Go through these RBSE Class 11 Political Science Notes Chapter 9 Meaning of Government, Its forms: Dictatorship, Aristocracy and Democracy contain important concepts so that students can score better marks in the exam.
Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 Political Science Notes Chapter 9 Meaning of Government, Its forms: Dictatorship, Aristocracy and Democracy
→ One of the four important factors of a state is – Government. A state, through its government, fulfils its objectives, also arranges resources for growth and development of its people.
Meaning of Government
- The institution, providing a concrete, tangible form to the state, is called government.
Different forms of Government
- The forms of government have kept changing and they are still changing. A government has many forms, and out of them, dictatorship, aristocracy and democracy are especially the major ones.
- In dictatorship, entire sovereignty lies with an individual. He acquires the government by unconstitutional means and remains at the centre of power by using military force.
- In a dictatorship, the ruler does not respect people’s feelings and desires. His command is law for the people.
- The ruler can become all-powerful, autocratic and wilful in a dictatorship.
- Main types of dictatorship: (i) Dictatorship of ancient times, (ii) Contemporary dictatorship.
- Allan Ball, a political thinker, describes two types of modern dictatorship (i) Totalitarian dictatorship and (ii) Autocratic dictatorship.
Main characteristics of dictatorship:
- Supreme place of the state
- Against the democratic process
- Faith in violence and conspiracy
- End of opponents
- Support to extremist ideology
- One-party rule
- Importance to centralization
Main Qualities of Dictatorship:
- Stable and efficient administration.
- All-round development of the nation.
- Establishment of unity, integrity and security of the nation.
- Exhortation to citizens for patriotism and sacrifice. >~
- Unity and rigidity in the orders of the ruler.
- Appropriate for emergency situations.
- Discipline in its citizens.
- Secrecy in State activities.
- Operation without people’s participation.
Defects of dictatorship:
- Impediment in the development of an individual
- Exploitation of public
- Fatal for the nation
- Lack of spirit of social adhesion
- Oppression of personal liberties.
- The word ‘Aristocracy’ is derived from the Greek words ‘Aristos’ and ‘Kratos’. Aristos’ means superior/best and ‘Kratos’ means rule.
- Aristocracy thus means the rule of the best persons.
- Aristocracy is a mixture of democracy and plutocracy. It is created by three elements-birth, property and ability.
- In aristocracy, state or government is operated on die basis of intellect, quality and culture. Law’ is all-pervasive in it.
- Aristotle authorises only the elderly and experienced persons to operate the administration of the state in his concept of ‘ideal state’.
- Democracy is an important concept of political science, this ideology implies the participation of people in governance.
- Democracy means rule of the people in literal terms.(Demos = people) (Kratos = rule).
- Democracy is accepted as the best system of government. This provides freedom, equality’, justice to the people, and also offers extensive social, political, economic and cultural rights.
Forms of democracy:
- Aristotle accepts two forms of democracy: (i) Pure democracy and (ii) Distorted democracy.
- At present, there are four forms of democracy: (i) Political democracy, (ii) Social democracy7, (iii) Economic democracy, (iv) Religious democracy.
Classification of democracy:
- Direct and Indirect democracy, (ii) Constitutional monarchy and Republican democracy.
- In direct democracy, the people directly operate the administration. It forms an assembly7 and forms laws and keeps absolute control over the officials who run the administration. At present, Cantons in Switzerland have direct democracy prevalent in them.
- In indirect democracy, people choose their representatives. These chosen, elected representatives run the government in the form of Legislative and Executive. At present, most of the countries have indirect democracy.
- In indirect democracy, two types of system of governance are there: (i) Presidential system of governance, (ii) Parliamentary system of governance.
- In constitutional monarchy, the head of the state is appointed on hereditary basis; For example- in Britain.
- In Republican democracy7, the head of the state is elected on basis of proportional representation system. For example – United States of America.
Characteristics of Democracy:
- Universal democracy
- Adult franchise
- Freedom of expression of thought
- Political and social equality
- Fundamental rights and duties
- Written constitution
- Rule of majority
- Independent and impartial judiciary.
Qualities of democracy:
- Public welfare administration
- Political training
- Development of morality
- Cultural unity
- Lack of revolution
- Public cooperation.
