RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 19 Fall of Mughal Empire and 18th Century’s India

Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 8 Social Science Chapter 19 Fall of Mughal Empire and 18th Century’s India

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 19 Fall of Mughal Empire and 18th Century’s India

RBSE Class 8 Social Science Fall of Mughal Empire and 18th Century’s India InText Questions and Answers

(Activity)
(Page 126)

Question 1.
What were the reasons of the fall of Mughal Empire?
Answer:
Following were the reason of the fall of the Mughal empire—

  • Intolerant religious policy of Aurangzeb was responsible for the fall of the Mughal empire.
  • Inefficiency of the Mughal rulers was also responsible for the decline of the Mughal empire.
  • Along with the Mughal emperors, there was also a decline of the Mughal nobles.
  • Economic downfall was also responsible for the decline of the Mughal empire.
  • There was no law of succession in the Mughals.
  • The invasions of foreign rulers caused huge loss to the Mughal empire.
  • There was a lack of nationality in most of the Mughal emperors.
  • The arrival of European communities was also responsible for the decline of Mughal empire.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 19 Fall of Mughal Empire and 18th Century’s India

RBSE Class 8 Social Science Fall of Mughal Empire and 18th Century’s India Text Book Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Who was the first Maratha emperor who filled nationality in them?
Answer:
Shivaji filled the feeling of nationalism in the Marathas for the first time.

Question 2.
Which Rajasthani Emperor helped Yashwant Rao Holkar?
Answer:
Ranjeet Singh, the ruler of Bharatpur helped Yashwant Rao Holkar against the Britishers.

Question 3.
Gandharv Baisi was lived in whose court?
Answer:
Gandharv Baisi lived in the court of Sawai Pratap Singh, the ruler of Jaipur.

Question 4.
On what basis the successors were decided in Mughal Empire?
Answer:
There was no rule of succession in the Mughals. The power of sword decided the succession among the Mughal rulers.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 19 Fall of Mughal Empire and 18th Century’s India

Question 5.
Describe the condition of Marathas in 18th century.
Answer:
In the first half of the eighteenth century, the Peshwas became more powerful than the Chhatrapati rulers. Peshwa Baji Rao extended the Maratha influence in Malwa, Gujarat and Bundelkhand. Under the leadership of Balaji Baji Rao the Marathas had established their supremacy in most of the parts of India. By 1752, Mughal emperors and ministers too came under the control of the Marathas. In 1761, in the Third Battle of Panipat, the Marathas suffered a defeat. In spite of this defeat, the Marathas were still the strongest power in India. The Britishers fought for three times with the Marathas and established their control over them.

Question 6.
Describe the achievements of Sawai Jai Singh?
Answer:
Following were the achievements of Sawai Jai Singh—

  1. Sawai Jai Singh was a famous and powerful ruler of Amer. In the first half of the 18th century Sawai Jai Singh obtained the Subedari of Malwa.
  2. Due to the interference of Sawai Jai Singh in the succession battle of Bundi the Marathas got an opportunity to enter into Rajasthan.
  3. To prevent the increasing influence of the Marathas, Sawai Jai Singh and some rulers convened a conference of Rajput rulers at Hurda in 1734. By organising this conference, they tried to unite the Rajputs.
  4. Sawai Jai Singh founded the Jaipur city and built observatories (Jantar-Mantar) at five places in India. He built also many forts, temples and palaces.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 19 Fall of Mughal Empire and 18th Century’s India

Question 7.
Which Mughal commanders established their own independent regions? Name any three.
Answer:
The Mughal commanders who established their own independent regions are mainly three—

  • Nizam Chinkilich Khan
  • Saadat Khan
  • Murshid Kuli Khan

Question 8.
When was Hurda Meeting organised and what was its purpose?
Or
What was Hurda Meeting? What were its aims in your views?
Answer:

  1. Hurda Conference—Due to the interference of Sawai Jai Singh in the succession battle of Bundi, the Marathas got an opportunity to enter into Rajasthan. To prevent the increasing influence of the Marathas, Sawai Jai Singh and some rulers convened a conference of Rajput rulers at Hurda in 1734.
  2. Aims of Hurda Conference—Following were the aim of Hurda Conference—
    • To prevent the increasing influence of the Marathas.
    • Not to give an opportunity to the Marathas to interfere in Rajasthan.
    • To maintain the unity of Rajputs.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 19 Fall of Mughal Empire and 18th Century’s India

Question 9.
Describe any four reasons responsible for the downfall of Mughal Empire.
Answer:
Following were four causes of the decline of the Mughal Empire—
1. Incapability of the Mughal Rulers—All the successors of Aurangzeb were inefficient and luxurious. They spent their most of the time in seeking luxury. This lack of morality became the reason of their downfall.

