RBSE Solutions for Class 7 Social Science Chapter 22 Bhakti and Sufi Movement

Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 7 Social Science Chapter 22 Bhakti and Sufi Movement

RBSE Solutions for Class 7 Social Science

RBSE Solutions for Class 7 Social Science Chapter 22 Bhakti and Sufi Movement

RBSE Class 7 Social Science Bhakti and Sufi Movement Intext Questions and Answers

Activity:

Page No 164.

Question 1.
In this lesson, at suitable places poetic stanzas composed by some devotional saints, have been given. Read these and try to understand what has been said in these. On what these saints have emphasized? To understand those, you can take help from your elders at home and teachers.
Answer:
1. Kabir –
Kabir in his poetic stanza says that if my Guru and Gobind both are stood together, I shall first touch the feet of my Guru because he has only given me the knowledge of Gobind. Thus, Kabir has given more importance to teacher than God.

2. Raidas –
Raidas emphasized on human equality. In his poetic stanza, he has said that we should aspire for such a state where every one should get food and nobody may remain hungry . In such a state small and big all are equal and God lives in all of them. Happiness always remain in such a situation.

3. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu –
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu was a great devotee of Krishna. According to him, “If a person worships God Krishna and serves the Guru, he gets free from illusion and unites with God. He told that a person gets free from narrow-mindedness by devotion. He opposed ritualism.

4. Dadu Dayal –
Dadu Dayal connected devotion to God with social service and humanistic outlook. He gave more importance to Guru. He told that Brahma is one and everywhere.

5. Meera Bai –
Meera Bai devoted, her life to the worship of Krishna. Her poetry was full of love. She.told about woman awareness in her poetry. She showed her love and devotion towards Krishna in her devotional songs as shown from the following stanza – “Mere to Girdhar Gopal. Doosra Na Koi Jake sar mor mukut, mero pati soi.

6. The Bhakti (devotional) saints emphasized on the worship of God and love to all. They laid stress on social equality. According to them none is superior or inferior. All human beings are equal. They criticized the evil customs of society . They emphasized on Hindu-Muslim unity.

RBSE Class 7 Social Science Bhakti and Sufi Movement Text Book Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Write the correct answers of questions number one and two in the brackets:

1. Nankana Sahib is the birth place of which saint?
(a) Kabir
(b) Nanak
(c) Dadu Dayal
(d) Ramanand
Answer:
(b) Nanak

2. With which place Chaitanya Mahaprabhu is related?
(a) Bengal
(b) Rajasthan
(c) Guirat
(d) Maharashtra
Answer:
(a) Bengal

Question 2.
Match Column ‘A’ and ‘B’:

Column ‘A’ Column ‘B’
1. Kabir Bengal
2. Meera Bai Talwandi
3. Guru Nanak Medta
4. Chetanya Mahaprabhu Banaras

Answer:

Column ‘A’ Column ‘B’
1. Kabir Banaras
2. Meera Bai Medta
3. Guru Nanak Talwandi
4. Chetanya Mahaprabhu Bengal

RBSE Solutions for Class 7 Social Science Chapter 22 Bhakti and Sufi Movement

Question 3.
What is emphasized in devotion?
Answer:
In‘devotion, love to all is emphasized. According to Bhakti saints none is superior or inferior. All humans are equal.

Question 4.
Name important saints of Maharashtra.
Answer:
Following were the important saints of Maharashtra –

  • Gyaneshwar
  • Namdev
  • Eknath
  • Tukaram
  • Samarth Guru Ramdas
  • Chokha mela.

Question 5.
How was the language of teaching of saints of Bhakti Movement?
Answer:
The language of teaching of saints of Bhakti Movement was easy and simple used by the locals.

