Vivekananda was a great social reformer of India. The youth can get the following points of inspiration from the life of Swami Vivekananda—

  • Service of the poor and the helpless.
  • Elimination of poverty and untouchability from the society.
  • Development of the spirit of nationalism in people.
  • Emphasis to follow the tme form of religion.

Question 7.
Illustrate the contribution of Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar.
Answer:
Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar was a great social reformer of Bengal. He did a lot of work in the field of women education. He got many girls schools opened. He was also a great supporter of widow marriage. Due to his efforts, the British Government passed the Widow Remarriage Act in 1856 and the widow marriage was declared as legal. By the way, due to the efforts of Ishwar Chandra Vidhyasagar, widow marriages started at that time. He himself got his son married to a widow. This was a praiseworthy work of Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 21 Ideological Changes and Social Reforms in Modern India

Question 8.
Narrate the efforts made by Raja Ram Mohan Rai and Swami Vivekananda towards social reforms.
Answer:
(1) Efforts of Raja Rammohan Roy for Social Reforms—Raja Rammohan Roy was a great social reformer of Bengal.

In the 19th century, the Sati system had taken a dreadful form in Bengal. In aristocratic families recently widowed women were forced to die along with their husbands in the name of Sati. Raja Rammohan Roy started a campaign against the Sati system. He analyzed the religious books of India and told that nowhere it was mentioned that after the death of her husband, a woman should sacrifice her life by burning herself.

He established the Brahmo Samaj in 1828. Due to the efforts of Raja Rammohan Roy, the British Government passed a law according to which the Sati system was declared as illegal. According to this law, there was a provision of punishment to the supporters of Sati system. The people who helped women in performing Sati were also punished heavily. Consequently, this evil began to come to an end from the society rapidly.

(2) Efforts of Swami Vivekananda for Social Reforms—
Swami Vivekananda was a great social reformer of India. He was the pupil of Ram Krishna Paramhansa.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 21 Ideological Changes and Social Reforms in Modern India

Following were his social reforms—

  • He was distressed to see the poverty prevalent in India.
  • He believed that serving the poor people is the true form of service to God.
  • Vivekananda wanted to abolish poverty and untouchability from the society.
  • Vivekananda said that religion is the development of the existing divine power in human being, religion is neither in the religious books nor in religious principals.
  • He created the feeling of nationalism in people.
  • Swami Vivekananda founded the Ram Krishna Mission in the name of his Guru. Ram Krishna Mission is still serving the society in the whole country.

Question 9.
Describe the contribution of Arya Samaj.
Answer:
Swami Dayanand Saraswati established Arya Samaj in 1875. Contribution of Arya Samaj can be described under the following points—

  • The Arya Samaj helped women and the dalits in getting the right of studying vedas by them.
  • Arya Samaj promoted and spread education.
  • Arya Samaj established many Gurukuls and D.A.V. Schools which are playing an important role in the spread of education.
  • Swami Dayanand first of all used Swadharma, Swadesh and Swabhasha and Arya Samaj made efforts to extend these thoughts.
  • The members of Arya Samaj played an important role in the National Freedom Movement.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 21 Ideological Changes and Social Reforms in Modern India

RBSE Class 8 Social Science Ideological Changes and Social Reforms in Modern India Important Questions and Answers

(I) Objective Questions—

Question 1.
We should learn from the objective of establishing Mohammedan Anglo Oriental college in Aligarh in 1857 by Saiyad Ahamad Khan—
(a) To get modem education
(b) To keep the Muslims away from the main stream of education
(c) To boost up communal education
(d) To promote sectarian education
Answer:
(a) To get modem education

Question 2.
What should we leam from the teachings of Swami Dayanand Saraswati, founder of Arya Samaj?
(a) Imbibing falsehood
(b) Loving affectionately only to those who profess your religion
(c) Abolishing of illiteracy
(d) None of the above
Answer:
(c) Abolishing of illiteracy

