Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 8 Social Science Chapter 20 Freedom Fight of 1857
RBSE Class 8 Social Science Fall of Mughal Empire and 18th Century’s India Text Book Questions and Answers
Write the correct answers of question no. one and two in the bracket :
Which date was decided to commence the Revolution of 1857?
(a) 8 April
(b) 29 March
(c) 31 May
(d) 9 May
(a) 8 April
Who led the revolution in Kota?
(a) Jai Dayal
(b) Laxmi Bai
(c) Kushal Singh
(d) Kunwar Singh
(a) Jai Dayal
1857 Revolution started from where in Rajasthan?
The revolt of 1857 began from Nasirabad in Rajasthan.
Which British officer was killed in Kota?
Major Burton was killed in Kota.
Which poets created the songs of 1857 Revolution?
Bankidas, Surajmal Misan, Aarha Jawanji, Barhatt Durgadutt, Aarha Jaduram, Asia Buddhji, Gopaldan etc. were the poets who composed songs on the revolt of 1857.
In 1857 Revolution, who was the first revolutionary died as martyr?
The first Indian martyr of the 1857 Revolution was Mangal Pandey.
Write a brief note on the prominent happenings of the revolutions held in Auva?
(1) Revolt in the Erinpura Cantonment—On 21 August, 1857, a battalion deployed in the Erinpura cantonment, revolted against the Britishers in Abu and attacked the British officers there. They reached Erinpura and looted the cantonment and raising the slogan of “Chalo Dilli and Maaro Firangi”, they left for Delhi. The soldier met Thakur of Auwa Kushal Singh at Kherwa. On the appeal of Thakur Kushal Singh, the feudals of Asop, Alniyawas and Gular reached Auwa with their armies. The feudals of Khejarla (Marwar) and Salumbar, Roopnagar, Lehsani etc. of Mewar also sent their armies for their help.
(2) Defeat of the Royal Army of Jodhpur State by Kushal Singh—Takhat Singh, ruler of Jodhpur sent his royal army to Auwa, against the revolutionary soldiers. The army of Kushal Singh defeated the royal army of Jodhpur at ‘Bithoda’ on 8 September, 1857.
(3) Defeat of the British Army by Kushal Singh—When the A.G.G. George Lawrence heard the news of the defeat of the royal army of Jodhpur State, he reached Auwa with British army. But Kushal Singh defeated George Lawrence on 18 September, 1857. The political agent of Jodhpur Me Monsen. was killed by the revolutionary soldiers. His head was hanged up on the gate of the fort of Auwa.
(4) Attack on Auwa by the British Army— In January, 1858, under the leadership of Holmes, a British army attacked Auwa. Thakur Kushal Singh had to take refuse at a feudal of Salumbar. The Britishers gave bribe to the fort keeper of Auwa who opened the gates of the fort. By this way, the British army captured the fort of Auwa. Brutal atrocities were done on the people of Auwa by the British Army.
(5) Surrender of Kushal Singh—In 1860, Kushal Singh surrendered before the Britishers in Neemuch. He was prosecuted but later on he was released.
Write a brief introduction of Doongji- Jawaharji.
Doongji and Jawaharji were uncle and nephew. They were famous freedom fighters of Sikar. They fought bravely with the British army of Bikaner and Jodhpur. They became immortal in the folk-songs due to their sacrifices. The contemporary poets composed songs of the bravery of Doongji and Jawahaiji.
Describe the reasons of 1857 Revolution?
Describe the causes of the Freedom struggle of 1857 in brief.
The Reasons of 1857 Revolution Following were the reasons of 1857 Revolution—
(1) Political Factors—
(i) Policy of Expansion of the British Empire—Lord Wellesley and Hastings adopted a policy of expansion of the British empire. Lord Dalhousie was a great imperialist. He adopted the policy of the ‘Doctrine of Lapse’. Acting upon this policy he annexed Sambhalpur, Jaitpur, Satara, Nagpur and Jhansi in the British empire. There was a great resentment in the rulers of these states due to this policy of ‘Doctrine of Lapse’.
(ii) Insult of the Mughal Emperor—The Mughal emperor was insulted by the Britishers. Instead of his name, the name of the King of England was inscribed on the coins. This annoyed the people of India.