Question 6.
Give a brief introduction of Meera Bai.
Answer:
Introduction of Mira Bai
1. Early Life of Meera Bai –
Meera Bai is the most important saint among the devotee saints of Rajasthan. Meera Bai was born in 16th century’ in Medta. Her father Ratan Singh was fourth son of Medta king Dudaji. She was the only daughter of her father. Her grand-parents were true devotees of Lord Krishna and Meera used to sing the songs of devotion to Krishna since her childhood.

2. Marriage of Meera –
Meera was married to Maharana Sanga’s elder son Bhojraj. After seven years of marriage, her husband died and soon her father-in-law Rana Sanga and father Ratan Singh also died. After this she completely fell in Krishna’s devotion. She spent a lot of time in Bhajan Kirtan” and company of the saints in Vrindavan and Dwarika.

3. Going to Dwarika from Vrindavan –
Meera went to Dwarika from Vrindavan. While dancing in Dwarika front of the idol of Ranchhodji in the devotion of Lord Krishna, she left the world.

4. Love and Devotion towards Krishna –
Meera Bai showed her love and devotion towards Krishna in her devotional songs (bhajans) as shown from the following lines.’Mere to Girdhar Gopal, Doosra Na Koi Jake sar mor mukut, mero pati soi’.

5. Meera Bai’s Poetic Composition –
Meera Bai s poetic composition are still popular. She told about the reformation and awareness of women. Meera Bai talked about improvement and enlightenment of women class. Meera Bai has 250 stanzas to her credit which make her immortal poetess of devotional poetry.

RBSE Solutions for Class 7 Social Science Chapter 22 Bhakti and Sufi Movement

Question 7.
What are main teachings of saint Kabir?
Answer:
Main Teachings of Saint Kabir Following are the main teachings of saint Kabir –

  • Opposing the Evils spread in the Society – Kabir was not only a saint but a social reformer also. He firmly opposed the evils spread in the society 7.
  • God is of all – Kabir told that God is of all Any particular class, individual or religion and caste does not have sole right on God. He emphasized on true devotion.
  • Opposing the Caste Discrimination – Kabir opposed the caste discrimination and emphasized on social equality. Kabir told that every7 individual is equal from birth. One who has adopted devotion through pure deeds, it is irrelevant to ask his caste.
  • Emphasize on the Superiority of Deeds – Kabir also emphasized on the superiority of deeds. All Hindus and Muslims started following him due to the message of the oneness of God. His thoughts also affected society 7 and religion. The teachings of Kabir are found in his Sakhiyan” and Pad”. He firmly opposed show- offs and blind rituals.
  • Emphasize on the Importance of Teacher – Kabir has given more importance to teacher than God. He said, “Guru Gobind dono khade, kake lagu pao, Balihari Guru Apne, Gobind diyo bataye.”‘

Question 8.
What were the similarities between the preachings of Sufi and Devotional Saints?
Answer:
Similarities between Sufi and Devotional Saints Following are the similarities between Sufi and Devotional saints –

  • Importance of Guru, chanting of the name, prayer, love towards God, the condition of anxiety and alienation, the momentness of the world, simplicity of life, true devotion, love for humanityoneness and omnipresence of God, have been the basis of both movements.
  • Both devotional and Sufi sects have shown the way to the love of God through humanity.
  • Like devotinal saints in India, Sufi saints also expressed themselves through poetry.

Question 9.
Mention the teachings of Guru Nanak.
Answer:
The Teachings of Guru Nanak Following are the teachings of Guru Nanak –

  • Nanak opposed superstitions and wrong myths.
  • He used to treat Hindus and Muslim equally. He also did Satsang of Muslim saints.
  • According to Guru Nanak, the true integration is that which helps in recognising basic unity of God and unity 7 of human beings through its effect.
  • Guru Nanak opposed the caste discrimination and emphasized on social equality7.
  • Guru Nanak emphasized on a new social system based on earning livelihood through equality, fraternity, honesty and creative labour.

