Go through these RBSE Class 11 Political Science Notes Chapter 6 Scope of the State contain important concepts so that students can score better marks in the exam.
Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 Political Science Notes Chapter 6 Scope of the State
Many political outlooks/concepts are present in respect to the scope of the state. In simple terms, these can be divided into two parts:
→ State in itself is an accomplishment and individual a means: Some scholars, namely, Plato, Aristotle, Hegal, Bosanke, Joad, Treitschke, etc. regard the state as an accomplishment in itself and an individual as a means.
→ State is a means and an individual is an accomplishment: Some scholars, namely, J.S. Mill, Herbert Spencer, etc. regard a state as a means and an individual as an accomplishment.
Both the above outlooks are unilateral. A state is a means as well as an accomplishment.
Functions of a state
- Nature of functions of a state keep on changing in accordance with time, situation, outlook and necessity.
- The functions of modern state can be divided into two parts : (1) Necessary functions, (2) Optional functions.
Necessary functions: Necessary functions of a state are those, without performing which, the very existence of a state may be in danger. These functions are:
- Protection of the country from foreign attacks
- Establishment of internal peace and order
- Formation of rules related to crime and punishment and judicial system
- Making Laws
- To collect revenue
- To establish relations with other states.
Optional functions: Optional works are those which are not necessary from the point of view of existence of a state, freedom of an individual and security. There are:
- Arrangement of education
- Creating awareness for cleanliness and public health
- Control on business and industries
- Operation of large-scale industries
- Facilities for entertainment
- Social reforms
- Management of transportation.
Principles associated with the Scope of the State
There are many outlooks/concepts prevalent with regard to Scope-related principles of a state: Main concepts are:
- Laissezist outlook.
- Public welfare outlook.
- Gandhian outlook.
Concept of Liassezist state
The object of this outlook is to restrict the scope of a state.
- This doctrine supports the optimum freedom by accepting the sovereignty of an individual.
- The core mantra of this outlook is, “An individual is not for a state, instead, a state is for an individual.”
- In the form of political philosophy, the doctrine of non-interference is attributed to the 19th century.
- For the first time, the propagation of non-interventionism was done by Bentham and James Mill.
- Its full exposure came through the creations of Stuart Mill and Herbert Spencer in the middle of the 19th century.
- As a result of industrial revolution in 18th century, the development of individualism took place in the economic sector.
- The initial objective of individualism was to oppose the interference in economic sector by the state.
Basic principles of Laissezist state:
- State is a necessary evil
- That government is the best, which renders minimum rule
- An individual is an accomplishment and state is a means
- Supporter of full liberty of an individual
- Scope of a state should be limited.
Main arguments in support of Laissezist state:
- Economic arguments
- Moral arguments
- Practical arguments
- Scientific arguments.
Main arguments in opposition to Laissezist state:
- An individual is not always the best judge for his interests
- State is a welfare state
- State and freedom are not mutually opposite
- Freedom is not negative, instead it is positive
- Improvement of state is possible
- Wrong concept of zoology.
Importance of Laissezist state: It has important contribution in preventing unnecessary interference of a state. In present period, the concept of developed liberalism, individualism and globalization are the refined form of Laissezist nature of a state.
Concept of Public Welfere State:
- The concept of public welfare state is a modern concept of scope of a state.
- England has made remarkable contribution in the development of concept of public welfare state.
- Harold Laski is regarded as the main proponent of the public welfare state.
- The concept of public welfare state is the amalgamation of individualism and socialism.
- The main reasons of the advent of concept of public welfare state are: (i) Reaction against individualism, (ii) Fear of the effect of marxist communism, (iii) Advent and rise of the concept of democratic socialism.
The objects of public welfare state:
- It was made to enable the citizens to enjoy freedom
- To guarantee freedoms to an individual
- To make plans for the welfare of all classes of society
- To provide basic amenities to all the citizens
- To execute social works/duties, etc.
Features of public welfare state:
- Democratic administration
- To guarantee economic justice
- Social safety
- Spirit of international cooperation
- Social justice
- Middle path between individualism and socialism, etc.
Duties of public welfare state: The duties/functions of a public welfare state may be divided into two parts:
- Compulsory functions
- Optional functions.
Compulsory functions of a state are:
- To maintain internal peace and order
Optional functions of a state are:
- Social reforms
- Regulation of labour
- Regulation of agriculture, industry and business
- Help to the destitute and victims
- Health protection
- Development of resources of moral progress
- Economic security
- Functions related to family planning, etc.
