These comprehensive RBSE Class 12 Biology Notes Chapter 10 Microbes in Human Welfare will give a brief overview of all the concepts.
These RBSE Solutions for Class 12 Biology in Hindi Medium & English Medium are part of RBSE Solutions for Class 12. Students can also read RBSE Class 12 Biology Important Questions for exam preparation. Students can also go through RBSE Class 12 Biology Notes to understand and remember the concepts easily.
→ Microorganisms which are not visible with naked eyes and viewed under the microscope are called microorganism or simple microbes.
→ The microbes are almost omnipresent and are characterized with very high degree of adaptability.
→ A most important microbial activity in production of household products is conversion of milk into curd. The bacteria which carries this process is Lactobacillus or Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB).
→ Fermentation is the oldest biotechnological process and alcohol from fermented sleep liquor or plant juice was perhaps the first product of biotechnology.
→ Louis pasteur observed in the middle of 19th century that alcoholic fermentation of the sugar required the multiplication of yeast cells.
→ The yeasts are mainly of two types: bakers yeast and brewer’s yeast.
→ There are two types of fermentation processes:
→ An antibiotic is an organic compound produced by a microorganism that inhibits the growth of or kill another microorganisms.
→ The major enzymes produced by microorganisms and used in industries are: proteases, amylases, lactoses, glucoamylases, isoglucomerases and rennet.
→ The important organic acids produced commercially, by the activities of microorganisms are acetic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, fumaric acid, gluconic acid, butyric acid etc.
→ One of the most important role of microorganisms is • sewage disposal. They are used to transform wastewater by the process of activated sludge formation. Thus, they help in recycling of water.
→ Biogas or gobar gas is produced with the help of methanogenic microorganisms. Biogas is used as energy source in rural areas.
→ Biopesticides are the pesticides of biological origin or the biological control agents which are used to control the weeds and pests. They are of manly two types: bioherbicides and bioinsecticides.
→ Biofertilizers are the major contributors to increase crop production.
→ Biofertilizers are the microorganisms which bring about soil nutrients enrichment, maximize the ecological benefits and minimize the environmental hazard. These include nitrogen fixing bacteria, cyanobacteria and fungi.
→ Mycorrhiza are symbiotic association of fungi with the roots of higher plants. They are of two types: endomycorrhiza and ectomycorrhiza.
→ Microbes/Microorganisms: Small sized organisms visible under the microscope.
→ LAB: Lactic Acid Bacteria.
→ Butter Milk: Acedulated liquid leftover after churning of butter from cream is called butter milk.
→ Tody: Coconut water is fermented to produce a refreshing drink called tody.
→ Floes: Masses of bacterial associated with fungal filaments.
→ Fermentor: A bioreactor in which fermentation process is carried to produce a product on an industrial scale.
→ Inoculum: Starter of a biological reaction.
→ Activated Sludge: Bacterial floes which aerobically decompose the organic matter.
→ Fermentation: Anaerobic break down of substances by some anaerobes like bacteria, fungi etc.
→ Antibiotics: Defensive chemicals produced by certain useful microbes and used to kill certain other harmful microbes.
→ Sewage: Municipal waste water with suspended particles;; organic wastes and pathogenic microorganisms.
→ STP: Sewage tratement plant where sewage is subjected to various treatment.
→ Biocontrol: Control of pathogenic organisms and plant pests with the help of living organisms.
→ Biofertilizers: Microbes which increase the soil fertility.
→ Biopesticides: Microbes which kill harmful herbs, insects and other organisms in our crops.
→ Methanogens: Methane producing microorganisms.
→ Mycorrhiza: Association of fungi with roots of higher plants.
→ BOD: Biochemical Oxygen Demand.
→ IARI: Indian Agriculture Research Institute.
→ VAM: Vasicular or Arbuscular Mycorrhizae.