(iii) To Discontinue the Pension of the Maratha Peshwa—Earlier, the Britisher snatched the state of the Maratha Peshwa and gave him pension. But after sometime, his son and the new Peshwa Nana Sahib’s pension was discontinued. This annoyed the people of India.
(iv) Interference by the Britishers in the Internal Affairs of the Indian Rulers—During the extension of the British Empire, the Britishers had promised the Indian rulers that they would not interfere in their internal affairs. But they interfered the internal affairs of the Indian rulers through their political agents. Later on, they annexed Awadh State in the British empire.
(2) Social Factors—
- Insulting behaviour with the Indian Citizen—The Britishers insulted the Indian citizen and behaved badly with them. An ordinary Britisher also could insult the greatest Indian.
- Making fun of the Indian Customs and Traditions—The Britishers used to make fun of the Indian customs and traditions.
- Not to appoint Indians on high posts— The British Govt, did not appoint Indians on high posts. Due to this, there was a great resentment in the Indian society .
(3) Religious Factors—
- Promotion of Christianity—The British Govt, followed the policy of promotion of Christianity. The prisoners were forced to accept Christianity in the prisons. Their punishment was reduced and they were given more facilities in comparison of other prisoners. These who accepted Christianity, were appointed on high posts.
- To make fun of Indian Gods and Goddesses—The Britishers make fun of Indian Gods and Goddesses. They also laughed at the Indian ways of worshipping.
(4) Economic Factors—
- Economic Exploitation—Before the arrival of the Britishers, India was a wealthy country. But when they came into power, they exploited India ruthlessly.
- Loot – of Bengal—Bengal was a wealthy state before the arrival of the Britishers. But the Britishers looted it too much and poverty prevailed there. Lakhs of people were killed in famines. The Britishers collected heavy land revenue from the farmers and they were forced to leave cultivation. Many old land owners lost their lands for not paying taxes.
- Destruction of Industries—The Britishers imposed heavy taxes on Indian goods to absorb the goods made in England. They exploited the tradesmen and made many atrocities on them that they gave up their patrimonial occupation.
- To earn huge profits from Rajasthan—In Rajasthan too, the Britishers started to receive Kharaj heavily from the rulers. They also established their control on economic resources.
The Britishers made a complete control over opium and salt trade in Rajasthan. They made treaties with all the states and imposed chungi on salt. This enraged the people of Rajasthan. To establish a monopoly over the opium in Hadoti (South Rajputana) and gain control over opium in Hadoti, in comparison to Bengali opium, heavy taxes were imposed. Consequently, the farmers and the traders had to suffer huge losses. The Britishers earned huge profits from salt trade in the entire Rajasthan. Other industries and trades in Rajasthan were destroyed.
(5) Military Factors—
- Annexation of Awadh into British Empire—In 1856 Awadh was annexed into British empire by the Britishers. There was a resentment in the army of Bengal because most of the soldiers were from Awadh in the army of Bengal. This aroused a feeling of rebellion in them.
- To impose ban on the tradition of the soldiers—The Britishers imposed ban on the life style and eating habits of the soldiers. The Indian soldiers were sent into foreign countries against their will. Due to this, there was a resentment in the Indian soldiers.
- Lower Salaries of the Indian Soldiers- The Indian soldiers were given lower salaries. They had to pay for their uniforms also.
- Presence of the fat of cows and pigs on the cartridges—The Indian soldiers were dissatisfied by the presence of the fat of cows and pigs on the cartridges. These had to be tom by teeth before using them. For all these reasons, a feeling of rebellion against the* Britishers created in the Indian soldiers.
(6) Role of local poets and literary person— Bankidas, Surajmal Misan, Barhatt Durgadutt, Arha Jaduram and many writers criticised the British Govt for committing atrocities on innocent Indian people. They inspired the people and rulers to revolt against the Britishers.
Describe the prominent happenings of the 1857 Revolution?
Major Events of 1857 Revolution Following were the major events of the revolt of 1857 Revolution—
(1) Planning of the Revolt of 1857—
The planning of the revolt of 1857, was mainly prepared by Nana Sahib Peshwa and his associates Azimullah and Rangoji Bapu under the leadership of the Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah. The revolt was to be started on 31 May, 1857 in the whole India.