The following arguments can be presented in criticism of public welfare state:
- Decline of liberty of an individual
- Use of compulsive power of the state
- Problem of bureaucracy
- Lack of motivation
- Fear of totalitarian rule
- An expensive system of administration
- Decline in production etc.
Gandhian Concept of a State
- Gandhiji was a critic of the state. Gandhiji regarded as a state a symbol of organised violence.
- Gandhiji had deep aversion towards oppressive power structure of modem state.
- The object of Gandhiji’s political philosophy was to ensure completeness of human beings.
- Gandjhiji believed that immediate elimination or alienation of a state is not possible. In fact, Gandhiji was a practical idealist.
- In the context of ideal political system of Gandhiji, the model of a state can be understood with the help of the three levels as follows:
(i) Ideal arrangement – stateless society.
(ii) Sub-ideal – decentralised village self-government.
(iii) Non-violent democracy – Provisional reformist model.
Limitation of the scope of the state:
Following are the limitations of the scope of the state:
- Public opinion
- Person’s individual daily attitude
- Fashion, etc.
Scope of the State Notes Important Terms
→ Idealism: The word ideal is made of ‘idea’, which means thought. The first glimpse of political idealism is spotted in the creation of Greek philosophers – Plato and Aristotle. Rousseau, in the Principle of General Will, contributed in a big way in the development of idealist philosophy. Hegal was the best advocate of modem idealism. The idealists have the belief that a state is a symbol of real desire of its people.
→ Fascism: The word “fascism” is derived from Italian word ‘fascio’, which means “bundle of sticks and axe.” In ancient times, the state symbol of Italy was ‘Fascio’, whereby the tied bundle of sticks was expressive of national unity, and the axe, a symbol of power. Therfore, the fascist group of Italy, under the leadership of Mussolini, accepted ‘Fascio’ as its symbol which has the goal – “Formation of a social system in Italy based on power in contral of nation and national unity.”
→ Individualism: Individualist thought came into existence in 15th and 16th century. Individualism believes that a king in a state should be autocratic and of free will and a state should be merely a collection of people. Idealistic thinkers regard the state as a necessary evil. Though they accept the existence of a state, yet they do not accept the state as an accomplishment.
→ Anarchism: The word ‘Anarchism’ is derived from Greek word ‘Anarchia’, which means ‘lack of administration’. Anarchism is such a thought which seeks to a form of a stateless society by unbalancing the state, wherein there is no class discrimination. According to anarchism, a human being, fundamentally, is a social creature of decent behaviour. The welfare of an individual is marked by the end of governance of a state. For them, the state is an unnecessary, indecent, underived and unnatural institution.
→ Concept: A sequence of thoughts making complete explanation on any issue is called concept or ideology.
→ Pluralism: Pluralism is a political thought. Its founders are Gierk and Metland. In 19th century, they explained that the different communities present in the society are the gift of human behaviour. Pluralism opposes the singular form and integral sovereignty of state and it grants and accepts the role of other social institutions besides the role of a state for fulfilment of social objectives. Pluralitic thinkers regard a state as a community akin to other communities.
→ Non-interventionism: Non-interventionism means an individual should be allowed to work as per his choice. As a thought, it accepts sovereignty of an individual and supports providing optimum liberty to an individual. The core point (gist) of this thought is that an individual is not for a state, instead a state is for an individual.
→ Non-interventionist state: In a state of this type, it is proposed for a person to have full liberty to work as per his will or choice and it is also regarded that a state should not, as far as possible, interfere in his works. A state should perform only mandatory tasks.
→ Sophist thinkers: Greek thinkers. They placed an individual above the state. They played an important role in the development of liberal individualism. The propagation of social agreement principle with regard to origin of a state was first done by the sophist thinkers.
→ Epicurean thinkers: Thinkers of Greece. They do not attach any importance to state if it does not care about individual interests.
Laissez-faire: A word related to liberal outlook. The literary meaning of this word is that the people should be left at their will. This can also be called a policy of non-interference.
→ Liberalization: To free the economy from direct or physical controls imposed by the government is known as liberalization.
→ Privatization: To put ownership, control and management of almost all the industries of a country under the private sector and because of which government monopoly is sharply decreased or is eliminated altogether, is called Privatization.
→ Globalisation: The literal meaning of globalisation is to connect an economy to the world community. It is a process by which all economies of the world are amalgamated. Due to this, flow of commodities and buyers, technology, capital and labour takes place between them. Globalisation is also known as universalism.