Defects of democracy:
- Administration of unworthy people.
- Lack of practical social equality
- Passivity of the people
- Excessive expenditure of time and money
- Defective party system.
Important Conditions for Success of Democracy
- Propagation of education
- Political awareness
- Economic democracy
- Political code of conduct
- Dedication forward democracy
- National unity.
Meaning of Government, Its forms: Dictatorship, Aristocracy and Democracy Notes Important Terms
→ Militarism: Militarism refers to such an administrative system, wherein the so-called military qualities are emphasised upon. For example – courage, tolerance, physical strength, discipline, and capacity, of sacrifice if needed.
→ Dictatorship: Dictatorship refers to such an administration of a person, who, by force, exclusively controls the governance, and uses it in an uncontrolled way.
→ Fundamental Rights: Such rights, which as being fundamental and necessary, are granted by the constitution to every citizen.
→ Executive body: Executive is such an organ of the government which enforces the laws formed by legislature.
→ Legislature: It converts the state’s will into laws.
→ Judiciary: It is such an organ of the government which is responsible for explaining/interpreting laws and also awarding punishment to those violating them.
→ Dictatorship of proletariat class: In Marxist philosophy, a revolutionary period between labour revolution and establishment of real communism (or establishment of class-less and state-less society), wherein labour class uses the dictatorial powers.
→ Totalitarian dictatorship: After the industrial revolution, this mechanism developed due to the growth of scientific, technological and telecom resources. In this, in any one person assumes and uses absolute powers of governance, for example, such regimes were sought to be established in Communist Russia, China, Italy and Germany, etc.
→ Autocratic dictatorship: In the countries where democratic system of governance was adopted, this types of administration has been practised on temporary basis for a short period of time. This practice can be mostly seen in Asia, Africa and Latin American countries.
→ Aristocracy: It means governance by the best persons.
→ Plutocracy: According to Aristotle, when, in an aristocratic regime, the aristocratic class becomes selfish and irresponsible, then it is called plutocracy.
→ Presidential from of government: Such a system of administration, wherein executive President himself uses power in real terms, is called Presidential form of government. For example, the President of United States of America.
→ Parliamentary form of government: Such a system of administration, wherein the real powers of executive are used by the council of ministers under the leadership of Prime Minister, is called Parliamentary form of government. Example: India.
→ Constitutional Monarchy: Democracy of the sort wherein head of state is appointed on hereditary basis. The King’s powers are used by the council of ministers under the leadership of Prime Minister. Example: Britain.
→ Republican Democracy: Democracy of the type wherein the election of the president of the state in conducted on proportional representation system. This is acknowledged by the people in the form of elected President. For example: USA.
→ Adult Franchise: ‘Right to vote’ granted to all the citizens of age 18 years and above without any discrimination on the basis of creed, caste, gender and place of birth.
→ Parliament: Central legislature in India is called Parliament. It has two houses: (i) Lok Sabha and (ii) Rajya Sabha.
→ Globalization: The process by which different economies of the world are coordinated so that there is a smooth flow of goods and services, technology, capital and labour, is called globalization.
→ Garibaldi: A soldier of Italy, who, for freeing Italy, became the chief of army from being a mere volunteer. He implemented dictatorship in Sicily in 1860.
→ Dr. C.B. Gena: Famous political scientist who described in detail the features of dictatorship.
→ Aristotle: Ancient Greek philosopher and great political thinker. He is regarded as the father of political science. He was a disciple of Plato.
→ Abraham Lincoln: He was the President of United States America. He abolished slavery in USA.
→ Laski: A famous political thinker form England. According to him, people get an opportunity to choose their government and use their power of making decisions in democracy.
→ Diacy: A political scientist. He, while defining democracy, said that democracy is such a form of governance system, wherein the governing class is a huge part of entire nation.
→ Maclver: A famous American political scientist. He called dictatorship such a system, wherein the ‘will’ of the power centre is the only justification of the governance.
→ Alfred Cabon: A political thinker. He termed dictatorship as an administration of such a person, wherein the position of power is obtained by deceit, fraud, violence and power.
→ Dr. B. D. Sharma: Famous political scientist. He says that in democracy, the highest power is hated. A general electorate does not have any interest in the works of state. As a result, clever and shrewd people succeed in clinching governance.