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 21 Ideological Changes and Social Reforms in Modern India

Question 3.
Swami Vivekanand was a great social reformer. What should we leam from his life?
(a) Service to the poor and the sufferers
(b) Abolishing poverty and untouchability
(c) Boosting up feelings of nationalism
(d) All the above
Answer:
(d) All the above

Question 4.
What should we do by following teachings of Jyotiba Phule, a great social reformer—
(a) Keeping intact casteism
(b) Against widow marriage
(c) For girl education
(d) All the above
Answer:
(c) For girl education

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 21 Ideological Changes and Social Reforms in Modern India

Question 5.
Due to the efforts of Raja Rammohan Roy, when did the British Government declare the Sati system as illegal—
(a) 1800 A.D.
(b) 1829 A.D.
(c) 1929 A.D.
(d) 1859 A.D.
Answer:
(b) 1829 A.D.

Question 6.
Due to whose efforts, widow marriages were started?
(a) Swami Dayanand
(b) Raja Rammohan Roy
(c) Annie Besant
(d) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
Answer:
(d) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar

Question 7.
Who established the Samp Sabha?
(a) Dr. Ambedkar
(b) Swami Dayanand
(c) Govind Gum
(d) Swami Vivekananda
Answer:
(c) Govind Gum

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 21 Ideological Changes and Social Reforms in Modern India

Question 8.
Who established Ram Krishna Mission?
(a) Ram Krishna
(b) Swami Dayanand
(c) Annie Besant
(d) Swami Vivekananda
Answer:
(d) Swami Vivekananda

Question 9.
Who founded the Central Hindu School at Banaras?
(a) Annie Besant
(b) Raja Rammohan Roy
(c) Swami Dayanand
(d) Swami Vivekanand
Answer:
(a) Annie Besant

Question 10.
What was the aim of Samp Sabha foundation by Govind Gum in Rajasthan?
(a) Political reform
(b) Economic reform
(c) Social reform
(d) None of the above
Answer:
(c) Social reform

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 21 Ideological Changes and Social Reforms in Modern India

Question 11.
Who founded Brahma Samaj?
(a) Swami Dayanand Saraswati .
(b) Govind Guru
(c) Swami Vivekanand
(d) Raja Ram Mohan Rai
Answer:
(d) Raja Ram Mohan Rai

Question 12.
In Bengal, the wave of social reforms in the 19th century was called—
(a) Resurgence
(b) Public awareness
(c) Revival
(d) Renaissance
Answer:
(d) Renaissance

(II) Fill in the blanks :

1. The Britishers laid emphasis on throwing light on the …………….. of Indian culture and traditions.
2. Raja Rammohan Roy established in …………….. Brahmo Samaj.
3. Jyotiba Phule constantly fought against the ……………. .
4. Swami Vivekananda took part in the Parliament of the world’s religions at ……………. .
5. Swami Vivekanand felt grieved by …………….. of India.
Answer:
1. evils
2. 1828
3. caste system
4. Chickago
5. poverty’

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 21 Ideological Changes and Social Reforms in Modern India

(III) Find out the true and false statements in the following questions :

1. In Bengal of 19th century, the Sati system had taken the most barbaric form.
2. In 1828, the British Government had declared the Sati system as illegal
3. Swami Dayanand first of all used the words like Swadharma, Swadesh and Swabhasha.
4. Swami Dayanand founded the Ram Krishna Mission.
5. Raja Rammohan Roy established Brahmo Samaj in 1828.
Answer:
1. True
2. False
3. True
4. False
5. True

(IV) Matching Type Questions :

Match Column ‘A’ with Column ‘B’ :

