RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Adjectives : Degrees

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 English

Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Adjectives : Degrees

जो शब्द किसी व्यक्ति, चीज, घटना आदि का वर्णन करे, उसे Adjective कहते हैं।

Adjective के भेद
1. Proper Adjectives (व्यक्तिवाचक विशेषण) जो Adjectives किसी Proper Noun से बनते हैं, वे Proper Adjectives कहलाते हैं। जैसे –

Proper Noun Proper Adjective
Bengal Bengali
India Indian
England English
Japan Japanese
France French

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Adjectives : Degrees

2. Adjective of Quality (गुणवाचक विशेषण)- ये संज्ञा (Noun) या सर्वनाम (Pronoun) की विशेषता बताते हैं। जैसे – A great man, a good girl.

3. Adjective ofQuantity (परिमाणवाचक विशेषण)वे शब्द जो वस्तुओं की नाप, तौल या परिमाण का बोध कराते हैं, Adjective of Quantity कहलाते हैं। जैसे – A little milk, some rice, no water.

4. Adjective of Number (संख्यावाचक विशेषण)इससे वस्तुओं या व्यक्तियों की संख्या का पता चलता है। जैसे – two books, the first man, many men, a few chairs.

5. Demonstrative Adjective (संकेतवाचक विशेषण)(this, that, these, those) ये Adjectives किसी व्यक्ति या वस्तु की ओर संकेत करने के लिए प्रयुक्त होते हैं, जैसे -This book is mine. Those pens are yours.

6. Distributive Adjective (प्रत्येकवाचक या विभागसूचक विशेषण) ये Adjectives वस्तुओं या व्यक्तियों के अलग-अलग होने का बोध कराते हैं, जैसे –

  • Each boy will get a pen.
  • Every girl knows dancing.

7. Interrogative Adjective (प्रश्नवाचक विशेषण)इनका प्रयोग प्रश्न पूछने के लिए किया जाता है, जैसे –

  • Whose house is this?
  • Which pencil is yours?

नोट – Whose, Which, What आदि के बाद अगर Nouns आते हैं तो ये Interrogative Adjectives होंगे और अगर Nouns नहीं आते हैं तो ये Interro- gative Pronouns होते हैं।

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Adjectives : Degrees

Degrees of Comparison (तुलनात्मक अवस्थाएँ)

1. Positive Degree:

Positive Degree से किसी वस्तु या व्यक्ति की सामान्य अवस्था का बोध होता है। इस सामान्य अवस्था को मूलावस्था भी कहते हैं। वाक्यों में इसका प्रयोग दो प्रकार से किया जाता है.
(1) Subject + be + Adjective; जैसे

  • Sunita is weak.
  • Rita was tall.
  • They are lazy.
  • We were happy.

(2) Subject + be + as/so + Adjective + as + Noun/ Pronoun; जैसे

  • Sushmita is as clever as Shamita.
  • Shilpi is not so intelligent as Neha.
  • Saurabh is as rich as Gaurav.

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Adjectives : Degrees

2. Comparative Degree:

जब दो व्यक्तियों अथवा वस्तुओं के गुणों की तुलना यह जानने के लिए की जाती है कि किसका गुण अधिक या कम है तो Comparative Degree का प्रयोग करते हैं।. इसका प्रयोग वाक्यों में दो प्रकार से होता है:
(1) Subject + be + morelless + Adjective + than + Nour/Pronoun; जैसे

  • Neeraj is more handsome than Ravi.
  • This exercise is less difficult than that one.

(2) Subject + be + Adjective +er/r+ than + Noun Pronoun; जैसे

  • She is taller than Sheela.
  • Richa is wiser than Anuradha.

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Adjectives : Degrees

3. Superlative Degree:

इस Degree का प्रयोग दो से अधिक व्यक्तियों अथवा वस्तुओं के गुणों की तुलना करने में किया जाता है। इसके प्रयोग से इस बात का पता लगता है कि किसी गुण विशेष की मात्रा किसमें सबसे अधिक अथवा सबसे कम है।

(1) Subject + be + the + Adjective + est/st + Noun/Pronoun; जैसे

  • Divya is the shortest girl in her class.
  • Narendra is the bravest student of his school.

(2) Subject + be + the + most/least + adjective + Noun/Pronoun; जैसे

  • This is the least expensive hotel of the city.
  • The Taj Mahal is the most beautiful building of the world.