2. Decline of the Feudal Lord and Elite— Along with the Mughal Emperors, there was also a fall of the Mughal feudal lords. They also spent a luxurious life. They became inefficient and characterless. They had formed groups and began to fight for their selfish gains. They ignored the interests of the state and remained busy in fulfilling their self-interests.

3. Lack of the Law of Succession—There was no law of succession in the Mughals. There was no definite rule that after the death of the Mughal ruler, his elder son would attain the thrown. After the death of the Mughal ruler, the decision of his successor was made on the basis of might of swords, resulting in a huge loss to the state.

4. Foreign Invasions—The invasions of foreign rulers Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah Abdali caused huge loss to the Mughal Empire. It weakened the military power of the Mughals. Due to the foreign invasions, many provinces became independent.

Question 10.
Describe the political conditions of any three Rajput states in the 18th century.
Answer:
Political Condition of the Rajput States in the 18th Century—
1. Amer (Jaipur)—Sawai Jai Singh was a famous and powerful ruler of Amer. In the first half of the 18th century, he got the Subedari of Malwa. Due to the interference of Sawai Jai Singh in the succession battle of Bundi, the Marathas got an opportunity to enter into Rajasthan. To prevent the increasing influence of the Marathas, Sawai Jai Singh and some rulers convened a conference of Rajput rulers at Hurda in 1734. They tried to show the unity of the Rajputs by organising Hurda Conference.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 19 Fall of Mughal Empire and 18th Century’s India

After the death of Sawai Jai Singh, a conflict broke out in his sons Ishwari Singh and Madho Singh. The Marathas got an opportunity to interfere in Jaipur State. After Sawai Jai Singh, all the rulers of Amer, had to face the invasion of the Marathas. Sawai Pratap Singh was a powerful ruler of Amer and he defeated the Marathas in the battle of Tunga.

2. Jodhpur—Aurangzeb died in 1707. After his death, Ajit Singh defeated the Mughals and captured Jodhpur. Later on, he increased his influence in the Mughal court and became the subedar of Gujarat. He played an important role in dethroning the Mughal Emperor Farrukhsiyar. After this, a civil war broke out among the later rulers of Jodhpur State for the throne.

3. Mewar—Amar Singh II, the ruler of Mewar, helped Sawai Jai Singh, in occupying Jaipur and Ajit Singh in occupying Jodhpur. Later on Mewar State too, got involved in civil war.

RBSE Class 8 Social Science Fall of Mughal Empire and 18th Century’s India Important Questions and Answers

I. Objective Questions :

Question 1.
In whose Court Gandharv Baisi was lived?
(a) Sawai Jai Singh
(b) Pratap Singh
(c) Shivaji
(d) Ranjeet Singh
Answer:
(b) Pratap Singh

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 19 Fall of Mughal Empire and 18th Century’s India

Question 2.
Maratha kingdom was established by—
(a) Chhatrapati Shivaji
(b) Nader Shah
(c) Maharana Pratap
(d) Babur
Answer:
(a) Chhatrapati Shivaji

Question 3.
Which foreign invader made an invasion on India and caused huge loss to the Mughal empire?
(a) Babar
(b) Farrukhsiyar
(c) Jahandar Shah
(d) Nadir Shah
Answer:
(d) Nadir Shah

Question 4.
Which European community succeeded in establishing political power in India?
(a) The French
(b) The Britishers
(c) The Dutch
(d) The Portuguese
Answer:
(b) The Britishers

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 19 Fall of Mughal Empire and 18th Century’s India

Question 5.
Maratha empire was founded by—
(a) Tara Bai
(b) Shahu
(c) Raja Ram
(d) Shivaji
Answer:
(d) Shivaji

Question 6.
Who captured Mysore in the middle of the 18th century?
(a) Nizam
(b) Hyder Ali
(c) Saadat Khan
(d) Ranjeet Singh
Answer:
(b) Hyder Ali

Question 7.
Who founded Jaipur city?
(a) Sawai Jai Singh
(b) Sawai Pratap Singh
(c) Ishwari Singh
(d) Madho Singh
Answer:
(a) Sawai Jai Singh

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 19 Fall of Mughal Empire and 18th Century’s India

II. Fill in the blanks :

1. The rise of the power is considered as the main cause of the decline of the Mughals. (Maratha/Jat)
2. In Punjab, the Sikhs declared themselves independent under the leadership of. (Banda Bahadur/Guru Teg Bahadur)
3. There was lack of law of. in the Mughal empire. (succession/revenue)
4. There was a conflict between the Britishers and the French to establish. (political power/economic power)
5. The Jat empire was established under the leadership of. (Badan Singh/Gokul)
Answer:
1. Maratha
2. Banda Bahadur
3. succession
4. political power
5. Badan Singh.