Column ‘A’ – Column ‘B’
1. Raja Rammohan Roy 1. Arya Samaj
2. Swami Dayanand 2. Brahmo Samaj Saraswati
3. Swami Vivekananda 3. Theosophical Society
4. Annie Besant 4. Ram Krishna Mission
5. Jyotika Phule – 5. Promotor of Widow Marriage
6. Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar – 6. Gulamgiri
Answer:
Column ‘A’ – Column ‘B’
1. Raja Rammohan Roy – 2. Brahmo Samaj
2. Swami Dayanand Saraswati – 1. Arya Samaj
3. Swami Vivekananda – 4. Ram Krishna Mission
4. Annie Besant – 3. Theosophical Society
5. Jyotiba Phule – 6. Gulamgiri
6. Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar – 5. Promotor of Widow Marriage

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 21 Ideological Changes and Social Reforms in Modern India

(V) Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
In the 19th century7, which system had taken the dreadful form in Bengal?
Answer:
Sati system had taken the dreadful form in Bengal in the 19th century’.

Question 2.
Who founded the Brahmo Samaj and when?
Answer:
Raja Rammohan Roy founded the Brahmo Samaj in 1828.

Question 3.
When did the British Government declare the Sati system as illegal?
Answer:
In 1829, the British Government declared the Sati system as illegal.

Question 4.
Describe the two social reforms of Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar.
Answer:

  • Widow marriages started due to the efforts of Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar.
  • He got many girl schools opened for girls education.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 21 Ideological Changes and Social Reforms in Modern India

Question 5.
Who was the writer of the book ‘India from Curzon to Nehru and After’?
Answer:
Journalist Durga Das was the writer of the book ‘India from Curzon to Nehru and After’.

Question 6.
Which institution was established in Pune, Maharashtra to discuss about religion?
Answer:
Prarthana Samaj was established in Pune, Maharashtra to discuss about religion.

Question 7.
Who established the ‘Satya Shodhak Samaj’ and where?
Answer:
Jyotiba Phule established the ‘Satya Shodhak Samaj’ in Pune.

Question 8.
Who was the writer of the book named ‘Gulamgiri’?
Answer:
Jyoitiba Phule was the writer of the book named ‘Gulamgiri’?

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 21 Ideological Changes and Social Reforms in Modern India

Question 9.
Who established Mohammadan Anglo Oriental College and when?
Answer:
Syed Ahmad Khan established Mohammadan Anglo Oriental College at Aligarh in 1875.

Question 10.
By whom was Arya Samaj established?
Answer:
Arya Samaj was founded by Swami Dayanand Saraswati.

Question 11.
Which words were used by Swami Dayanand for the first time?
Answer:
Swami Dayanand used Swadharma, Swadesh and Swabhasha for the first time.

Question 12.
Who was the Guru of Swami Vivekananda?
Answer:
Ram Krishna Paramhansa was the guru of Swami Vivekananda.

Question 13.
What was the childhood name of Swami Dayanand?
Answer:
The childhood name of Swami Dayanand was Mool Shankar.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 21 Ideological Changes and Social Reforms in Modern India

Question 14.
In which Parliament of the world’s religion did Swami Vivekananda participate?
Answer:
Swami Vivekananda participated in the Parliament of the World’s religion at Chickago, America in September, 1893.

Question 15.
Who established the Ram Krishna Mission?
Answer:
Swami Vivekananda established the Ram Krishna Mission.

Question 16.
Who established Theosophical Society in India?
Answer:
Mrs. Annie Besant established Theosophical Society in India. .

Question 17.
Who was the foreign lady who contributed in the freedom struggle of India?
Answer:
Mrs. Annie Besant contributed in the freedom struggle of India.

Question 18.
When was the Propkarini Sabha established and by whom?
Answer:
Swami Dayanand got established the Propkarini Sabha in Udaipur in 1883.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 21 Ideological Changes and Social Reforms in Modern India

Question 19.
Name two social reformers who worked for social reforms among the tribals.
Answer:
Govind Guru and Suiji Bhagat worked for social reforms among the tribals.

Question 20.
Who founded the Samp Sabha and when?
Answer:
Govind Guru founded the Samp Sabha in 1883.

