RBSE Solutions for Class 7 Social Science Chapter 18 Harsha Period and India after Harsha

Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 7 Social Science Chapter 18 Harsha Period and India after Harsha

RBSE Solutions for Class 7 Social Science

RBSE Solutions for Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 18 Harsha Period and India after Harsha

RBSE Class 7 Social Science Harsha Period and India after Harsha Intext Questions and Answers

Page No 126.

Activity:

Question 1.
Collect information about other Indian universities.
Answer:
1. Vikramashila University –
During the period of Pal dynasty, this university was established. In this university, in addition to Buddhist religion and philosophy, justice, science of logic, grammar etc. were also taught. Here several renowned scholars were engaged in studying and teaching.

2. Vallabhi University –
This University was situated in Kattiawar. This was a major centre of Buddhist education. The students from distant places used to come there to get education.

3. Taxila University –
During the ancient period Taxila University was very famous in the field of education and knowledge. Here the students used to come to obtain higher education. Here Ved Triyai, 18 crafts, grammar etc. different subjects were taught.

4. Udantpuri University –
This university was established by the rulers of Pal dynasty. In this university about 12,000 students used to study various subjects.

5. Pushpagiri University –
This university was situated in Orissa. Thia university was established by the rulers of Kalinga.

RBSE Solutions for Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 18 Harsha Period and India after Harsha

Page No 128.

Question 2.
Collect information about some more dynasties of South India and in which region they ruled.
Answer:
In South India, major dynasties which ruled south India between 8th and 12th centuries were Rashtrakuta. Chalukya. Pallava and Chola. In addition to these dynasties, some other dynasties of south India also established their rule at various places –
1. Cher Dynasty –
The rule of Cher dy nasty was over Malabar, Coimbatour and Salem regions. The capital of these rulers was Vcngi. The first ruler of this dynasty was Udiamfcral (130 A.D.).

2. Pandya Dynasty –
Pandy a dynasty ruled over the southern-eastern region of Tamil region from 560 A.D. to 1300 A.D. The first ruler of this dynasty was Naidiyon. His capital was Madurai.

3. Kadamb Dynasty –
This was the Brahmin dynasty of south India. The founder of this dynasty was Mayur Sharman. He. established his empire in Konkana region.

Page No 129.

Question 3.
Collect information about the major royal dynasties of North India and collect their pictures.
Answer:
1. Chalukya or Solanki Dynasty –
Moolraj established this dynasty in- 10th century. In 1025. Mahmud Gajani attacked the temple of Somnath and took away lots of wealth after destroying it. Jaisingh Sidhraj was a famous ruler of this dynasty. He merged Malwa into his empire. He captured the fort of Chittorgarh.

2. Par mar Dynasty –
King Bhoj was an important and a brave ruler of this dynasty. He defeated Kirtiraj, ruler of Lat, Gangedev, ruler of Kalchuri. Veeryaram, ruler of Chahaman dynasty and Bhimdeo, ruler of Solanki dynasty of Gujrat. He wrote many books and built a river named Bhojpur.

3. Pal and Sen Dynasties –
Gopal established Pal dynasty in Bengal. Dharampal was a famous and powerful ruler of this dynasty’. He founded Vikramshila University. Devpal was the most powerful ruler of this dynasty. Vijaysen, Vallabsen, Loremamsen etc., were the famous ruler of Sen dynasty. Many scholars lived in the court of Lordmansen. Among them Jaideo was very famous scholar who wrote Geet Govind. [Note – The students should collect the pictures of the rulers themselves]

RBSE Solutions for Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 18 Harsha Period and India after Harsha

RBSE Class 7 Social Science Harsha Period and India after Harsha Text Book Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Write the answers of the following questions in the brackets:

1. The composition of Jaidev is –
(a) Kadambari
(b) Ratanavali
(c) Geet Govind
(d) Harshcharit
Answer:
(c) Geet Govind

2. The royal dynasty of South India is –
(a) Pratihara
(b) Chalukya
(c) Guhil
(d) Chauhan
Answer:
(b) Chalukya

Question 3.
Which city did Harsha make his kingdom?
Answer:
Harsha made Kannauj his capital.

Question 4.
Who adopted the title of Gangekond?
Answer:
Rajendra first of Chola dynasty adopted the title of Gangekond.