(2) Preparations for Starting the Revolt—
In this connection, secret meetings were held in the Red Fort. The messengers of the revolt paraded the symbols of the revolt—the lotus flower and chapati in the different parts of India.
(3) Plan could not be implemented—
The revolt was to be started on 31 May, 1857 at all places but it could not take place due to the incident caused by the fat plated cartridges. The revolt started before 31 May, 1857. The fat plated cartridges were distributed among the soldiers in the Barrackpur cantonment. They refused to use them. One soldier Mangal Pandey shot two British officers dead with his gun. Mangal Pandey was arrested and he was hanged on 8 April, 1857.
(4) Revolt in Meerut—
Fat plated cartridges were distributed among the soldiers of a battalion in Meerut. But they refused to use them. All the soldiers were arrested on May 9, 1857. The soldiers present in Meerut, revolted on May 10, 1857 and got their arrested associates freed. Many British officers were killed. The soldiers left for Delhi. They captured Delhi on 11 May, 1857 and Bahadur Shah was declared the Emperor.
(5) Revolt in Kanpur—
Nana Sahib and Tantya Tope led the revolt in Kanpur. They captured Kanpur.
(6) Revolt in Other Places—
Under the leadership of Begum Hazrat Mahal in Awadh, the people of Awadh started their struggle. Rani Laxmibai in Jhansi, Babu Kunwar Singh in Bihar, Diwan Maniram and Kandpareshwar Singh in Assam, Surender Shahi and Ujjwal Shahi in Orissa, lead the revolt of 1857.
(7) Steps taken by the British Govt, to crush the revolt—
British Governor General Lord Canning called armies from Madras, Bombay and Burma and Lanka. The Sikh regiment of Punjab and the Gorkha regiment of Nepal supported the Britishers. The commander-in-chief General Neil got Banaras and Allahabad freed from the revolutionaries. The army of Nana Sahib was also defeated in Kanpur. The Britishers occupied Delhi and imprisoned Bahadur Shah. His two sons were killed by the Britishers and Bahadur Shah was sent to Rangoon prison.
(8) Struggle of Tantya Tope and Laxmibai against the Britishers—
Tantya Tope and Rani Laxmibai fought bravely with the Britishers. Some traitors opened the gates of the fort, but Laxmibai saved herself and reached Kalpi. Tantya Tope also reached there. Both attacked Gwalior. British army surrounded Gwalior but Laxmibai saved herself and went away from there. But she was surrounded by the enemy and laid down her life fighting against the Britishers. Tantya Tope was also arrested and hanged. By this way, Mangal Pandey, Tantya Tope and Rani Laxmibai sacrificed their lives in the first war of Freedom struggle.
What were the results of 1857 Revolution?
Results of 1857 Revolution Following were the results of 1857 Revolution—
(1) To reward the loyal rulers of the states by the British Govt.—During the time of the rebellion, rulers of the states had supported the British Govt. For this, the British Govt, rewarded them. The Doctrine of Lapse was ended and the rulers of the states were allowed to adopt.
(2) India came under the direct rule of the British Crown—As a result of the rebellion of 1857, instead of the company rule, India came under the direct rule of the British crown.
(3) Adoption of the policy of elimination of the powers of Feudals—During the rebellion the feudals had opposed the Britishers. Hence the British Govt, adopted the policy of elimination of the powers of the feudals. Instead of military resources, cash amount was taken from the feudals. The armies of the feudals were dismissed. Their judicial rights were snatched away. Their special rights were also abolished. Instead of feudals, English educated experienced and loyal persons were appointed in the bureaucracy. Consequently, a loyal English educated middle class developed.
(4) Development of railways and road system—The Britishers expanded the railways and road system for fulfilling their military and business interests.
(5) Arrangement of English Education—The Britishers made arrangement of English education for the rulers, so that they could adopt the British life style maintain their loyalty towards the British crown and western civilization.