III. Find out the true and false statements in the following questions :

1. Banda Bahadur issued coins exclusively in Punjab.
2. The invasion of Mohammad Shah caused a great loss to the Mughal empire.
3. The French were succeeded in getting political power in India.
4. Shivaji had established the Maratha empire.
5. The Nizam established his independent state of Hyderabad.
Answer:
1. True
2. False
3. False
4. True
5. True

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 19 Fall of Mughal Empire and 18th Century’s India

IV. Matching Type Questions Match Column ‘A’ with Column ‘B’ :

Column ‘A’ – Column ‘B’
1. Hyder Ali – 1. Bengal
2. Murshid Kuli Khan – 2. Mysore
3. Saadat Khan – 3. Hyderabad
4. 1761 A.D – 4. Bharatpur
5. Nizam – 5. Awadh
6. Surajmal – 6. The third battle of Panipat
Ans.
Column ‘A’ – Column ‘B’
1. Hyder Ah – 2. My sore
2. Murshid Kuli Khan – 1. Bengal
3. Saad.t Khan – 5. Awadh
4. 1761 AD – 6. The third battle of Panipat
5. Nizam – 3. Hyderabad
6. Surajmal – 4. Bharatpur

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 19 Fall of Mughal Empire and 18th Century’s India

(V) Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
When did Aurangzeb die?
Answer:
Aurangzeb died in 1707.

Question 2.
Which policy of Aurangzeb proved to be fatal to the Mughal empire?
Answer:
The non-liberal policy of Aurangzeb against the Hindus, Sikhs and Shia Muslims proved to be fatal to the Mughal empire.

Question 3.
Due to the non-liberal policy of Aurangzeb, which communities opposed the Mughals?
Answer:
Due to the non-liberal policy of Aurangzeb the Jats, the Satnamis and the Sikhs opposed the Mughals.

Question 4.
Under whose leadership, did the Sikhs declare themselves independent in Punjab?
Answer:
In Punjab, the Sikhs declared themselves independent under the leadership of Banda Bahadur.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 19 Fall of Mughal Empire and 18th Century’s India

Question 5.
Who issued his coins exclusively in Punjab?
Answer:
Banda Bahadur issued his coins exclusively in Punjab.

Question 6.
Whose invasions of the foreign invaders caused a great loss to the Mughal empire?
Answer:
The invasions of Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah Abdali caused a great loss to the Mughal empire.

Question 7.
Name the foreign invader who carried along with him the Kohinoor diamond and Takht- e-Taus along with the booty.
Answer:
Nadir Shah.

Question 8.
Which European communities came to trade in India during the Mughal period?
Answer:
In Mughal period, the Portuguese, the Britishers, the French and the Dutch came to trade in India through sea-route.

Question 9.
Who established the independent state of Hydera >ad?
Answer:
Nizam Chinkilich Khan established the independent state of Hyderabad.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 19 Fall of Mughal Empire and 18th Century’s India

Question 10.
Who formed the independent state of Awadh?
Answer:
Saadat Khan formed the independent state of Awadh.

Question 11.
When did the battle of Plassey take place?
Answer:
The battle of Plassey took place in 1757.

Question 12.
Between whom was the battle of Plassey fought?
Answer:
The battle of Plassey was fought between Lord Clive and Nawab Siraj-ud-Daula.

Question 13.
When and why was the conference of Hurda convened?
Answer:
In 1734, Sawai Jai Singh and some rulers convened a conference of Rajput rulers at Hurda, to prevent the increasing influence of the Maratha.

Question 14.
When did the third battle of Panipat take place?
Answer:
The third battle of Panipat took place in 1761.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 19 Fall of Mughal Empire and 18th Century’s India

Question 15.
Who founded Jaipur city?
Answer:
Sawai Jai Singh founded Jaipur city.

Question 16.
Who built observatories in India?
Answer:
Sawai Jai Singh built observatories at five places in India.