RBSE Solutions for Class 7 Social Science Chapter 22 Bhakti and Sufi Movement

Question 10.
Write the fife sketch of Khwaja Moinudin Chishti.
Answer:
Life Sketch of Khawaja Moinudin Chishti

  • Khawaja Moinudin Chishti came to India in 1192 century and afterwards, he only started the Sufi sect in India. After visiting many places in India, he settled permanently in Ajmer.
  • The tomb of Khawaja Moinudin Chishti in Ajmer is known as “Ajmer Sharif”. His disciples or devotees recall him by the names of “Khawaja Sahib” or “Garib Nawaj”.
  • One of his followers, Sheikh Hamidudin Nagore, propagated Islam after setting, up his centre at village Suval near Nagore.
  • Chishti sect, considers music as the important source of love for God.

Question 11.
What do you know about Samarth Guru Ram Das.
Answer:
Life -of Samarth Guru Ram Das

  • Life of Samarth Guru Ram Das was full of devotion and detachment. He always used to chant ‘Ram Nam’. He had very good knowledge of music.
  • Samarth Gum Ram Das used to do one thousand two hundred Surya Namaskar daily. Hence his body w?as very strong.
  • ‘Dasbodh’ – The scripture ‘Dasbodh’ of Samarth Guru Ram Das is in the form of Teacher-Pupil dialect.
  • Advaita Vedanti – Samarth Gum Ram Das was ‘Advaita Vedanti’ and a devotee saint. He established a consciousness organisation in society with the help of his pupil.
  • Establishment of 1100 ‘Mathas’ and Akharas’ – Samarth Gum Ram Das also set up 1100 ‘Mathas’ and ‘Akharas’ from Kashmir to Kanya Kumari and prepared masses for establishing Self-Rule (Swaraj). He was devotee of Hanumanji, symbol of devotion and strength.

RBSE Class 7 Social Science Bhakti and Sufi Movement Important Questions and Answers

Objective Type Questions:

Question 1.
Naynar saints were –
(a) Pupils of Kabir
(b) Pupils of Ramanand
(c) Shiv Bhakt
(d) Vishnu devotees
Answer:
(c) Shiv Bhakt

Question 2.
Who was the promotor of Bhakti movement of North India?
(a) Ramanuj
(b) Ramanand
(c) Kabir
(d) Gum Nanak
Answer:
(b) Ramanand

RBSE Solutions for Class 7 Social Science Chapter 22 Bhakti and Sufi Movement

Question 3.
Who has given more importance to teacher than God?
(a) Gum Nanak
(b) Ramanand
(c) Ramanuj
(d) Kabir
Answer:
(d) Kabir

Question 4.
Who was the founder of Sikhism?
(a) Gum Nanak
(b) Gum Teg Bahadur
(c) Gum Govind Singh
(d) Gum Ram Das
Answer:
(a) Gum Nanak

Question 5.
Which local God was worshipped in Pandharpur by devotees?
(a) Shiv
(b) Vitthal
(c) Durga
(d) Krishna
Answer:
(b) Vitthal

Fill in the blanks:

  1. It is said that the tradition of Bhakti was prevalent during the period of …………………………
  2. Vishnu devotees were called …………………………
  3. Ramanand emphasized on …………………………
  4. Bhagat Andaal is called ………………………… of South.
  5. After Buddha, Kabir and ………………………… opposed the caste discriminaiton as well.

Answer:

  1. Mahabharata
  2. Alvaar
  3. Ram’s worship
  4. Meera
  5. Gum Nanak.

RBSE Solutions for Class 7 Social Science Chapter 22 Bhakti and Sufi Movement

Tell True or False Statements:

  1. Bhagat Andaal is called Meera of South.
  2. Ramanand is considered as promoter of Bhakti Movement of North India.
  3. Devotees used to worship Shiva in Pandharpur.
  4. The scripture of Saint Gyaneshwar is ‘Dasbodh’.
  5. Meera Bai devoted her life to the worship of Krishna.