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Adjectives : Degrees

Comparative तथा Superlative Degree बनाने के नियम

(1) Positive degree में er तथा est लगाकर बनाना, जैसे
RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Adjectives Degrees - 1

(2) अगर Adjective का अन्तिम अक्षर e हो तो सिर्फ r तथा st जोड़ते हैं, जैसे
RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Adjectives Degrees - 2

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Adjectives : Degrees

(3) अगर Positive degree के अन्त में कोई Consonant हो और उससे पहले कोई Single (अकेला) Vowel (a, e, i, o, u) हो तो er तथा est लगाते समय अन्तिम Consonant double हो जाता है, जैसे –
RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Adjectives Degrees - 3

(4) यदि Adjective का अन्तिम अक्षर y हो और y के पहले कोई Consonant आये तो y को i में बदलकर er और est लगाते हैं ; y से पहले Vowel (a, e, i, o, u) हो तो y को i में नहीं बदलते हैं, जैसे-
RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Adjectives Degrees - 4

(5) Positive degree के पहले more तथा most लगाकर Comparative तथा Superlative बनाना, जैसे –
RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Adjectives Degrees - 5

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Adjectives : Degrees

(6) कुछ Positive के Comparative तथा Superlative बिना किसी नियम के बनते हैं, जैसे –
RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Adjectives Degrees - 6

नोट – (i) Comparative Degree के पश्चात् प्रायः than का प्रयोग होता है, जैसे –

  • He is older than I.
  • She is more beautiful than Gita.

परन्तु inferior, superior, junior, senior, prior इत्यादि के साथ to का प्रयोग किया जाता है।

(ii) interior (आन्तरिक), exterior (बाह्य), major (बड़ा), minor (छोटा) का प्रयोग Positive Degree में ही होता है, जैसे-

  • This question is of minor importance to me.
  • Major part of the work is done.

(iii) ‘top’ का Comparative Degree में कोई रूप नहीं है जबकि इसकी Superlative Degree ‘topmost’ है।

(iv) Degrees of Comparison of Adjective of Quality तथा Adjective of Quantity में ही होती है।

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Adjectives : Degrees

(A) Positive Degree का Comparative Degree में परिवर्तन

Rule 1.
जब एक Noun की तुलना दूसरे Noun से इस प्रकार की जाती है कि एक को दूसरे से अधिक अच्छा या अधिक खराब बताया जाये अथवा मात्रात्मक दृष्टि से एक Noun दूसरे से अधिक या कम हो तो निम्नलिखित रचना-सूत्र काम में लेते हैं:
(a) Noun-I (Subject) + is/are/am + not so/as + Positive Degree of Adjective + as + Noun-I] (Object). (Positive Degree) (b) Noun-II+ is/are/am + Comparative degree of Adjective + than/ to + Noun-I (Comparative Degree)

नोट – ……… so …….. as का प्रयोग केवल negative sentences में होता है। जबकि as ………… as का प्रयोग negative व positive दोनों ही प्रकार के sentences में किया जाता है।

उदाहरण:
1. Positive : Guddi is not so tall as Manju.
Comparative : Manju is taller than Guddi.

2. Positive : Mr Gupta is as senior as Mr Chaudhary.
Comparative : Mr Chaudhary is not senior to Mr Gupta.

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Adjectives : Degrees

Rule 2.
जब Sentence में एक Noun की तुलना उसी वर्ग या जाति के अन्य Noun से की गई हो तो निम्नलिखित रचना-सूत्र काम में लिये जाते हैं –
(a) No other/very few + Noun (Subject) + is/arel am + as/so + Positive Degree of Adj. + as + Noun (Object) (Positive Degree)

(b) Noun + is/arelam + Comparative degree of Adjective + than/ to + any other/ than most other + Noun (Compurative Degree)

उदाहरण:
1. Positive : No other state of India is as/so big as Rajasthan.
Comparative : Rajasthan is bigger than any other state of India.

2. Positive : Very few roads in India are as/so long as the G.T. Road.
Comparative : The G. T. Road is longer than most other roads in India.