Question 21.
When was Rajput Hitkarini Sabha founded and where?
Answer:
In 1889, Rajput Hitkarini Sabha was founded in Ajmer.

Question 22.
What was the contribution of Rajput Hitkarini Sabha in the field of social reform?
Answer:
The Rajput Hitkarini Sabha made efforts to check polygamy and dowry system.

Question 23.
With whose efforts did the Government pass an act to abolish child marriage?
Answer:
Due to the efforts of Harvilas Sharda, the Government passed an act in 1929 to abolish child marriage.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 21 Ideological Changes and Social Reforms in Modern India

(VI) Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the social reforms of Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar.
Answer:
Iswhar Chandra Vidyasagar was a great social reformer of Bengal. Following were his social reforms—

  • He was born in a poor family and got higher education.
  • He tried his best to promote women education.

He got many schools opened for education of girls. He was a great supporter of widow marriage. Due to his efforts, widow marriages started. Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar himself got his son married to a widow. He persuades the Government to legalise the widow marriage. At last the Government passed Widow Remarriage Act according to which the widow marriage was declared legal.

Question 2.
Describe the contribution of Jyotiba Phule in the field of social reforms.
Answer:
Jyotiba Phule was a great social reformer of Maharashtra. Following were his social reforms—

  • Jyotiba Phule founded Satya Shodhak Samaj in Pune.
  • He fought constantly against the caste system and untouchability. He wrote a book ‘Gulamgiri’, laid emphasis on the improvement of the condition of ‘Dalits’.
  • Jyotiba Phule worked for women education. He started a school to give education to the girls. He trained his wife Savitri Bai to impart education to the girls.
  • He laid stress on improvement of condition of the widows and supported the widow marriage.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 21 Ideological Changes and Social Reforms in Modern India

Question 3.
Describe the social reforms of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan.
Answer:
Syed Ahmad Khan was bom in 1817 in Delhi. After his father’s death, he got a job in East India Company. Following were his social reforms—

  • He was distressed to see the backwardness of the Muslim community and started a campaign to educate the Muslim community in a modem way.
  • He wanted that the Muslims to give up their centuries old conservative thoughts and get modem education under the new education policy.
  • Keeping this aim in mind, he started a school in Delhi. After this, he established Mohammadan Anglo Oriental College at Aligarh in 1875. Later, this college was known as Aligarh Muslim University.
  • Syed Ahmed Khan spread education in the Muslim community.
  • He laid emphasis on communal unity and said that the Hindus and Muslims were the two eyes of mother India.
  • Syed Ahmad Khan also established the ‘Scientific Society’. He died in 1898 in Aligarh.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 21 Ideological Changes and Social Reforms in Modern India

Question 4.
Describe the role of Mrs. Annie Besant in the social reform movement of India.
Answer:
Mrs. Annie Besant was an Irish woman. She established Theosophical Society in India. This institute contributed greatly in the field of social reform in India. She studied Hindu religion was and after getting influenced by it, she adopted Indian clothes, food and tradition of India.

Annie Besant visited many Hindu pilgrimages and worked in the field of social reform living at Banaras. She founded the Central Hindu College at Banaras which was later converted into Banaras Hindu University. Mrs. Annie Besant also participated in the Indian freedom struggle movement.

Question 5.
Discuss the attitude of the British Government regarding the social evils prevalent in Indian society in the 19th century.
Answer:
In the 19th century, the British Empire had been established in India and western culture was spreading in the country. At that time many social evils such as Sati system, veil system, caste system, child marriage were prevalent in the Indian society.