Answer:

  1. True
  2. True
  3. False
  4. False
  5. True.

Match the Column ‘A’ with Column ‘B’:

Column ‘A’ Column ‘B’
Smarth Gum Ram Das Madta
Meera Maharashtra
Kabir Bengal
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu Banaras

Answer:

Column ‘A’ Column ‘B’
Smarth Gum Ram Das Maharashtra
Meera Madta
Kabir Banaras
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu Bengal

RBSE Solutions for Class 7 Social Science Chapter 22 Bhakti and Sufi Movement

Very Short Answer Type Questions:

Question 1.
What is the meaning of Bhakti?
Answer:
The word ‘Bhakti’ has originated from the Sanskrit word ‘Bhaj’, the meaning of which is chanting or worshipping. When a person worships God in isolation after getting detached from the worldly acts, that is called devotion (Bhakti).

Question 2.
Who preached Bhakti movement in South India?
Answer:
In South India Naynaar and Alvaar saints preached Bhakti movement.

Question 3.
Who were Naynaar and Alvaar saints?
Answer:
Shiv Bhakta saints of South India were called as Naynaar saints and Vishnu Bhakta saints of South India were called as Alvaar saints.

Question 4.
Mention the names of important Naynaar saints?
Answer:
Names of important Naynaar saints were –

  • Appas
  • Sabandar
  • Sundrar
  • Manikkvasagar.

Question 5.
Mention names of important Alvaar saints.
Answer:
Names of important Alvaar saints were –

  • Peryealwar
  • Andaal
  • Nammalwar
  • Tonderdippodi.

Question 6.
Who is called Meera of South?
Answer:
Devotional saint Bhagat is called Meera of South.

Question 7.
Who is considered as promoter of Bhakti Movement of North India?
Answer:
Ramanand is considered as promoter of Bhakti Movement of North India.

RBSE Solutions for Class 7 Social Science Chapter 22 Bhakti and Sufi Movement

Question 8.
Mention the names of pupils of Ramanand.
Answer:

  • Ravidas
  • Kabir
  • Dhanna
  • Peepa.

Question 9.
In which scriptures are Kabir’s teachings found?
Answer:
Kabir’s teachings are found in his scriptures “Sakhiyan” and “Pad’.

Question 10.
When and where was Guru Nanak bom?
Answer:
Gum Nanak was bom in Talwandi in 1469. Now it is known as Nankana Sahib.

Question 11.
What was called Dharam saal?
Answer:
The place which Guru Nanak selected for worship and work was called Dharam saal. Now it is called ‘Gurudwara’.

Question 12.
Why is Pandharpur famous?
Answer:
Pandharpur is associated with local God named Vitthal. Devotees used to worship Vitthal here. Vitthal was considered as the incarnation of Lord Vishnu.

Question 13.
Who is called the first poet of deprived class of India?
Answer:
Chokha mela is called the first poet of deprived classes of India.

RBSE Solutions for Class 7 Social Science Chapter 22 Bhakti and Sufi Movement

Question 14.
Who was the founder of Sikhism?
Answer:
Gum Nanak was the founder of Sikhism.

Question 15.
In which scriptures are the leadings of Dadu Dayal stored?
Answer:
Dadu Dayal’s teachings are stored in ‘Dadu Dayal Ri Vani’ and ‘Dadu Dayal Ra Doha’.

Quesiton 16.
Where was Meera bom and when?
Answer:
Meera was bom in 16th century-in Medta.

Question 17.
Who was the founder of Ram Snehi Sect?
Answer:
Ram Charanji was the founder of Ram Snehi Sect.

Question 18.
Who were Sufis?
Answer:
It is said that those who used to wear suf – cloth of white wool were called sufi. They used to live simple life filled with love for others.

Question 19.
Mention the names of important olias of Chishti Sect.
Answer:

  • Khawaja Moinudin Chishti of Ajmer
  • Qutubudin Bakhtiyar Kaki of Delhi
  • Baba Farid of Punjab
  • Hazrat Nizamuddin Olia of Delhi.