(6) Influencing the future British policies in India—The rebellion of 1857 influenced the future British policies to a great extent. The influence of this rebellion is visible in all the decisions taken by the later Governor Generals. The aim for which Lord Dufferin allowed for the establishment of the Indian National Congress during his reign was that the Indians could get a platform to express their desires and feelings to avoid like a revolt of 1857 in future. In the later period, the freedom fighters specially the revolutionaries got inspiration from the revolt of 1857.
(7) Influence on the Whole World—The revolt of 1857 had an influence on the whole world.
This revolt was the largest and greatest challenge for the European imperialism for the first time. No other great struggle then this was seen in another revolution of other countries.
(8) The First Freedom Struggle of India— The Britisher tried to limit the effect of this revolt by calling it a ‘military rebellion’ instead of the freedom struggle. But Vir Sawarker proved it the first Freedom Struggle of India.
(9) To create the feeling of patriotism among the people of India—Although this revolt remained unsuccessful, yet it created the feeling of patriotism in the people of India. This revolt continued to give inspiration to freedom agitation in future.
RBSE Class 8 Social Science Fall of Mughal Empire and 18th Century’s India Important Questions and Answers
I. Objective Questions :
Which British officer had transformed the East India Company into a political organisation from the business organisation?
Which was the policy of Lord Dalhousie which caused resentment in the Indian rulers?
(a) Administrative refomls
(b) Doctrine of Lapse
(c) Military policy
(d) Subsidiary alliance system
(b) Doctrine of Lapse
Which resource of salt production was snatched by the Britishers from the rulers of Jaipur and Jodhpur?
When was the revolt of 1857 to be started by the revolutionaries at all places in the whole India?
(a) 31 May, 1857
(b) 9 May, 1857
(c) 10 June, 1857
(d) 4 June, 1857
(a) 31 May, 1857
Who was the Indian soldier of Barrackpur Cantonment, who opposed the fat related cartridges and shot two British officers dead?
(b) Jai Dayal
(c) Mohammad Khan
(d) Mangal Pandey
(d) Mangal Pandey
II. Fill in the blanks :
1. In Jodhpur, Thakur ………………… of Alniyawas was very angry with the political agent.
2. ………………… writing a letter to Thakur Phul Singh of Pipaliya in 1914 had scolded the rulers.
3. The Britishers had established their control on ……………….. .
4. Mangal Pandey was hanged on ……………….. .
5. Bankidas and ………………… condemned the Britishers and inspired the people and rulers against the Britishers.
1. Ajit Singh
2. Surajmal Misan
3. Opium and Salt
4. 8 April, 1857
5. Surajmal Misan and many writers.
III. Find out the true and false statements in the following questions :
1. Lord Dalhausie had introduced the policy of Doctrine of Lapse. (✓)
2. The revolt of 1857 started in the reign of Lord Dalhausie. (✗)
3. The revolutionaries had planned to start the revolt of 1857 on 31 May, 1857 in the entire country. (✓)
4. In Awadh, under the leadership of Hazrat Mahal, the revolutionaries started the struggle. (✓)
5. Mangal Pandey was hanged on 9 May, 1857. (✗)
IV. Matching Type Questions :
Match the contents of Column ‘A’ with Column ‘B’ :
Column ‘A’ – Column ‘B’
1. Begum Hazratmahal – 1. Kanpur
2. Rani Laxmibai – 2. Auwa
3. Kushal Singh – 3. Jhansi
4. Nana Sahib – 4. Awadh
5. Major Burton – 5. Bihar
6. Kunwar Singh – 6. Kota
Column ‘A’ – Column ‘B’
1. Begum Hazratmahal – 4. Awadh
2. Rani Laxmibai – 3. Jhansi
3. Kushal Singh – 2. Auwa
4. Nana Sahib – 1. Kanpur
5. Major Burton – 6. Kota
6. Kunwar Singh – 5. Bihar
V. Very Short Answer Type Questions
What have you learnt from Rani Laxmi Bai’s warfare tactics?
- Fighting against the enemy bravely.
- Escaping intelligently according to the circumstances and adopt policy of fighting again.
- When no other alternative was found, maximum damage was caused to enemy, fighting against them till last breath.
What inspiration do you get from the contribution of Dungji and Jhawaiji in 1857 revolution?