RBSE Solutions for Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 18 Harsha Period and India after Harsha

Question 5.
Write the names of Harsha’s composition.
Answer:

  • Ratanavali
  • Priyadarshika and
  • Nagananda.

Question 6.
Write the names of major compositions of Banabhatta.
Answer:

  • Harshacharit
  • Kadambari.

Question 7.
Write a note on the area of influence of Harsha.
Answer:
The Area of influence of Harsha In 606 A.D., Harshavardhana became the ruler of Thaneshwar. He made Kannauj his capital and fought continuously for many years and took whole of North India under his rule. Along with taking care of his state, Harsha undertook many military expeditions to increase his-territory and areas of control. He undertook military expedition against Bengal,. Punjab, King of Chalukya and Vallabhi. He was successful in making up his influence upto Sindhu, Nepal and Orissa by his expedition.

Question 8.
“Harsha was a writer and patron of scholars”. Explain.
Answer:
Harsha as a Writer and Patron of Scholars – Harsha was not only winner and administrator, but was also a writer and patron of scholars. The famous poet of Harsha’s court, Bana Bhatta has accepted Harsha’s poetic skills, originality and vast knowledge. Harsha wrote ‘Ratanavali’, ‘Priyadarshika’ and ‘Nagananda’.

Harsha was a great patron of scholars. Many scholars lived in his court. Bana Bhatta was most important out of them. He wrote ‘Harshacharit’ and ‘Kadambari’, Jaidev, Haridutt, Matang, Divakar, Mayur etc were other famous scholars who lived in Harsha’s court. Jaidev wrote ‘Geet Govmdam’. He has said in his composition ‘Geet Govindam’ that like Kalidasa and Bhasya, Harsha was also a great poet.

RBSE Solutions for Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 18 Harsha Period and India after Harsha

Question 9.
Write a note on the, University of Nalanda.
Answer:
University of Nalanda One of the Gupta kings who ruled in North India, established the university ,of Nalanda in fifth century. During the reign of Harsha, University of Nalanda became an international temple of learning. There were at least eight colleges in the University of Nalanda, which were got built by the followers. The students were provided with all activities for learning.

There were three grand libraries, which were called Ratnasagar, Ratnadahi and Ratnaranjak, respectively. More than 10,000 students studied there to whom more than 1,500 teacher? taught. Students from Korea, Mangolia, Japan, China, Tibet, Sri Lanka and Greater India and from many regions of India came to study here. Scholars went from here to various place for promotion of Buddhist religion.

The major subjects of study at Nalanda University, were vedas, science of logic. Grammar, Medicine, Science, Mathematics, Jyotish (Astrology), Philosophy, Sankhya, Yoga and Law and Justice and various discipline of Buddhist religion. Harsha was the patron of this university. He donated the revenue of 100 villages to this university.

Question 10.
Which were the major royal dynasties of South India. Explain.
Answer:
Major Royal Dynasties of South India Following were the major royal dynasties of South India –
1. Rashtrakuta Dynasty –
In the southern states Rashtrakuta dynasty was the most important. Rulers of Rashtrakuta dynasty tried again and again to establish their rule in Kannauj and its nearly states. They established their empire in the south of river Narmada, present days state of Maharashtra in the beginning, they were under the region of Chalukya. Afterwards, Rashtrakuta ruler Dantidurga defeated Chalukyas and expanded his empire in 753 century. The brave rulers of this dynasty have been Krishna III, Dhruv, Govind, Amoghvarsh etc.

2. Chalukya Dynasty –
The rule of this dynasty spread from the south of river Narmada to river Krishna. Chalukyas were engaged in continuous wars will Rashtrakutas and Pallavas. The brave ruler of this dynasty was Pulkeshin II, who had defeated emperor Harshavardhan too. Vikramaditya II was also a famous and powerful king of this dynasty. After once getting defeated in 753 century from Rashtrakutas the Chalukyas again established their empire in 973 century and made Kalyani in Hyderabad their kingdom.

3. Pallava Dynasty –
It was ancient royal dynasty of South India. The ruler of this dynasty Mahendravarman was defeatedly Chalukyas king Pulkeshin II. Afterwards, his son Narsinghaverman took over kingdom of Chalukyas in 642. The struggle between Pallavas and Chalukyas continued for long. In the 9th century, Rashtrakutas and Cholas too attacked Pallavas. In 885 century, Chola king Aditya I defeated Pallavas and took control over their kingdom Kanchi ending Pallava dynasty.