Question 20.
Who started Sufi Sect in India?
Answer:
Khawaja Moinudin Chisti started the Sufi Sect in India.

Question 21.
Where is the tomb of Khawaja Moinudin Chishti is situated?
Answer:
The tomb of Khawaja Moinudin Chishti is situated in Ajmer which is known as ‘Ajmer Sharif’.

RBSE Solutions for Class 7 Social Science Chapter 22 Bhakti and Sufi Movement

Question 22.
Who was the follower of Nizamudin Olia?
Answer:
Amir Khusro was the follower of Nizamudin Olia.

Question 23.
Mention the important Sufi sects in India.
Answer:

  • Chishti
  • Kadri
  • Suhravardi
  • Nakshbandi.

Short Answer Type Questions:

Question 1.
What do you know about the emergence of Bhakti Movement?
Answer:
Emergence of Bhakti Movement In India, the tradition of devotion is since ancient times. It is said that the tradition of Bhakti was prevalent during the period of Mahabharata. When in Gita, Bhagwan Krishna asked Aijun to leave all religion and come under his protection, then Krishna is a preaching Arjuna to take up the path of devotion. If a devotee worships God with a true heart, then he can experience God in many forms. Many forms of God are there to worship.

RBSE Solutions for Class 7 Social Science Chapter 22 Bhakti and Sufi Movement

Question 2.
Describe the characteristics of Bhakti (Devotional) Movement.
Answer:
Characteristics of Bhakti (Devotional) Movement Following are the characteristics of Bhakti (Devotional) Movement –

  • Opposing the Evils prevalent in Society – The saints of Bhakti Movement opposed the caste discrimination, inequality and evil practices present in the society.
  • Love for God – According to the saints, the essence is in loving your God and living in harmony with people.
  • Following the Path preached by God – The saints used to tell their followers to follow the path preached by God.
  • Love to All – All saints of Bhakti Movement emphasized on love to all. According to them, none is superior or inferior. All humans are equal.

Question 3.
Describe the emergence of Bhakti (Devotional) Movement in South India. What was the contribution of Naynaar and Alvaar saints in Bhakti Movement?
Answer:
Emergence of Bhakti (Devotional)
Movement in South India and Contribution of Naynaar and Alvaar Saints in Bhakti Movement The popularity of Bhakti Movement was seen in South India between seventh and eighth century. The credit goes to wandering saints of South India. These wandering saints were known as Shiv Bhakt Naynaar. Some were Vishnu Bhakt, who were called Alvaar. Characteristics of these wandering saints was that they used to visit different villages and compose beautiful poetry in the praise of God.

People of different castes were included in Naynaar and Alvaar saints. Many of them were bom in classes like potter, farmer, hunter, soldier, Brahmin, headman and many in the castes which were considered untouchable castes at that time. Despite of this, they were equally famous in country due to their preaching of ideal thoughts and moral values. Appar, Sabandar Sundrar, Manikkvasagar were the Naynaar saints and Peryealwar, Andal, Nammal war and Tonderdippodi were the Alvaar saints.

Question 4.
Describe the Bhakti current in Maharashtra.
Answer:
In Maharashtra, Gyaneshwar, Namdev, Eknath, Tukaram and Samarth Gum Ram Das were famous Bhakti saints. A woman named Sakubai and family of Chokhamela were also popular saints of Maharashtra. In this period, a place named Pandharpur was very important in Maharashtra. The name of Pandharpur is associated with local God named Vitthal.

Devotees used to worship Vitthal here. Vitthal was considered as the incarnation of Lord Vishnu. People of many castes and communities used to get together and worship their God. Now- a-days thousands of people go on foot journey of Pandharpur every year. The ideals of these saints are still lively in the society. Till now, people go for pilgrimage to the places related to devotional movement.