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Adjectives : Degrees

(B) Comparative Degree का Positive Degree में परिवर्चन:

अन्तःपरिवर्तन के नियम व रचना-सूत्र वही हैं जो इससे पूर्व (A) में बताये गये हैं। अभ्यास के लिए निम्नलिखित उदाहरणों को ध्यान से पढ़िये और समझने का प्रयास कीजिए-

उदाहरण:
1. Comparative : Iron is more useful than gold.
Positive : Gold is not so useful as iron.

2. Comparative : Mohan is taller than Suresh.
Positive : Suresh is not so tall as Mohan.

3. Comparative : Jaipur is bigger than Ajmer.
Positive : Ajmer is not so big as Jaipur.

4. Comparative : Kalidas is greater than any other poet of India.
Positive : No other poet of India is so great as Kalidas.

5. Comparative : Mahatma Gandhi was greater than most other Indian
leaders. Positive : Very few Indian leaders were as great as Mahatma Gandhi.

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Adjectives : Degrees

(C) Positive Degree का Superlative Degree में परिवर्तन

(a) No other + noun-I + is/am/are + so/ as + adjective (Positive) + as + noun-II (Positive Degree)
(b) Noun-II + is/am/are + the + superlative degree of adjective + noun-I (Superlative Degree)

1. Positive : No other city in India is as/so big as Mumbai.
Superlative : Mumbai is the biggest city in India.

(a) Very few + Plural Noun + are + as/so + adjective + as + Noun (Positive Degree)
(b) Noun + is + one of the + superlative degree + Plural Noun. (Superlative Degree)

Positive : Very few girls are as intelligent as Rashi.
Superlative : Rashi is one of the most intelligent girls.

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Adjectives : Degrees

(D) Superlative Degree का Positive Degree में परिवर्तन

1. Superlative : The Everest is the highest peak in the world.
Positive : No other peak in the world is so high as the Everest.

2. Superlative : He is the best boy of this class.
Positive : No other boy of this class is so good as he.

(E) Comparative Degree का Superlative Degree में परिवर्तन

1. Comparative : Iron is more useful than any other metal.
Superlative : Iron is the most useful metal.

2. Comparative : Australia is larger than any other island in the world.
Superlative : Australia is the largest island in the world.

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Adjectives : Degrees

(F) Superlative Degree का Comparative Degree में परिवर्तन

1. Superlative : She is the most talkative girl in our family.
Comparative : She is more talkative than any other girl in our family.

2. Superlative : Bhima was the strongest son of Kunti.
Comparative : Bhima was stronger than any other son of Kunti.

3. Superlative : June is the hottest month in India.
Comparative : June is hotter than any other month in India.

Some More Solved Examples:

1. Positive : No other man is as dishonest as he (is).
Comparative : He is more dishonest than any other man.
Superlative : He is the most dishonest man.

2. Positive : No other country is as hot
as India. Comparative : India is hotter than any
other country. Superlative : India is the hottest country.

3. Superlative : He is one of the most learned men.
Comparative : He is more learned than most other men.
Positive : Very few men are as learned as he (is).

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Adjectives : Degrees

4. Superlative : Mr Prasad is the best teacher of our school.
Comparative : Mr Prasad is better than any other teacher of our school.
Positive : No other teacher of our school is so good as Mr Prasad.

5. Superlative : Today is the hottest day.
Comparative : Today is hotter than any other day.
Positive : No other day is as hot as today.

6. Superlative : This is the most expensive watch.
Comparative : This watch is more expensive than any other watch.
Positive : No other watch is so expensive as this.

7. Comparative : Mahesh is more cunning than his brother.
Positive : His brother is not so cunning as Mahesh.

8. Positive : Platinum is as heavy as gold.
Comparative : Gold is not heavier than platinum.

9. Comparative : Hari speaks English better than I.
Positive : I do not speak English as well as Hari.

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Adjectives : Degrees

10. Comparative : I can run faster than Mukesh.
Positive : Mukesh cannot run as fast as I.

Exercise – 1

Rewrite the following sentences using the Positive Degree of Adjective:
निम्नलिखित वाक्यों को Positive Degree of Adjective का प्रयोग करते हुए पुनः लिखिए:

  1. Rajesh is the most disciplined boy of our class.
  2. January is the coldest month in India.
  3. Sushil is more intelligent than any other boy in this school.
  4. Anurag is older than Abhishek.
  5. Seth Dhani Ram is the richest person in our town.
  6. Mumbai is the biggest city in India.