4. Chola Dynasty –
Cholas state was between rivers Krishna and Kaveri at the sea coast. Their empire was expanded in 864 by Chola king Vijyalaya. He freed Chola state from Pallava’s slavery. After that his son Aditya defeated Pallava king Aprajit Verma and took Kanchi under his control. The most powerful king of this dynasty was Rajendra first who became ruler in 1012 century.

He established his rule in whole of south and attacked north India. After winning Kalinga and Bengal he reached the coast of Ganga and took title of Gangakond\ He prepared a marine military and won over Bay of Bengal and Burma. Rajendra first and other Chola rulers have contributed a lot in the preservation of Indian civilization and culture.

RBSE Solutions for Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 18 Harsha Period and India after Harsha

Question 11.
Mention the progress of Literature and Art in South India.
Answer:
Progress of Literature in South India In South India, both Tamil and Sanskrit languages progressed. Kings of South India loved literature. In the times of Rashtrakutas, Universities of Vallabhi and Kanheri were famous. Kanchi was great centre of learning. ‘Kamban Ramayana’ written in Tamil is very popular in South India. The scholars of Jain and Buddhist religions also wrote many scriptures.

Progress of Art in South India The kings of South India were interested in art and architecture. They got many temples and idols built. These temples are best even today best examples of art. Idols were made of stone or bronze. The Chalukya kings got temple of Hindu deities built, amongst which Virupaksh temple of Vatapy is famous.

The temple of Mahabalipuram, temple of Ellora and Hosbal temples were famous temples and were built during this period. The Vrihdeshwar temple of Tanjor is the best example of art and architecture of South India. In this temple, a metal idol of Natraj is established. Bhitti chitras of Ajanta and Devchitras of Vrihdeshwar temple are beautiful examples of the art of idol making. Beautiful idols of Vishnu, Ram-Sita etc. were got built by Chola rulers. The rulers of South, especially the Cholas contributed a lot in the preservation of India’s civilization and culture.

Question 12.
Which were the major royal dynasties of North India? Explain.
Answer:
Major Royal Dynasties of North India Following were the major royal dynasties of North India –
1. Pratihaar Dynasty –
King Mihir Bhoj was the most powerful ruler of this dynasty. He became king in 840 A.D. and ruled for 50 years. The Pratihaar rulers had stopped the foreign power coming from the side of Indus for a long time and did not allow them to spread in North India. Pratihaar rulers were fond ofliterature and art. India progressed culturally during their rule.

2. Gahadwal Dynasty –
The founder of this dynasty was Chandradev. He defeated Pratihaaras and took Kannauj under his rule. The last ruler of Gahadwal dynasty was Jaichand. He became ruler of Kannauj in 1170 A.D. The ruler of Gour dynasty Mohammad Ghori attacked Jaichand defeated him and established his rule over Kannauj and put an end to the rule of Gahadwal dynasty.

3. Chouhan Dynasty –
The empire of this dynasty was spread over the area of Ajmer- Sambhar. The first powerful ruler of Chauhan dynasty was Vigrah Raj. Prithivi Raj Chauhan was the most powerful ruler of this dynasty. He defeated Mohammad Gouri of Gori dynasty in 1191 in the first battle of Tarain but he had to face the defeat in the second battle of Tarain.

4. Guhil Dynasty –
From the coins found, it is considered that the first ruler of this dynasty was shri Guhil. Bappa Rawal was the famous and brave ruler of this dynasty. Bappa Rawal prepared a group of rulers like Nagabhatta first’ and freed Sindh from the Arabian invaders and established his power by getting victory over many regions.

5. Sisodia Dynasty –
Later, Guhil of dynasty was called Sisodia dynasty too. Rana Hammirkshetra, Rana Mokal, Rana Kumbha, Rana Sanga, Rana Pratap and Rana Raj Singh are considered as brave and famous rulers of this dynasty. This powerful royal dynasty of Mewar is famous for bravery and their struggle against foreign invaders.

RBSE Solutions for Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 18 Harsha Period and India after Harsha

Question 13.
Describe the major events in the history of India from 8th to 12th century.
Answer:
Major Events in the History of India from 8th to 12th Century Following were the major events in the history from 8th to 12th century.
1. Tripartite Wars –
After the death of Harsha, India was divided into many small states. They began to fight with each other for sovereignty. At this time Guijar-Pratihaar, Rashtrakutas and Pals began to expand their empire. These powers wanted to capture Kannauj. Hence there were long wars among these powers which are called Tripartite wars.

