RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Passive Construction

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 English

Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Passive Construction

अंग्रेजी व्याकरण में एक ही वाक्य को दो प्रकार से लिखा जा सकता है-

1. Active Voice (कर्तृवाच्य) – इसमें Subject (कर्ता) प्रधान होता है और Verb कर्ता के पुरुष व वचन के अनुसार आती है। Active Voice में कर्ता को सर्वप्रथम लिखा जाता है। जैसे-

  • Ram killed Ravan.
  • Hari writes a letter.

राम ने रावण को मारा। हरी एक पत्र लिखता है। उक्त दोनों वाक्यों में Ram व Hari क्रमश: killed व writes क्रियाओं के कर्ता हैं। उक्त कर्ताओं के पुरुष व वचन के अनुसार क्रियाएँ प्रयोग की गई हैं। अतः उक्त दोनों वाक्य Active Voice के हैं।

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Passive Construction

2. Passive Voice (कर्मवाच्य) – इस प्रकार के वाक्यों में कर्म (object) या कार्य (action) प्रधान होता है । ऐसे वाक्यों में verb कर्म या कार्य के पुरुष व वचन के अनुसार आती है | Passive Voice में कर्म या कार्य को सर्वप्रथम रखा जाता है। जैसे-

  • Ravan was killed by Ram.
    राम द्वारा रावण मारा गया।
  • A letter is written by Hari.
    हरी द्वारा एक पत्र लिखा जाता है।

उक्त दोनों वाक्यों में Ravan एवं A letter सर्वप्रथम आए हैं तथा क्रियाएँ क्रमशः was killed व is written कर्मों के पुरुष व वचन के अनुसार प्रयोग की गई हैं। उक्त वाक्यों में कर्म को प्रधान माना गया है एवं कर्ता को गौण मानकर वाक्य के अन्त में लिखा गया है। कर्म (Object) को प्रधानता देने के कारण ये वाक्य कर्मवाच्य (Passive Voice) कहलाते हैं।

विभिन्न वाक्यों को Passive Voice में बदलने के नियम भी अलग-अलग होते हैं। इन नियमों की जानकारी प्राप्त करने से पहले Passive Voice की कुछ प्रमुख बातों को जानना जरूरी है। जैसे-

  • Object को Subject के स्थान पर रखा जाता है।
  • Verb के Tense और Object के Number तथा Person के अनुसार Verb to be’ का form (is, are, am, was, were, be, being तथा been) रखा जाता है।

(3) Active Voice Verb on Passive Voice A Past Participle Form (V3) में रखा जाता है।

(4) केवल Transitive Verbs का ही Passive Voice बनाया जा सकता है क्योंकि इनके Objects दिए रहते हैं। Intransitive Verbs के Objects नहीं होने के कारण इन्हें Passive Voice में नहीं बदला जा सकता।

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Passive Construction

1. Assertive Sentences का Passive Voice में परिवर्तन

नियम 1.
(a) Active से Passive Voice बनाते समय Object को Subject तथा Subject को Object के स्थान पर रख देते हैं। Subject को Object के स्थान पर रखने के पूर्व by या अन्य आवश्यक Preposition अवश्य लगाते हैं।
RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Passive Construction - 1

(b) यदि Active Voice के Subject या Object, Pronouns हैं तो वे इस प्रकार बदलते हैं-
RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Passive Construction - 2

नियम 2. Passive Voice बनाते समय मुख्य क्रिया (Main Verb) के Past Participle Form (Third Form) का ही प्रयोग किया जाता है।

नियम 3. Main Verb के Past Participle Form से पूर्व Active Voice के Tense व Object के Number तथा Person के अनुसार Verb to be’ (is, are, am, was, were, be, being व been) का प्रयोग आवश्यक रूप से किया जाता है।

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Passive Construction

Note : Passive Voice बनाते समय Verb to be का सही रूप याद रखना कठिन कार्य है। छात्रों की सहायता के लिए यहाँ दो चार्ट दिये जा रहे हैं, जो इस कार्य में बहुत सहायक होंगे।
Chart 1
RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Passive Construction - 3
उपर्युक्त Chart का एक दूसरा प्रचलित रूप आगे दिया गया है। छात्र दोनों में से किसी का भी प्रयोग कर सकते हैं।