Taking advantage of these evils, the British Government began to criticise the whole Indian civilization and culture. Instead of appreciating the virtues of the Indian culture and tradition, the Britishers laid emphasis on exposing its evils only. The outlook of the Britisher was unjustified.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 21 Ideological Changes and Social Reforms in Modern India

(VII) Essay Type Questions

Question 1.
Discuss the contribution of Swami Dayanand Saraswati in the field of social reforms.
Answer:
Contribution of Swami Dayanand Saraswati in the Field of Social Reforms Contribution of Swami Dayanand Saraswati in the field of social reforms can be described under the following points—

(1) Early life of Swami Dayanand Saraswati—
Swami Dayanand Saraswati was bom in 1824 in Gujarat. His childhood name was Mool Shankar. He left his house at the age of 14 years and got knowledge from Swami Virjananda in Mathura.

(2) Laying Emphasis on understanding the Vedas correctly—
Swami Dayanand laid emphasis on understanding the Vedas correctly. He said that if the essence of the Vedas is understood rightly, we shall get the solution of all the problem of India.

(3) Main Teachings—
Following were the main teachings of Swami Dayanand—

  • Everybody should be ready to accept the truth and reject false.
  • Everyone should behave lovingly, ethically and accordingly will all.
  • Ignorance should be eliminated and knowledge should be developed.
  • Opponent of Foreign Slavery—Swami Dayanand considered the foreign slavery’ to be a curse. He first of all used the words like Swadharma, Swadesh and Swabhasha.
  • Achievements of Arya Samaj—Swami Dayanand established Arya Samaj in 1875. Arya Samaj made many efforts to carry’ forward these thoughts.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 21 Ideological Changes and Social Reforms in Modern India

Following were the main achievements of Arya Samaj—

  1. It enabled the women and the Dalits to get right of studying the Vedas.
  2. Opposition of child marriage.
  3. Spread of education—Arya Samaj established many gurukuls and D.A.V. Schools which are playing an important role of expansion of education.
  4. There was an important role of the member of the Arya Samaj in the national freedom movement of India.

Question 2.
Discuss the efforts of Swami Vivekananda in the field of social reform.
Answer:
Efforts of Swami Vivekananda in the Field of Social Reforms

(1) Early Life of Swami Vivekananda—
Swami Vivekananda was a great social reformer of India. He was bom on 12 Jan., 1863, at Calcutta in Bengal. His childhood name was Narendra Dutta. He did his B.A. from English College. He was influenced by western intellect, but he did not get spiritual peace. After this, he made Ram Krishna Paramhans his Gum and got the knowledge of Vedandta from him. Ram Kriahna Paramhans named him ‘Vividi shnananda’ and later on the advice of Maharaja Ajit Singh, ruler of Khetri, he accepted the name Vivekananda.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 21 Ideological Changes and Social Reforms in Modern India

Question 3.
Role of Swami Vivekanand through Chicago Convention.
Answer:
Chicago Sarva Dharma Sammelan—
Swami Vivekananda participated in Sarva Dharma Sammelan (All religions conference) which was held in Chicago, a city of America, in Sept., 1893. He told the religious intellectuals present there, for two days about the Hindu religion. All the intellectuals present there, were influenced greatly by his speech. Basically he threw light on the greatness and liberalism of Hindu religion.

Teachings of Swami Vivekananda—Swami Vivekananda was distressed to see the poverty’ of India. He believed that serving the poor is the real service of God. He told that religion is the development of the existing divine power in men. It exists neither in books nor in religious principles. Swami Vivekananda created a feeling of nationalism in the people of India. Swami Vivekananda founded the Ram Krishna Mission in the name of his Gum. Ram Krishna Mission is serving the society in the whole country even today.

Question 4.
Describe the social reforms made in Rajasthan during the 19th century.
Answer:
Social Reforms in Rajasthan
In the 19th century, many social evils were prevalent in Rajasthan. Swami Dayanand Saraswati visited Karoli, Ajmer, Chittorgarh, Udaipur, Jodhpur etc. in Rajasthan. Swami Vvekananda also visited Alwar, Khetri etc. There was a great influence of these social reformers on the people of Rajasthan. Swami Dayanand Saraswati got established the Propkarini Sabha in Udaipur in 1883. Influenced by Arya Samaj, many social reforms were done.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 21 Ideological Changes and Social Reforms in Modern India

Efforts of the Social Reformers :

(1) Govind Guru—
Govind Gum was a great social reformer of the tribals. He was bom in Bansia village of Dungarpur and worked for social reforms in the tribals. He wanted to organise them. Govind Gum founded ‘Samp Sabha’ in 1883. He wanted to eliminate the superstitions prevalent in the tribesmen and promote a feeling of self-confidence and selfdependence among them. He advised the tribals not to drink wine and keep away from activities of theft and dacoity etc. He gave preference for opening schools to educate the tribals.