2. Invasions of Mahmood Ghaznavi in India –
Taking advantage of political instability in India, Turkish invader Mahmood Ghaznavi of Gajni attacked India many times. He first of all attacked the ruler of Punjab Jaipal in 1000 A.D. after this, he attacked other rulers of various states and destroyed the temples and looted India’s immense wealth. In 1025 A.D., he invaded Gujrat’s famous Somnath temple and took away huge amount of wealth.

3. Invasions of Mohammad Ghori on India –
Mohammad Ghori, ruler of Ghori was an ambitious and brave man. He attacked Prithviraj Chouhan, ruler of Ajmer. In the first battle of Tarain in 1191, Prithviraj Chouhan defeated Mohammad Ghori. But in the second battle of Tarain in 1192, Mohammad Ghori defeated Prithviraj Chouhan. Turks got an opportunity to establish-their rule in India.

4. Defeat of Jaichand –
In 1194, Mohammad Ghori defeated Jaichand, the ruler of Kannauj and captured it.

RBSE Class 7 Social Science Harsha Period and India after Harsha Important Questions and Answers

Objective Type Questions:

Question 1.
Harshavardhan became the ruler of Thaneshwar in –
(a) 706 A.D.
(b) 607 A.D.
(c) 606 A.D.
(d) 660 A.D.
Answer:
(c) 606 A.D.

Question 2.
Harsh organised a grand religious conference –
(a) in Thaneshwar
(b) in Kannauj
(c) in Allahabad
(d) in Prayag
Answer:
(b) in Kannauj

Question 3.
The most powerful ruler of Pratihaar dynasty –
(a) Mihir Bhoj
(b) Nag bhatta
(c) Ram Bhadra
(d) Mahendra Pall
Answer:
(d) Mahendra Pall

RBSE Solutions for Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 18 Harsha Period and India after Harsha

Question 4.
Which university had become the major university during Harsha’s time?
(a) Taxila
(b) Vallabhi
(c) Kanchi
(d) Nalanda
Answer:
(d) Nalanda

Question 5.
The most powerful king of Chola dynasty was –
(a) Vijyalaya
(b) Adilya
(c) Rajendra first
(d) Aprajit Verma
Answer:
(c) Rajendra first

Fill in the blanks:

  1. Harsha had many scholars in his court …………………… was most important out of them.
  2. Harsha organised a meeting in Prayag in …………………… sixth meeting.
  3. Harsha’s empire was divided into states ……………………
  4. Harsha had donated …………………… villages for Nalanda University.
  5. Harsha was a great ……………………

Answer:

  1. Banbhatta
  2. 643 A.D
  3. divisions and districts
  4. hundred
  5. victor.

RBSE Solutions for Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 18 Harsha Period and India after Harsha

Tell the True or False Statements – Tell the true or false statement in the following question:

  1. Harsha had donated 200 villages for Nalanda University.
  2. One of the Gupta kings who ruled in the north established Nalanda university in fifth century.
  3. Banabhatta wrote ‘Harshacharit’ and ‘Kadambari’.
  4. The most powerful king of Chola dynasty was Rajendra first.
  5. In South India only Tamil language progressed.

Answer:

  1. False
  2. True
  3. True
  4. True
  5. False

Compare Column ‘A’ with Column ‘B’:

Question 1.

Column ‘A’ Column ‘B’
1. Banbhatt Moksha Council
2. Meeting of Prayag Composer of ‘Geet Govindam’
3. Jaidev Capital of Harsha
4. Kannauj Nalanda University
5. International temple of learning Composer of ‘Harsha­charit’ and ‘Kadambari’

Answer:

Column ‘A’ Column ‘B’
1. Banbhatt Composer of ‘Harsha­charit’ and ‘Kadambari’
2. Meeting of Prayag Moksha Council
3. Jaidev Composer of ‘Geet Govindam’
4. Kannauj Capital of Harsha
5. International temple of learning Nalanda University

Very Short Answer Type Questions:

Question 1.
When did Harsha became the ruler of Thaneshwar?
Answer:
Harsha became the ruler of Thaneshwar in 606 A.D.