Before 1857 revolution two famous soldiers uncle and nephew—Dungji and Jhawaiji were from Sikar area. They fought against the British forces of Bikaner and Jodhpur. We get inspiration of sacrifice for country from them.
Which Governor General had introduced the policy of Doctrine of Lapse?
Lord Dalhousie had introduced the policy of Doctrine of Lapse.
Name the four states which were annexed into British empire by Lord Dalhousie according to his policy of Doctrine of Lapse.
According to the ‘Doctrine of Lapse’ Lord Dalhousie annexed Satara, Sambhalpur, Jaitpur and Jhansi into the British empire.
According to you, in 1857 revolution what was the main cause of dissatisfaction of the Indian soldiers?
The main cause of dissatisfaction of the Indian soldiers was the presence of the fat of cows and pigs on the cartridges, which were to be tom by teeth, before being used.
Name the four poets and writers who inspired the people and mlers of Rajasthan for revolt of 1857.
Make a list of any four literary persons of Rajputana, who inspired the public in ‘1857 Revolution’.
- Surajmal Misan
- Arha Jawanji
- Barhatt Durgadutt.
Which symbols of the revolt were circulated among the people in many part of India by the revolutionaries?
‘The lotus flower’ and ‘chapati’ were the symbols of revolt which were circulated among the people in many part of India by the revolutionaries.
By whom was the planning of the revolt of 1857 mainly done?
The planning of the revolt of 1857, was mainly done by Nana Sahib Peshwa and his companions Azimulla and Rangoji Bapu.
When was the revolt of .1857 to be started in all the parts of India under the leadership of the Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah?
The revolt of 1857 was to be started on 31 May, 1857 in all the parts of India under the leadership of the Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah.
Who led the revolt of 1857 in Kanpur?
Nanasahib and Tantya Tope led the revolt of 1857 in Kanpur.
Who led the revolt of 1857 in Awadh?
Begum Hazrat Mahal led the revolt of 1857 in Awadh.
Who was the Governor General of India at the time of the revolt of 1857?
Lord Canning was the Governor General of India at the time of the revolt of 1857.
Name three freedom fighters who became martyr in the revolt of 1857.
- Mangal Pandey,
- Tantya Tope,
- Rani Laxmibai.
Where and when did the revolt of 1857 take place first of all in Rajasthan?
The revolt of 1857 took place on 28 May, 1857 in Nasirabad first of all in Rajasthan.
When did the soldiers of Erinpura Cantonment revolt against the Britishers?
The soldiers of Erinpura Cantonment revolted against the Britishers on 21 August, 1857.
Which slogan were raised by the soldiers of Erinpura proceeding to Delhi?
The soldiers of Erinpura raised the slogan ‘Chalo Dilli, Maaro Firangi’, while proceeding to Delhi.
Who led the soldiers of Erinpura in the revolt of 1857?
Thakur Kushal Singh of Auwa led the soldier of Erinpura in the revolt of 1857.
Who defeated the royal army of the ruler of Jodhpur and when?
Thakur Kushal Singh of Auwa defeat the royal army of the ruler of Jodhpur on 8 September, 1857.
Who defeated the A.G.G. and when?
Thakur Kushal Singh defeated A.G.G. on 18 Sept., 1857.
Which was the political agent of Jodhpur who was killed by the revolutionaries of Auwa?
The political agent of Jodhpur Me Monsen was killed by the revolutionaries of Auwa.
Whose head was hanged up at the gate of the fort of Auwa during the revolt of 1857?
The head of political agent of Jodhpur Monch Mason was hanged up at the gate of the fort of Auwa during the revolt of 1857.
Who led the revolt of 1857 in Kota?
Jai Dayal and Mehrab Khan led the revolt of 1857 in Kota.
Who declared firstly the revolt of 1857 as the first freedom struggle of India?
Vir Sawarkar firstly declared the revolt of 1857 as the first freedom struggle of India.
VI. Short Answer Type Questions
Describe the economic causes of the revolt of 1857.
(1) Exploitation of India by the Britishers—
Before the arrival of the Britishers, India was a wealthy country and it was called ‘The Golden Bird’. It was a main centre of trade in the world. But after gaining political power, the Britishers exploited the country ruthlessly.