Govind Guru laid emphasis on the increased use of local goods and not to do forced labour. The Britishers were annoyed by the works of Govind Guru. They began to oppose Govind Guru. Thousands of Bhils gathered at Mangarh hill under the leadership of Govind Guru in 1913. The British army attacked the surrounded the Mangarh hill and attacked the assembly, killing 1500 people. Govind Guru was arrested.

Other Social Reformers and Efforts of Social Reforms :

(2) Surji Bhagat—Suiji Bhagat was also a social reformer of the tribals. He was bom in Lasodia village in a Kharadi family. He also worked for social reforms. Govind Gum and Surji Bhagat wanted the development of the tribals alongwith social reforms.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 21 Ideological Changes and Social Reforms in Modern India

(3) Formation of Laws for Elimination of Social Evils—Many rulers of Rajasthan formed laws to eliminate the social evils prevalent in their states—

  1. Sati system was declared as illegal in Bundi in 1822.
  2. Female infanticide was banned in Kota in 1834.
  3. Tyag Pratha was banned in Jodhpur in 1841.
  4. Human Trafficking was banned in Jaipur in 1847.
  5. Dakan Pratha was banned in Udaipur in 1853.
  6. Social Reforms of Rajput Hitkarini Sabha—In 1889, Rajput Hitkarini Sabha was founded in Ajmer. This institute made efforts to check polygamy and dowry system.
  7. Contribution of Harvilas Sharda—Due to the efforts of Harvilas Sharda of Ajmer, the British Government passed an act in 1929 to abolish child marriage.
  8. Social Reforms of Chand Karan Sharda and Sukhada Devi—Chand Karan Sharda and Sukhada Devi worked for the upliftment of the Dalits.
  9. Social Reforms of Pandit Hari Narayan Sharma—Pandit Hari Narayan Sharma of Alwar, opened the doors of the temple at his house for Harijans and made efforts to remove to abolish caste-based discrimination. Jai Singh, ruler of Alwar was influenced by his social reforms and appointed him his advisor.
  10. Social Reforms in other Parts of Rajasthan—Thakkar Bapa, Kunwar Madan Singh, Mama Baleshwar Dayal etc. worked for social reforms in other parts of Rajasthan.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 21 Ideological Changes and Social Reforms in Modern India

Question 5.
Describe the evil practices of present society in brief and make a plan to abolish any one of these evils.
Answer:
Evil Practices of Present Society— Following are the main evil practices of present society—

  • Child Marriage—Even today child marriages of boys and girls are made in the society.
  • Dowry—When parents of groom demand cash or other articles from the parents of bride on the occasion of marriage, it is called dowry. This tradition is still continue in the society.
  • Foeticide—In the present, killing of a girl child in her mother’s womb has been an evil practice.
  • Other Evil Practices—Pardha Pratha, Casteism, Dakan Pratha, Widow Marriage etc. are still going on in the society.

Dowry System
In our country dowry system is much prevalent. Many members are taking place due to dowry. Newly married women are expelled from the homes. When a poor person takes loan for the marriage of his daughter, he remains indebted throughout his life.

Awakening has to be brought in the society for abolishing it and the youth will have to start a social movement against it. The government will have to implement dowry system related law in an appropriate manner. Every young girl and boy will have come forward to abolish this evil practice.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 21 Ideological Changes and Social Reforms in Modern India

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