Question 2.
Where did Harsha organise a grand religious conference?
Answer:
Harsha organised a grand religious conference in Kannauj.

Question 3.
Who was made the President of grand religious conference of Kannauj?
Answer:
Chinese tourist Hi-un-Tsang.

Question 4.
When did Harsha organise the sixth Meeting of Prayaga?
Answer:
Harsha organised the sixth Meeting of Prayaga in 643 A.D

RBSE Solutions for Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 18 Harsha Period and India after Harsha

Question 5.
What was Moksha Council?
Answer:
The Meeting of Prayaga was called ‘Moksha Council’.

Question 6.
Which books were written by Banbhatta? Ans. Banbhatta wrote ‘Harshacharita’ and ‘Kadambari’.

Question 7.
In which units, was Harsha’s empire divided?
Answer:
Harsha’s empire was divided into states, divisions and districts.

Question 8.
Which taxes were prevalent in Harsha’s reign?
Answer:
In Harsha’s reign three taxes were prevalent –

  • Part or Bhag (land tax)
  • Hiranaya (cash tax) and
  • Bali (additional tax).

RBSE Solutions for Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 18 Harsha Period and India after Harsha

Question 9.
Which were three grand libraries of the National University?
Answer:

  • Ratnasagar
  • Ratnadahi.
  • Ratnaranjak.

Question 10.
Which were the major dynasties of South India during the period of 8th to 12th centuries?
Answer:

  • Rashtrakuta
  • Ghalukya
  • Pallava,
  • Chola.

Question 11.
Who was the powerful king of Ghalukya dynasty who defeated Harshavardhan too?
Answer:
Pulkeshin-II.

Question 12.
Who was the most powerful king of Chola dynasty when did he take to throne?
Answer:

  • Rajendra first was die most powerful king of Chola dynasty.
  • He took to throne in 1012 century’.

Question 13.
Why did Rajendra first, Chola ruler adopt the title of Gangekond?
Answer:
After winning Kalinga and Bengal, Rajendra first, Chola adopted the tide of Gangekond.

RBSE Solutions for Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 18 Harsha Period and India after Harsha

Question 14.
Which universities were famous during the time of Rashtrakutas?
Answer:
Vallabhi and Kanheri were famous universities (hiring the time of Rashtrakutas.

Question 15.
Name the four temples built by die kings of the South India.
Answer:

  • Virupaksh temple
  • Mahabalipuram temple
  • Kailash temple of Ellora
  • Vridheswar temple of Tanjor.

Question 16.
Who was the most powerful ruler of Pratihar dynasty?
Answer:
King Mihir Bhoj.

Question 17.
Who was the first ruler of Guhil dynasty?
Answer:
The first ruler of Guhil dynasty was Shri Guhil.

Question 18.
Who was die writer of Rajtarangini?
Answer:
Kalhan was the writer of Rajtarangini.

RBSE Solutions for Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 18 Harsha Period and India after Harsha

Short Answer Type Questions:

Question 1.
Discuss the religious policy of Harsha.
Answer:
Harshavardhan was worshipper of Surya and Shiva in the beginning. Later on, he became a Buddhist. But he was liberal towards all religions. In his kingdom, Shaiva, Vaishnav, Buddhist and Jainism were independently popular. He appointed non-Buddhists at the top of position in his kingdom. He did not discriminate on the basis of religion. He organised a grand religious conference in Kannauj. The Chinese tourist Hi-un-Tsang was made its president. Ibis conference continued for 23 days. Many Buddhist, monk, Brahmin scholars, kings and scholars, Chinese tourists participated in it.

Question 2.
Write a short note on the ‘Meeting of Prayag’.
Answer:
Meeting of Prayag Harsha used to organise a meeting in the duration of every five years in Prayag. He organised the sixth meeting in 643 A.D. Harsha used to donate his accumulated wealth of five years. He used to donate even the clothes he used to wear at that time. He used to cover his body by asking for clothes from his sister Rajyashree. The ‘Meeting of Prayag’ was called ‘Moksha Council’.