→ Democracy: Propounded by the Greeks and developed by the Puritan movement of England in 17th country. This concept got all-round support under the prospect of American and French revolutions in the 18th century.
Democracy has its literal origin in the Greek words ‘Demos’ and ‘Kratia’. In this, Demos means people and Kratia means rule. So, the literary meaning of “democracy” is rule of the people. According to Abraham Lincoln : “Democracy is the rule of the people, for the people and by the people.”
→ Public welfare state: The meaning and sense of public welfare state is that a state, which, besides doing general works, performs a range of important public functions, such as to decrease unemployment, insurance planning, providing pension to the aged persons and security-related issues. In this way, the state makes all possible efforts for the betterment of people’s lives.
→ Socialism: Socialism is a thought which is related to society. It is not possible to tell the universal meaning of this word because nowadays it is being used in many contexts. According to Encylopedia Britannica, “Socialism is a policy or principle whose objective is to go for maximum distribution and production of wealth and property by the central democratic government.”
→ Marxist Communism: It is a thought propagated by Karl Marx. Through the labour movements and revolutions, this ideology wishes to establish a state-less and class-less society by ending the capitalist system.
→ Democratic socialism: Democratic socialism is a gift of Britain. It is such as thought, which while accepting an individual as a moral creature, wants to establish socialism in the society by way of democratic means. The main supporters of this thought are: Laski, Attlee, Tony, McDonald, Norman Thomas and Jawaharlal Nehru, etc.
→ Gandhism: It is an important line of thought of 20th century. Gandhiji has tried to replicate ancient principles in new form in the present materialistic period. Faith in God and truth and non-violence are the fundamentals of Gandhian philosophy.
→ Self-rule: It means own rule on self. It is the administration of self and an administration upon self.
→ Decentralised village self-governance: Decentralised village self-governance means that maximum autonomy should be grounded in villages in order to enable them to work independently with all the possible facilities. They should have minimum control of central or state government. Gandhiji emphasized decentralised village self-rule. According to his notion, only a decentralised political system can be in accordance with the ideals of non-violence.
→ Non-violent Democracy: Democracy with no place for violence, that is, people’s administation based on truth and non-violence. A non-violent democracy in the form of provisional reformist model propagated by Gandhiji emphasises on such a situation wherein there are revolutionery changes in the nature and objectives while retaining the present structure of the state.
→ Ramrajya (Utopia): Stateless society/An imaginary thought by Gandhiji. According to Gandhiji, Ramrajya is not synonymous to “Hindu rajya” but it is a hint towards such a pious arrangement, wherein there should be end of any foreign control on the soul of an individual. Gandiji termed this system as “enlightened anarchy”.
→ Public opinion: Public opinion means the opinion of the people in the matters pertaining to general public issues. According to Morris Ginsberg, when minds of many persons operate mutually, and as a result, the social element thus formed is called public opinion.
→ Religion: The basic attribute, nature, behaviour, basic qualities present in an individual or thing or a fixed task or behaviour, duty of a class, section, post, etc. This is a personal belief of an individual and he is extremely sensitive towards it.
→ Morality: It is a personal matter of an individual. It is an emotional subject upon which a state cannot impose restrictions.
→ Fashion: Fashion is related to personal likings or dislikes. By this, the manner of conversation, faith, dress code, literature, dance and music is determined.
→ Bureaucracy: A special organisation of experts, educated and dutiful officials, where there is a strict hierarchy and principle of adherence to orders is followed. In other words, it is a mechanism to implement the policies of administration by the government. It can also be called as administration of permanent executive.
→ Adam Smith: Economic and political thinker. He has expressed his thoughts in “An enquiry Into the Nature and origin of the Wealth of Nations”. According to him, a state has three main objectives: first, protection of a state from foreign attacks or internal violence, second, protection of an individual from injustice or torture from other persons, third, formation of institutions for different works and their maintenance and continuance.
→ Aristotle: Resident of ancient Greek and a great political thinker. He is called the Father of Political Science. He was a disciple of Plato. He was the first to portray the nature of a practical state in his famous creation “Politics”. He accepted the organic principle of state.
→ Mahatma Gandhiji: Mahatma Gandhi, besides being a great leader of national movement, was a major Indian political thinker. In his famous creation ‘HIND SWARAJ’, he explained the importance of ‘self-governance’, and termal ‘Swaraj’ as the administration of self.
→ Bosanke: A major political thinker. He performed a synthesis of German idealism and English liberalism. His main creation is ‘Phototrophic Theory of State’. He regards a state as the highest goal of human life and an accomplishment in itself.