(2) Loot in Bengal—
Before the arrival of the Britishers Bengal was a wealthy state. But the Britishers looted it badly and consequently Bengal became a country of poverty. Many people died in the famines. The Britishers imposed heavy revenue on the farmers and they were forced to give up cultivation. Many old land owners lost their land for not buying land revenue to the Britishers.
(3) Destruction of Industries—
The Britishers imposed heavy taxes on the Indian goods to absorb goods made in England. They committed atrocities on the tradesmen and consequently they gave up their old occupation.
(4) To collect Kharaj in heavy quantity from the rulers in Rajasthan—
In Rajasthan also, the Britishers began to collect Kharaj in heavy quantity from the rulers and they began to maintain control over the economic resources also.
What was the role of poets and writers in the revolt of 1857?
The writers and poets were also annoyed by the policies of the Britishers. They inspired the people and rulers to participate in freedom struggle. Bankidas of Jodhpur, Surajmal Misan of Bundi, Aarha Jawanji, Barhatt Durgadutt, Aarha Jaduram, Asia Buddhji, Gopaldan etc. writers and poets condemned the atrocities of the Britishers. They inspired the people and rulers of Rajasthan to struggle against the Britishers.
Bankidas cautioned the rulers of Rajasthan not to sit idle and sacrifice their all for the independence of their motherland. Surajmal Misan wrote a letter to Thakur Phulsingh of Pipaliya in 1914 and scolded the rulers. The writers and poets composed folk songs in the praise of Doongji and Jawaharji who looted the cantonments of the Britishers.
They praised the ruler of Bikaner who had refused to hand over Jawahaiji to the Britishers. But they criticised the ruler of Jodhpur who had handed over Doongji to the Britishers. By this way, the poets and writers inspired the people feudals and rulers of Rajasthan and made explosives for the revolt of 1857.
Why was the feudal class annoyed by the Britishers?
(1) The feudal class used to collect taxes from the people and gave it to the ruler. During the time of war, it provided military power to the ruler. Therefore the feudals had a great respect in the court. But after the subsidiary alliances, the dependence of-the rulers on the feudal class had ended and the rulers reduced the rights of the-feudaLclass. The feudals^regardcd the British rule responsible for this.
(2) The feudals of Mewar especially Rawat Kesari Singh (Salumber), thought that regarded the ill-treatment was being done by the Maharana of Udaipur, at the behest of the Britishers.
(3) In Jodhpur Thakur Ajit Singh (Alniyawas) was annoyed by the political agent.
(4) In Jaipur, Diwan Jhuntharam, on the basis of support of the Britishers, deprived the feudal class of their ancestral rights.
(5) The feudals of Auwa, Ashop, Gular and Alaniyawas were angry with the rulers of Jodhpur and regarded Britisher as the reason of their weakness.
(6) The freedom of making decision of the rulers and the feudals had been abolished during the company rule.
Describe the role of Nanasahib, Tantya Tope and Rani Laxmibai in the revolt of 1857.
Nanasahib and Tantya Tope led the revolt in Kanpur. They occupied Kanpur. But after sometime, the army of Nanasahib was defeated by the Britishers.
Rani Jhansi and Tantya Tope fought bravely with the Britishers. Due to the betrayal of some persons, Rani Jhansi had to leave the fort of Jhansi and she reached Kalpi. Tantya Tope also joined her army. Both attacked Gwalior. There was a fierce battle between the revolutionaries the Britishers. Rani Laxmibai was surrounded by the Britishers. She sacrificed her life fighting against the Britishers. Tantya Tope continued to struggle against the Britishers. But in the long run he was arrested due to the betrayal and hanged by the Britishers.
Which incident upset the plan of starting the revolt of 1857 on 31 May, 1857?
Under the leadership of Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah, the revolt was to be started on 31 May, 1857 in the whole India. But the distribution of the fat plated cartridges among the Indian soldiers upset the plan of starting revolt on 31 May, 1857. On 29 March, 1857, the fat plated cartridges were distributed among the soldiers of the cantonment of Barrackpur. But they refused to use them. At this time, a soldier named Mangal Pandey shot dead two British officers present there. Mangal Pandey was arrested and hanged on 8 April, 1857 by the Britishers.