Question 3.
Make an estimate of Harsha.
Answer:
Harsha’s Evaluation

  • Harsha was a great warrior and victor. He made expeditions against Bengal, Punjab, Vallabhi, Sindh, Orissa etc. and established a great empire.
  • Harsha was a scholar and even patronised scholar. He wrote ‘Ratanavali’, ‘Priyadarshika’ and ‘Nagananda’. Many scholars lived in his court. Among them, Banbhatta, Jaidev, Mayur etc.
  • Harsha was an ideal ruler. He was very hard working and foigot sleeping and eating in pursuit of noble deeds He devoted all his times in lot of welfare of his people.
  • Harsha was popular for his donation. Harsha had donated hundred villages for university of Nalanda.

RBSE Solutions for Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 18 Harsha Period and India after Harsha

Question 4.
Describe the progress of Literature and Art in South India.
Answer:
Progress of Literature and Art In South India both Tamil and Sanskrit progressed. The kings of South India loved literature. In the times of Rashtrakutas, universities of Vallabhi and Kanehri were famous. Kanchi was great centre of learning. Kamban Ramayana written in Tamil is very popular in South.

The Ghalukya got temples of Hindu deities among which Virupaksh temple is famous. Out of these famous temples of Mahabalipuram, Kailash temple of Ellora and Hisbal temples were built during this period. In the Vrihdeshwar temple of Tanjor, metal idol of Natraj is established. Bhitti chitras of Ajanta and Devchitras of Vrihdeshwar temple are beautiful examples of the art of idol making. Beautiful idols of Vishnu-Rama-Sita etc. were got built by Cholas rulers.

Question 5.
Describe the administrative system of royal dynasties of South India.
Answer:
Administrative System of Royal Dynasties of South India In the administrative system of major royal dynasties of South India, King was considered the topmost official. King used to appoint and kept control over minister’s administration. Pailavas divided state into Rashtra, Kottom and gram. -Cholas states were divided between Mandats and Nadus. At that time, local self¬institution used to work. Village panchayats held important position. The village panchayats apart from general administration used to see arrangements of justice, law and donation.

Question 6.
Describe the administrative system of the royal dynasties of North India.
Answer:
Administrative System of the Royal Dynasties of North India

  • Aristocratic System – The administrative system of north Indian independent royal dynasties was aristocratic.
  • Minister’s Council – There was a Minister’s Council to give assistance to the kings. The kings used to take advice from their ministers also.
  • Samant System – At that time, Samant system was prevalent who worked independently Under the king.
  • Village Panchayats – There were village panchayats which were free from state interferance.

Question 7.
Describe the progress of literature and art in the North India.
Answer:
Progress of Literature in North India – During the period of 8th century to 12th century many bocks on various subjects were written , in
Sanskrit. Out of these bocks ‘Shishupalvadh’ of Magh, ‘Kirataijuniyam’ of Bharavi, ‘Rajtarangini’ of Kalhan and ‘Geet Govind’ of Jaidev are major works.

Progress of Art in North India During this period, the ruler of independent royal dynasties got beautiful buildings and temples built. Among these buildings and temples, Lingaraja temple of Bhuvaneshwar, Sun temple of Konark, Jagannath temple of Puri, temple of Delvara built at Abu Mountain and forts of Gwalior, Chittor and Ranthambhore are famous and best examples of art and architecture. There was a lot of progress in the art of sculpture. Beautiful drawings of animals, birds, trees and creepers were drawn on the walls.

RBSE Solutions for Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 18 Harsha Period and India after Harsha

Essay Type Questions:

Question 1.
Describe the administration of Harsha.
Answer:
Administration of Harsha
1. King –
Harsha was himself the centre of administration. He was of this opinion that for administrative skilfulness, the ruler should always remain alert. Harsha had divided his day into three parts – out of which one part was devoted to the administrative work. He used to travel himself in cities and villages to meet people.

2. Self Rule –
People had a lot of self-rule in their regions – Most of the work was in the hands of village communities. There was enough co-operation between central government and village communities. It is believed that Harsha’s administration had a lot of freedom was misclinic of democratic elements.

3. Units of the Empire –
Harsha’s empire was dividedinto states, divisions and districts. The smallest unit was village.

4. Taxes –
To run die administration three types of taxes were prevalent –

  • Part or Bhag (land tax)
  • Hiranaya was cash-tax and Bali was additional tax.

5. Punishment Legislation –
Punishment legislation was not very strict in Harsha’s time. Physical punishment was not given. Accused were not tortured to accept that they had committed crimes. There was practice of investigating about’crime through testing.

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