(VI) Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the condition of the Jat Empire in the eighteenth century.
Answer:
There was resentment in the Jats against the religious policy of Aurangzeb. Under the leadership of Gokul the Jats rebelled in Mathura. Later, die Jat Empire was established under the leadership of Badan Singh. The Jat power developed under the leadership of Maharaja Surajmal. He made Bharatpur as his capital. The Jats captured Mathura, Agra and Doab. The ruler of Bharatpur, Ranjeet Singh helped Maratha Sardar Yashwant Rao Holkar against the Britishers. Later on, the rulers of Bharatpur made a treaty with the British Govt.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 19 Fall of Mughal Empire and 18th Century’s India

Question 2.
Describe the condition of Hyderabad in the eighteenth century.
Answer:
In the first half of the eighteenth century, the Mughal Mansabdar Nizam Chinkilich Khan founded the Hyderabad State by joining six Mughal provinces of the South. He began to rule as an independent ruler and the Mughal emperor had no control over him.

The Nizam was an ambitious man but the Maratha Peshwa destroyed his plan of expansion of his empire. The Marathas defeated him in the battle of Palkhed. In spite of his defeat the Nizam of Hyderabad was powerful. Later, the Nizam of Hyderabad made a subsidiary treaty with the Britishers.

Question 3.
What was the condition of Awadh and Bengal states in the 18th century?
Answer:
1. Awadh—
Mughal Subedar Saadat Khan established an independent state in Awadh. He played an important role on the occasion of invasion of Nadir Shah. Later on, the Britishers defeated Shuja-ud-Daula, the ruler of Awadh in the battle of Buxur in 1764. In the long run, the Britishers established their control over Awadh.

2. Bengal—
Murshid Kuli Khan established the state of Bengal. He established his control over the states of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. During the reign of his successors, Marathas snatched Orissa from Bengal. In 1757, in the battle of Plassey, Lord Clive, the commander-in-chief of British Army, defeated Siraj-ud-Daula, the ruler of Bengal. He established the supremacy of the Britishers over Bengal.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 19 Fall of Mughal Empire and 18th Century’s India

Question 4.
Describe the political condition of Mysore State in the 18th century.
Answer:
In the beginning of the 18th century, the Kings of Wadiyar dynasty ruled over the state of Mysore. In the middle of the 18th century, its commander-in-chief, Hyder Ali occupied the state of Mysore. Hyder Ali and his son Tipu Sultan considered the Britishers as their enemies. Four battles were fought between Britishers and the rulers of Mysore and finally the Britishers established their control over Mysore in the last decade of the 18th century.

Question 5.
What was the role of European communities in India in the 18th century?
Answer:
In Mughal period, the Portuguese, the Britisher, the French and the Dutch came to trade in India. At that time, the condition of the Mughal Empire was critical. Hence, the European communities took the advantage of the weaknesses of the Mughal Empire and began to establish their political power in India. Finally there was a long conflict between the Britishers and the French in which the French were defeated. The last cause of the decline of the Mughals was the Britisher’s East India Company. In the beginning, its aim was to trade in India but taking advantage of the weakness of the Mughals, it established its empire in India.

Question 6.
Describe the political disorder in India in the 18th century.
Answer:
The political condition of India in the 18th century was critical. At this time, the Mughal empire had weakened. Many Mughal Subedars had established their independent states. The Marathas began to , intervene in the internal affairs of the Rajput rulers. Consequently, the Marathas did not get help of the Rajput rulers in the third battle of Panipat against the foreign invader Ahmad Shah Abdali.

As a result, the Marathas had to face the defeat in this battle. The Rajput rulers were also engaged in the civil wars and as such they could not extend their power. The Britishers got the advantage of the weakness of the Rajput rulers and established their control over them.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 19 Fall of Mughal Empire and 18th Century’s India

Question 7.
Art of regional states spread rapidly due to decline of ‘Mughal Empire’. Critique the statement.
Answer:
Artists started going towards other regional states due to decline of Mughal Empire. It led to rapid growth of local art. New art was seen in the drawings of Kangra and Rajputana. Old art also developed. Jat Kings built Deeg Palace during this period. Sawai Jai Singh established Jaipur city and built observatories at five different places.

In this period, Hawa Mahal was also built. In the field of literature, a book was written in the darbar of Pratap Singh, based on the songs of Radha-Govind. In his darbar, scholar like Gandharv Baiji lived. Heer-Ranjha was written in the Punjabi. Many books were written in many languages during that period in India.

