Go through these RBSE Class 11 Political Science Notes Chapter 7 Theories of the Origin of the State contain important concepts so that students can score better marks in the exam.
Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 Political Science Notes Chapter 7 Theories of the Origin of the State
Theories of the Origin of the State
- The issue of the origin of the state is a complex subject of political science. Different political thinkers have different views on this subject. There is lack of a commonly accepted principle on the subject.
- Since ancient time, many principles have been propounded on the origin of the state in accordance with many historical events and circumstances, but no principle is “accepted to all”.
- The main principles of the origin of the state are: (i) Principle of divine origin, (ii) Matriarchal and patriarchal principle, (iii) Principle of force.
Theory of Divine Origin
- This is the most ancient and imaginary principle of the origin of the state.
- According to the principle, a king is the representative of God on the earth.
- A king is not answerable to the people for any of his acts
- This principle was firstly supported by the Jewish.
- Manu Smriti and Shantiparv of Mahabharata , also have description of this theory.
- In the book “Patriarchy” written by the political thinker, Robert Filmer, he regarded ‘Adam’ the first king of the earth.
- According to this principle ‘sovereignty is autocratic and it is mandatory for the people to comply with his orders.
- The kings used this principle for consolidating their grip and also earning blind-faith of the people.
- An important role was played in the decline of this principle by the struggle between the church and the monarchs.
- As per critics, this principle is an immoral saviour of autocracy, reactionary and anti-democracy.
- This principle saved the people, that is, the ancient and pre-medieval society from anarchy and they got organised under the leadership of a king.
Matriarchal and Patriarchal Theory:
This theory has two sides:
- Patriarchal principle
- Matriarchal principle.
- The description of this principle is found in the ancient history of Greece, Rome and the Jews.
- The basic reason of the origin of the state is the family whose head happened to be father. A combination of families formed clans, clans formed tribes, and tribes formed the state.
- The main supporter of this principle is Henry Maine. According to him, a society was a group of families and the oldest member of the family was its head.
- According to this principle, ancestorship of the family descends through father. Marriage tradition was permanent. Blood relations bound all the family members in a thread of unity.
- According to this principle, the powers of the head of family were absolute and the basis of the development of the state was patriarchal system.
- The critics of this principle have contend that this principle seems less political and more sociological.
- The main supportive scholars of this principle are McLennon, Morgan and Jacques, etc.
- According to this principle, there were no stable marriages. There was the mother’s authority on wealth and governance.
- According to this principle, a woman had many husbands. Their offsprings were not recognized by father, Instead it was the mother who had the stamp of recognition on them. The development of this system gave birth to the state.
The Force Theory
- According to this principle, the fundamental basis of the origin of the state was ‘Force’. The tendency of subordinaton of the weak people by the powerful through wars gave birth to the state.
- Religious leaders used this principle in medieval period to declare the state as impure, and also for holding the church to be the superior institution.
- The critics of the principle of force say that power is not the only element for the origin of the state. There have been many other reasons, such as awareness, religion and blood relation, etc. for the origin of the state apart from force.
Theories of the Origin of the State Notes Important Terms
→ Divine Principle: This is an imaginary created principle for the origin of the state. According to it, the state was created by God. The king is sent by God to execute the functions of the state.
→ Sovereignty: The authority to pass an order and the power of the state to force for the compliance of the order is called ‘Sovereignty’.
→ Bible: Religious book of the Christians. In this scripture, the concept of divine creation of the state is propagated. According to Bible, God is the origin of all royal powers.
→ Adam: First king on the Earth. Political thinker, Robert Filmer, regards Adam as the first king sent by God on the earth, in his book ‘Patriarchy’.
→ Autocracy: If the entire power of governance of the state comes in the hands of an individual and he rules the people for his interests and selfishness, (then) this type of system is called autocracy.
→ Democracy: The governance system that has dominance of the people, that is, entire power is vested in the people, is called democracy.
→ Monarchy: Monarchy means the about powers (sovereignty) of the state are in the hands of an individual (king).
→ Patriarchal Principle: An ancient principle related to origin of state. According to it, the main reason of the origin of state is a family, whose head is the father. Families formed hamlets (Kabilas) and these clans, clans made tribes made a state.
→ Old Testament: Religious book of the Jewish. In this book, there is a description of patriarchal principle on the origin of the state.
→ Patriarchy: A book written by Robert Filmer, a political thinker. In this book, ‘Adam’ is said to be the first king on the earth, in reference to the divine principle.
→ Clan: In general, clan stands for a large group of related families, or a hierarchy of the family. Offsprings of an ancestor or his successors are said to be belonging to the same Clan.
→ Tribe: According to patriarchal principle of the origin of the state, clans formed from families and then from clans, the tribes are formed. The state emerges from tribes.
→ Ancestry: Ancestors of a family down the generations are regarded to be from the same ancestary.
→ Garner: Major political thinker. He attributed the origin of the state to the experience of political awareness in the primitive man.
→ Robert Filmer: A political thinker. He wrote a book ‘Patriarchy’. In the book, while supporting the principle of divinity as regards origin of the state, he regarded Adam as the first king on the earth.
→ James-I: King of England. He wrote a book ‘Rules of Free Monarchies’. In the book , he wrote “A king is an incrnation of the divine that breathes on the earth.”
→ Louis 14th: A king of France. He supported divine principle in respect of origin of state. He accepts that ‘king is an image of God’.
→ Voltaire: Prominent modern political thinker. He supported the forcible demand of freedom. He regarded the king on the earth as a fortunate warrior. He supported the principle of force in respect to origin of the state.
→ Aristotle: Great political thinker. He regarded state as a family and a community of villages, the purpose of which was complete and self-reliant life. According to him, when many families get united, a village is formed, that is, the origin of state is from villages.