Answer:

  1. No other boy of our class is so disciplined as Rajesh.
  2. No other month in India is so cold as January.
  3. No other boy in this school is so intelligent as Sushil.
  4. Abhishek is not so old as Anurag.
  5. No other person in our town is so rich as Seth Dhani Ram.
  6. No other city in India is so big as Mumbai.

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Adjectives : Degrees

Exercise – 2

Rewrite the following sentences using the Comparative Degree of Adjective:
निम्नलिखित वाक्यों को Comparative Degree of Adjective का प्रयोग करते हुए पुनः लिखिए:

  1. Very few girls are as beautiful as Shanti.
  2. The crow is the most cunning bird.
  3. The dog is the most faithful animal.
  4. Pratima is the most talkative girl.
  5. Everest is the highest peak in the world.
  6. No other month in India is as hot as June.

Answer:

  1. Shanti is more beautiful than most other girls.
  2. The crow is more cunning than any other bird.
  3. The dog is more faithful than any other animal.
  4. Pratima is more talkative than any other girl.
  5. Everest is higher than any other peak in the world.
  6. June is hotter than any other month in India.

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Adjectives : Degrees

Exercise – 3

Rewrite the following sentences using the Superlative Degree of Adjective:
निम्नलिखित वाक्यों को Superlative Degree of Adjective का प्रयोग करते हुए पुनः लिखिए:

  1. Very few animals are so brave as the lion.
  2. No other Hindi poet is so great as Tulsidas.
  3. No other leader of India was so great as Nehru.
  4. Iron is more useful than any other metal.
  5. India is hotter than any other country.

Answer:

  1. The lion is the bravest animal.
  2. Tulsidas is the greatest Hindi poet.
  3. Nehru was the greatest leader of India.
  4. Iron is the most useful metal.
  5. India is the hottest country.

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Adjectives : Degrees

Exercise – 4

Rewrite the following sentences using the words given in the brackets:
कोष्ठकों में दिये शब्दों का प्रयोग कर निम्न वाक्यों को पुनः लिखिए:

  1. The Taj is the most beautiful building. (more)
  2. This city is as calm as that one. (than)
  3. Mahatma Gandhi was greater than any other Indian leader. (greatest)
  4. Mohan does not walk faster than Ram. (as-as)
  5. No other city in India is so big as Kolkata. (than)
  6. He is better than any other boy in the class. (best)
  7. Iron is the most useful metal. (than)

Answer:

  1. The Taj is more beautiful than any other building.
  2. That city is not calmer than this one.
  3. Mahatma Gandhi was the greatest Indian leader.
  4. Ram walks as fast as Mohan.
  5. Kolkata is bigger than any other city in India.
  6. He is the best boy in the class.
  7. Iron is more useful than any other metal.

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Adjectives : Degrees

Exercise – 5

Fill in the blanks with appropriate degree of Adjectives given in the brackets:
कोष्ठकों में दिये गये Adjectives की उपयुक्त degree का प्रयोग करके वाक्यों के रिक्त स्थानों को भरिये:

  1. She was one of the……….writers of her time. (great)
  2. Birbal was one of the nine ………. men whom Akbar liked the most. (clever)
  3. Tagore is one of the……poets of India. (great)
  4. January is ………… than December. (cold)
  5. Mohan is ……….. than Ramesh. (tall)
  6. Mt Everest is the….peak in the world. (high)
  7. Iron is ………… than wood.. (heavy)

Answer:

  1. greatest
  2. cleverest
  3. greatest
  4. colder
  5. taller
  6. highest
  7. heavier.

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Adjectives : Degrees

Exercise – 6

(From the Text Book) Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the words given in brackets:
रिक्त स्थानों की पूर्ति कोष्ठकों में दिए गए शब्दों की सही से कीजिए:

  1. It was the fun time for the animals and they made the ………. (much) out of it.
  2. All the animals felt much ……… (good) after reading it.
  3. I am …….. (happy) that you have started liking the hostel life.
  4. Oh no! As ……… (much) as you please.
  5. You have got so many ………… (good) qualities.
  6. Thus a human brain is much ………. (much) complex than a computer.
  7. Cheerapunji is one of the world’s ………. (wet) places.

Answer:

  1. most
  2. better
  3. happy
  4. much
  5. good
  6. more
  7. wettest.

RBSE Class 8 English Grammar Adjectives : Degrees

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