(VII) Essay Type Questions

Question 1.
Discuss the causes of the downfall of the Mughal empire.
Answer:
Causes of the Downfall of the Mughal Empire Following were the causes of the downfall of the Mughal empire—

1. Religious Policy of Aurangzeb—
There was a great resentment in the Hindus due to the non-liberal religious policy of Aurangzeb. Due to this policy, the Jats, the Satnamis and the Sikhs rebelled against the Mughals and the Marathas established a huge empire. The rulers of north India, also oppossed the Mughals. During the reign of Peshwas. the Marathas became so powerful that they had made the Mughal emperor of Delhi as a puppet in their hands.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 19 Fall of Mughal Empire and 18th Century’s India

Rise of the Maratha powder is considered as the main cause of the fall of the Mughals. The Jats defied the Mughal rulers in the regions of Agra and Bharatpur. In Punjab, the Sikhs declared themselves independent under the leadership of Banda Bahadur. The Mughal rulers had become so weak that they could not control these rebellious ruler from being independent.

2. Incapability of the Mughal Rulers—
All the successors of Aurangzeb were inefficient and luxurious. They spent their most of the time in seeking luxuries. They ignored the welfare of their people. They lacked in bravery and courage. Their ethical failure was the reason of their fall.

3. Downfall of the Feudal-lords—
Along with the Mughal rulers, Mughal Feudal Lords and Elites also indulged in seeking luxuries. They began to fight among themselves for their selfish motives. They became inefficient and characterless and began to ignore the interests of the Mughal empire.

4. Economical Failure—
The economic condition of the Mughal empire w as also critical. Shah Jahan spent huge amount of money in building magnificent buildings and Aurangzeb indulged in long wars resulting in deterioration in the economic condition of the Mughals. Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah Abdali invaded India and blundered India. Nadir Shah took Kohinoor diamond and Takht-e-Tous with him. Consequently, the Mughal treasuries became empty.

The financial condition of the empire became so bad that at such a time no food could be prepared in the royal kitchen and the Mughal princesses rebelled. With great difficulty they agreed to return to their palaces. Trade declined due to lack of peace and insecurity in the Mughal empire. Due to Dastak system, the revenue decreased. This worsened the financial condition of the empire.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 19 Fall of Mughal Empire and 18th Century’s India

(5) Lack of the Law of Succession—
There was lack of the law of succession in the Mughals. There was no definite rule whether the elder son of the Mughal emperor would sit on the throne after the death of his father. It was decided on the basis of the might of swords which caused a great loss to the empire.

(6) Foreign Invasions—
The invasion of foreign invaders Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah Abdali caused a great loss to the Mughal empire. These invasions weakened the military power of the Mughals. Taking advantage of the weakness of the Mughal empire, Governors of many provinces became independent.

(7) Lack of Nationality—
Most of the Mughal emperors had not a national outlook. They did not inspire a feeling of unity in the people of different religions. Aurangzeb hated the Hindus and Shia Muslims. He could not create a feeling of nationality in his people and provincial leaders.

(8) Arrival of the European Races—
In Mughal period, the Portuguese, the Britishers, the French and the Dutch came to trade in India. They took the advantage of the weaknesses of the Mughal empire, and began to establish their political power. There was a conflict between the Britishers and the French to establish their political power in which the Britishers won. Thus the last cause of the decline of the Mughal empire was the Britisher’s East India company.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 19 Fall of Mughal Empire and 18th Century’s India

Question 2.
Describe the Indian society and culture in the 18th century.
Answer:
Indian Society and Culture
(1) Indian Society—
The Hindus and Muslims lived in Indian society. They had similar customs and traditions. The castes were based on occupations and there were two classes in the society—

  • The rich and
  • Common people.

(2) The Indian Trade—
The Indian trade and industry were in a developed state. Clothes of Bengal and South India were famous all over the world. There was a great demand of the Indian goods in foreign markets too, but in the later half of the 18th century, the British policies affected the Indian trade.

(3) Art—
The artists had to rush towards the regional states due to the weakness of the Mughal empire. There was a great progress of art in various parts of India in the 18th century. New features were seen in the Kangra and the Rajput styles of painting. The Jat rulers built palaces in Deeg, Rajasthan, Sawai Jai Singh founded Jaipur city and built observatories (Jantar-Mantar) at five places in India. Sawai Pratap Singh built Hawa Mahal in Jaipur.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 19 Fall of Mughal Empire and 18th Century’s India

(4) Literature—
There was a sufficient progress of literature also in the 18th century. In the court of Sawai Pratap Singh, the book named Radha Govind Sangeet Saar’ was written. In his court lived scholars like Gandharva Baisi. During this period, Heer-Ranjha was written in Punjab. Many books were also written in other Indian languages.

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