RBSE Solutions for Class 7 Social Science Chapter 22 Bhakti and Sufi Movement

Question 5.
Write a short note on Ramcharanji and Ramsnehi Sect.
Answer:
Out of the sects set up in medieval Rajasthan for improvement of society and religion, the Ramsnehi Sect hold an important place. This sect was established by Ramcharanji. Many centres of this Sect were set up in Rajasthan. For example, Sant Ramcharanji in Shahpur (Bhilwara), Saint Daiyavji in Rain (Nagore), Saint Hari Dasji in Sinhthal (Bikaner), Saint Ram Dasji in Khedapa (Jodhpur).

Ramcharanji believed in the Nirgun devotion. These saints have given the topmost importance” to Guru for attainment of Moksha. They are of the opinion that Guru is equivalent to Brahm and he only can help the man to get rid of the worldly sufferings. The saints of this Sect have emphasized on the worship of Rama. By Rama, they mean Nirgun and Nirakar Brahma. They opposed idol worship and blind rituals.

Question 6.
Write short note on Sufism.
Answer:
Sufism –
It is said that those who used to wear ‘suf’ cloth of white wool were called Sufi. The Sufis used to live simple life and inspired others to live simple life filled with love for others. Sufi saints followed Islamic principles of oneness of God. Generally, they were the people who opposed complexity of Islamic traditions and rules and regulations.

They emphasized on leaving the show off rituals and adopting devotion and mercy and affection towards all human being. Like saint poets in India, Sufi saints also expressed themselves through poetry. They also used to give their messages through stories. This is also famous about Sufis that they have many divine and cosmic powers.

Various methods of coming near to the cosmic powers developed under the care of Sufi masters, Olias and Pirs. Sometimes it is done through dancing, sometimes by singing and sometimes only through meditation. The masters used to train the pupils for many generations. In Chishti trend, a long list of Olias had been there. Khawaja Moinudin Chishti of Ajmer, Outubudin Bakhtiyaar Kaki of Delhi, Baba Farid of Punjab, Hazrat Nizamudin Olia of Delhi are considered important even today.

RBSE Solutions for Class 7 Social Science Chapter 22 Bhakti and Sufi Movement

Question 7.
What do you know about Khawaja Moinudin Chishti?
Answer:
Khawaja Moinudin Chishti came to India in 1192 century and afterwards, he only started the Sufi Sect in India. After visiting many places in India, he settled permanently in Ajmer The tomb of Khawaja Moinudin Chishti in Ajmer is known as ‘Ajmer Sharif’. His disciples or devotees recall him by the names of ‘Khawaja Sahib’ or ‘Garib Nawaz’. One of his followers Sheikh Hamidudin Nagore, propagated Islam after setting up his centre at village Suva near Nagore. Chishti Sect, considers music as the important source of love for God.

Question 8.
Write a short note on Hazrat Nizamudin Olia.
Answer:
Hazrat Nizamudin Olia The name of Sufi saint Hazrat Nizamudin Olia is important among the Sufi saints in India whose leadership, the Chishti Sect developed in India. Despite of being follower of one particular Sect, he did not have religious and social rigidity. He has contributed a lot in the unity of Hindus and Muslims and social reformation He had been true representative of the unity of human beings.

According to Hazrat Nizamudin Olia, music is a wonderful medium of attaining love of God and. appreciating beauty. Amir Khusro of Sultanat period, was also his follower. In the compound of the memorial of Hazrat Nizamudin Olia in Delhi, a memorial of Amir Khusro is also nearly.

Question 9.
Describe the teachings of Sufi saints.
Answer:
Teachings of Sufi Saints Following are the teachings of Sufi saints –

  • Sufi saints emphasized on oneness of God.
  • They opposed complexity of Islamic traditions and rules and regulations.
  • They emphasized on leaving the show off rituals and adopting devotion and mercy and affection towards all human being.
  • They emphasized on the unity of Hindu and Muslims.
  • According to Chishti Sect, music is the important source of love for God.