Chart 2
Passive Voice बनाने के लिए Verb to be’ के Passive रूप
RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Passive Construction - 4
प्रत्येक Tense में Active Voice के Sentences को Passive Voice में बदलने के नियम नीचे उदाहरण सहित दिये जा रहे हैं। इन्हें ध्यान से पढिये व समझिए

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Passive Construction

नियम 1. Simple Present Tense में Passive Voice बनाते समय is, am, are व इसके बाद Main Verb की Third Form सकते हैं। जैसे-

Active Passive
1. Ram teaches me. I am taught by Ram.
2. Ram and his mother teach this boy. This boy is taught by Ram and his mother.
3. I teach them. They are taught by me.

नियम 2. Simple Past Tense में was या were के बाद Main Verb की Third Form रखते हैं। जैसे-

Active Passive
1. Hari taught him. He was taught by Hari.
2. Rekha taught them. They were taught by Rekha.

नियम 3. Simple Future Tense में will be या shall be के बाद Main Verb की Third Form रखते हैं।

Active Passive
1. Ram will teach him. He will be taught by Ram.
2. My aunt will teach me. I shall be taught by my aunt.

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Passive Construction

नियम 4. Present Continuous Tense में is, are, am के बाद being + Main Verb की Third Form रखते हैं।

Active Passive
1. Ram is teaching me. I am being taught by Ram.
2. Sita is teaching him. He is being taught by Sita.
3. Radha is teaching them. They are being taught by Radha.

नियम 5. Past Continuous Tense में was या were के बाद being + Main Verb की Third Form रखते हैं। जैसे

Active Passive
1. Ram was teaching me. I was being taught by Ram.
2. Radha was teaching them. They were being taught by Radha.

नियम 6. Present Perfect Tense में has been या have been के बाद Main Verb की Third Form रखते हैं। जैसे-

Active Passive
1. Ram has helped me. I have been helped by Ram.
2. Ram and his father have helped him. He has been helped by Ram and his father.

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Passive Construction

नियम 7. Past Perfect Tense में had been लगाकर Main Verb की Third Form रखते हैं। जैसे-

Active Passive
1. Ram had helped me. I had been helped by Ram.
2. My sister had helped him. He had been helped by my sister.

नियम 8. Future Perfect Tense में will have been या shall have been के बाद Main Verb की Third Form हैं। जैसे-

Active Passive
1. Ram will have helped me. I shall have been helped by Ram.
2. Laxmi will have helped him. He will have been helped by Laxmi.

Note : निम्नलिखित Tenses के वाक्यों की Passive Voice में परिवर्तन नहीं करते हैं-

  1. Future Continuous
  2. Present Perfect Continuous
  3. Past Perfect Continuous
  4. Future Perfect Continuous

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Passive Construction

CHART OF ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE

Present Tense
RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Passive Construction - 5
Fast Tense
RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Passive Construction - 6
Future Tense
RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Passive Construction - 7

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Passive Construction

Verbs having Double Objects:

कुछ क्रियाओं (Verbs) के दो Objects होते हैं-

  1. Direct या निर्जीव Object,
  2. Indirect या सजीव Object.

ऐसे वाक्यों को Passive में बदलने की दो सम्भावनाएँ होती हैं –
Pattern (सूत्र):

  1. Subject (Indirect Object) + verb to be + past participle + direct object
  2. Subject (Direct Object) + verb to be + past participle + for/to + indirect object

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Passive Construction - 8

Note:
(i) Passive Voice में इनमें से किसी एक को ही Subject बनाया जा सकता है, परन्तु सुविधा की दृष्टि से अधिकतर Indirect Object को ही Subject बनाया जाता है।

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Passive Construction

(ii) जब Active Voice में object + complement दिया हो तो object से ही passive शुरू करते हैं तथा complement यथास्थान रहता है। जैसे – (Complement – जो subject या object के बारे में अतिरिक्त जानकारी देता है।)

Active Passive
1. We made him captain. He was made captain by us.
2. The boys called him hero. He was called hero by the boys.