The soldiers of the battalion of Meerut also refused to use the fat plated cartridges. They w’ere all arrested on 9 May, 1857. This annoyed the other soldiers. On 10 May, 1857, the soldiers revolted and got their companions freed. Many British officers were killed. The soldiers left for Delhi. On 11 May, 1857, they occupied Delhi and declared Bahadur Shah as Emperor.
VII. Essay Type Questions
Describe the contribution of Rajasthan in the freedom struggle of 1857.
The description of the contribution of Rajasthan in the freedom struggle of 1857, can be made under the following points—
(1) Revolt in Nasirabad—In Rajasthan, the revolt of 1857 started from Nasirabad. On 28 May, 1857, the soldiers of the 15th Native Bengal infantry, attacked the British officers. Many British officers were killed. After this, the revolutionaries left for Delhi.
(2) Revolt in Neemuch—In Neemuch a soldier, named Mohammad Ali Beg challenged Colonel Abbott and the revolt started on 3 June, 1857 in Neemuch also. The Britisher ran away and took refuge in Udaipur. British captain Showers took the army of Mewar and reached Neemuch. By that time, the revolutionaries had left for Delhi from there. On reaching revolutionary soldiers Shahpura, the ruler of Shahpura welcomed them but did not open the doors of his fort for the Britishers. From these, the soldiers of Neemuch also left for Delhi.
(3) Revolt in Erinpura Cantonment—On 21 August, 1857, a battalion stationed in the Erinpura Cantonment, revolted against the Britishers in Abu. On reaching Erinpura, the soldiers looted the cantonment. They raised slogan ‘Chalo Dilli and Maaro Firangi’ and left for Delhi
(4) Role of Kushal Singh—Kushal Singh was a great freedom fighter of Auwa. He led the revolutionaries of Erinpura. On the appeal of Kushal Singh, the feudals of Asop, Alniyawas and Gular, reached Auwa alongwith their armies. The ruler of Jodhpur sent his royal army to Auwa against the revolutionary soldiers. But the army of Kushal Singh defeated the army of Jodhpur at Bithoda on 8 September, 1857. On hearing the news of this defeat, A.G.G. George Lawrence reached Auwa alongwith his army. But the army of Kushal Singh defeated George Lawrence on 18 September, 1857. The political agent of Jodhpur Monck Mason was killed by the revolutionaries. His head was hanged upon the gate of the fort of Auwa.
In January, 1858, under the leadership of Holmes an army attacked Auwa. Thakur Kushal Singh had to run away from there and he took refuge it a feudal of Salumber. The Britishers occupied the fort of Auwa. In 1860, in Neemuch, Kushal Singh surrendered before the Britishers. He was prosecuted in which after sometime, he was released.
(5) Revolt in Kota—Maharao Ram Singh ruler of Kota, was a supporter of the Britishers, but he could not take any action against the soldiers due to the public dissatisfaction. Major Burton put pressure on Maharao of Kota to take action against the soldiers. Due to this, there was a great resentment in the army. The soldiers attacked the residency on 15 October, 1857 and cut off the head, of Major Burton. Major Burton’s head was circulated in the entire city of Kota. The revolutionaries established their control in the whole administration of the state.
Jai Dayal and Mehrab Khan were the famous revolutionary leaders of Kota. Under their leadership the revolutionaries established their control in the administration of Kota for about six months. At last under the leadership of General Roberts, the British army got Kota city freed from the revolutionaries. Jai Dayal and Mehrab Khan were arrested and hanged in public.
(6) Contribution of other Revolutionaries— The army of Dholpur and the people of Bharatpur also opposed the Britishers. Some feudals of Rajputana accepted the leadership of Kushal Singh of Auwa and adopted the policy of opposing the Britisher. The revolutionaries got the support of the local farmer, common people both communities of Hindu and Muslims at every place.
(7) Contribution of Doongji and Jawaharji— Prior to the revolt of 1857, Doongji and Jawaharji were famous freedom fighters of the region of Sikar. They struggled against the British armies of Bikaner and Jodhpur. They became immoral in the folk songs due to their sacrifices.