RBSE Solutions for Class 7 Social Science Chapter 22 Bhakti and Sufi Movement

Essay Type Questions:

Question 1.
Write an essay on the Bhakti (Devotional) Movement.
(OR)
Describe the main teachings of prominent Bhakt saints of Bhakti (Devotional) Movement.
(OR)
What was the contribution of Bhakt saints in the Bhakti Movement.
Answer:
Teachings of Prominent Bhakt Saints Or Contribution of Bhakt Saints in the Bhakti (Devotional) Movement Contribution of Bhakt saints in the Bhakti movement can be described under the following points –

1. Ramanand –
Ramanand is considered as promoter of Bhakti movement of North India. The following are his teachings –

  • He showed new path to masses through devotion.
  • He emphasized on Ram’s worship along with oneness of God.
  • He opposed caste discrimination and emphasized on social equality.
  • He taught in dialect instead of Sanskrit because of which mass literature developed.
  • His pupils were from all classes among which Ravidas, Kabir, Dhanna and Peepa were prominant.

2. Kabir –

  • Kabir firmly opposed the evils spread in the society.
  • Accordng to Kabir, God is of all. Any particular class, individual or religion and caste does not have sole right on God.
  • He emphasized on true devotion.
  • He opposed the caste discrimination. According to Kabir every individual is equal from birth. Those who has adopted devotion through pure deeds, it is irrelevant to ask his caste.
  • Kabir emphasized on the superiority of deed.
  • He emphasized on the unity of Hindu and Muslims.
  • He laid stress on oneness of God.

3. Guru Nanak –
Guru Nanak was bom in Talvandi (Nankana Sahib) in 1469 century. He was the founder of Sikhism and supporter of Nirguna worship of God. He started langar where his followers used to have food without any discrimination of caste and creed.

  • Guru Nanak opposed the superstitions and wrong myth.
  • He laid stress on the unity of Hindus and Muslims.
  • According to him, true integration is that which help in recognising basic unity of God and unity of human being.
  • Gum Nanak set up a new social system based on earning livelihood through equality, fraternity, honesty and creative labour.

4. Raidas (Ravidas) –
Rayidas was pupil of Ramanand. He was Harijan by the caste and was ‘Nirgun’ devotee. He opposed caste discrimination. He told show off as worthless system and emphasized on purity of mind. He emphasized on human equality.

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu – Chaitanya Mahaprabhu was a prominent saint of Bengal. He was a great devotee of Krishna. According to him, “If a person worships God Krishna and ‘ serves the Gum, he gets free from illusion unites with God. He opposed ritualism. He told that a person gets free from narrow mindednessly devotion.

5. Samrath Guru Ramdas –
The life of Samrath Gum Ramdas was full of devotion and detachment. He always used to chant “Ram Nam’. His scripture ‘Das bodh’ is in the form of a Teacher-pupil dialect. Samrath Guru Ramdas was a Advaita Vedanti and a devotee saint. He established consciousness organisation in society with the help of his pupils. He prepared masses for establishing self Rule (Swaraj).

6. Chokha mela –
He belonged to the Mahar caste which was supposed to be untouchable at that time. He was a devotee of Namdev. He opposed discrimination of caste. His wife Soyrabai was also a devotee. Chokhamela was the first saint who brought social inequality in front of society in the period of devotional poetry. He expressed his worries about deprived society. He is called the first poet of deprived class of India.

7. Dadu Dayal –

  • Dadu Dayal opposed external devotion and emphasized in personal meditation.
  • He connected devotion to God with social service and humanistic outlook.
  • He taught to be free from ego and devote to God with humbleness.
  • He told that attainment of God is. not only possible through love and devotion, but also with the service of mankind.
  • He emphasized on the importance of Gum.
  • According to him, Brahma is one and everywhere.

8. Meera Bai –

  • Meera Bai was bom in 16th century in Medta. She devoted her life to the worship of Lord Krishna.
  • Her poetry was full of love.
  • She told about the reformation and awareness of women.
  • She emphasized in the improvement and enlightenment of women class.

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