नियम 9. Active Voice के कुछ sentences में can/ may/could/might/should/would/ ought to / must आदि के बाद Verb की I form का प्रयोग होता है। ऐसे sentences को Passive Voice में बदलते समय can / may / could / might / should / would/ ought to / must आदि के बाद be रखा जाता है, तत्पश्चात् Verb की III form लिखी जाती है । जैसे –
RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Passive Construction - 9

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Passive Construction

नियम 10. ऐसे नकारात्मक वाक्य जिनमें do/does/did + not + First Form of Verb दिया हो, उनका Passive Voice बनाते समय do/does + not + First Form of Verb को is/am/are + not + Third Form of Verb में बदल देते हें और did + not + First Form of Verb को was/were + not + Third Form of Verb में बदल देते हैं।

Pattern (सूत्र):

Active Passive
(do/does) + not + V1 (is/are/am) + not + V3
2. did + not + V1 (was/were) + not + V3
Active Passive
1. He does not play football. Football is not played by him.
2. They do not help me. I am not helped by them.
3. She did not buy a pen. A pen was not bought by her.

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Passive Construction

परन्तु यदि वाक्य में अन्य helping verbs के साथ not हो तो Passive Voice में पहली helping verb के बाद ही not रखते हैं। जैसे-

Active Passive
1 He is not teaching me. I am not being taught by him.
2. She will not have called me. I will not have been called by her.
3. He had not known us. We had not been known to him.

Exercise – 1

Change the following sentences into the Passive Voice:
निम्नलिखित वाक्यों को Passive Voice में बदलिये:

  1. He tells you everything.
  2. We shall always remember Rana Pratap for his patriotism.
  3. The Chief Minister inaugurated this bridge.
  4. He will kill the lion.
  5. You did not answer my questions.
  6. My brother will help my father in his business.
  7. India will export computers.
  8. The gardener looks after the garden.
  9. You will play a game.
  10. Hari ate a mango.

Answer:

  1. You are told everything by him.
  2. Rana Pratap will always be remembered for his patriotism.
  3. This bridge was inaugurated by the Chief Minister.
  4. The lion will be killed by him.
  5. My questions were not answered by you.
  6. My father will be helped in his business by my brother.
  7. Computers will be exported by India.
  8. The garden is looked after.
  9. A game will be played by you.
  10. A mango was eaten by Hari.

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Passive Construction

Exercise – 2

(From the Text Book) Change the following sentences into the Passive Voice:
निम्नलिखित वाक्यों को Passive Voice में बदलिये:

  1. I shall fly a kite tomorrow.
  2. We should talk about our problems.
  3. I bit something sharp.
  4. Sudeep Singh thanked his beloved brother.
  5. I received your letter.
  6. People like us.
  7. You should follow the instructions.
  8. She emptied the glass of milk.
  9. You have poisoned us.
  10. All the countrymen applauded her gallant sacrifice.

Answer:

  1. A kite will be flown by me tomorrow.
  2. Our problems should be talked about.
  3. Something sharp was bitten by me.
  4. His beloved brother was thanked by Sudeep Singh.
  5. Your letter was received by me.
  6. We are liked by people.
  7. The instructions should be followed by you.
  8. The glass of milk was emptied by her.
  9. We have been poisoned by you.
  10. Her gallant sacrifice was applauded by all the countrymen.

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Passive Construction

Exercise – 3
(From the Text Book)

Change the following sentences into the Passive Voice:
निम्नलिखित वाक्यों को Passive Voice में बदलिये:

  1. The robbers brought all the stolen goods.
  2. She saw someone drowning in the canal.
  3. The principal of the school called Sangeeta.
  4. Girls give moral strength to the family.
  5. We respect here our old people.
  6. Herman Hollerith made the first computer.
  7. The computer prepares factory inventories.
  8. The computer can read letters.
  9. They had ordered a battalion to march across the borders.
  10. Sudeep Singh drew hundreds of wonderful paintings.

Answer:

  1. All the stolen goods was brought by the robbers.
  2. Someone drowning in the canal was seen by her.
  3. Sangeeta was called by the principal of the school.
  4. Moral strength is given to the family by girls. Or Moral strength to the family is given by girls.
  5. Our old people are respected here by us.
  6. The first computer was made by Herman Hollerith.
  7. Factory inventories are prepared by the computer.
  8. Letters can be read by the computer.
  9. A battalion had been ordered to march across the borders.
  10. Hundreds of wonderful paintings were drawn by Sudeep Singh.

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Passive Construction

Exercise – 4

Complete the following sentences by choosing correct passive form of the verbs given:
दी गई क्रियाओं में से सही passive रूप चुनकर निम्नलिखित वाक्यों को पूर्ण करो –

Question 1.
Today he …….. and admired all over the world.
(a) is read
(b) will be read
(c) will read
(d) was being reading
Answer:
(a) is read

Question 2.
At the age of 17, Rabindranath ……….. to England.
(a) is sent
(b) was sent
(c) will sent
(d) have sent
Answer:
(b) was sent

Question 3.
Food ……………….. in freeze.
(a) is store
(b) is storing
(c) is being stored
(d) is stored
Answer:
(d) is stored

Question 4.
A number of girls ……. last year in our school.
(a) are admitted
(b) are being admitted
(c) will be admitted
(d) were admitted
Answer:
(d) were admitted

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Passive Construction

Question 5.
Last year barley …………………. on our farm.
(a) was grown
(b) will grow
(c) were being grown
(d) is grown
Answer:
(a) was grown

Question 6.
Tea ……… without milk by many people.
(a) will be liked
(b) will have been liked
(c) is liked
(d) was liked
Answer:
(c) is liked

Question 7.
She knew the man who……….
(a) was arrested
(b) was being arrested
(c) is arrested
(d) is being arrested
Answer:
(a) was arrested

Question 8.
I am sure you ………… by everyone in your school.
(a) are being envied
(b) are envy
(c) will envy
(d) will envied
Answer:
(a) are being envied

Question 9.
At present only the administrative block of the new school ……….
(a) is being built
(b) is built
(c) was built
(d) had been built
Answer:
(a) is being built

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Passive Construction

Question 10.
When you left for Mumbai, the school building …………. down.
(a) was being pull
(b) was pull
(c) was being pulled
(d) will be pulled
Answer:
(c) was being pulled

Exercise – 5

Complete the following sentences by choosing correct passive form of the verbs given:
दी गई क्रियाओं में से सही passive रूप चुनकर निम्नलिखित वाक्यों को पूर्ण करो-

Question 1.
I wondered if he too ………….. to observe the fast.
(a) have been instructed
(b) had been instructed
(c) has been instructed
(d) is instructed
Answer:
(b) had been instructed

Question 2.
The room …………………. when I arrived.
(a) was cleaned
(b) have been cleaned
(c) was cleaned
(d) was being cleaned
Answer:
(d) was being cleaned

Question 3.
As soon as it was dark, the gates of the city ………..
(a) was closed
(b) were closed
(c) will be closed
(d) are closed
Answer:
(b) were closed

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Passive Construction

Question 4.
On Sunday last zoo of Jaipur ……….. by us.
(a) were visited
(b) had been visited
(c) was visited
(d) will be visited
Answer:
(c) was visited

Question 5.
Houses ………………… at Deepawali.
(a) were whitewashed
(b) are whitewashed
(c) have been whitewashed
(d) had been whitewashed
Answer:
(b) are whitewashed

Question 6.
The elders ………….
(a) will obeyed
(b) must be obey
(c) should be obeyed
(d) will have be obeyed
Answer:
(c) should be obeyed

Question 7.
Today a new car …………………. by me.
(a) is used
(b) is being used
(c) have been used
(d) was used
Answer:
(b) is being used

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Passive Construction

Question 8.
I …………………. by my friend.
(a) have just been informed
(b) have just informed
(c) had just been informed
(d) has just informed
Answer:
(a) have just been informed

Question 9.
The prize giving ………. in the hall tomorrow
(a) will held
(b) will be held
(c) will have been held
(d) are held
Answer:
(b) will be held

Question 10.
When I reached there I ……….. to wait outside.
(a) am told
(b) was told
(c) had been tell
(d) be told
Answer:
(b) was told

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Passive Construction

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