Go through these RBSE Class 11 Political Science Notes Chapter 5 Nature of State contain important concepts so that students can score better marks in the exam.
Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 Political Science Notes Chapter 5 Nature of State
The Indian Concept of State
- The Indian concept of state is based on broad philosophical recognitions.
- The concept of state in Indian contemplation is based on the formulae given in Vedic literature.
- The concept of state and its purpose are found to have been described in various scriptures like ManuSmriti, Arthashastra, Shukranitisar, Ramayana and Mahabharata etc.
- In accordance with Indian concept of a state, politics and political organizations are governed by ‘religion’.
- Manu has included various welfare activities in the periphery of ‘public preservation’ and ‘public entertainment’ under the responsibilities of a state.
- Kautilya has clarified the objectives of a state as acquisition of the unaquired, conservation of the acquired, growth of conserved and distribution of growth among abled successors.
- In Valmiki’s Ramayana and Shanti Parva of Mahabharata the contractual principle of a state has been described in detail.
- In ManuSmriti, Arthashastra and other ancient religious scriptures, there is a description of ‘Seven-organ-theory’ of the state.
- References with regard to formation of a state are also found in Buddhist and Jain literature.
- Mahatma Gandhi believed a state to be the symbol of organized violence and propounded the principle of Ram Rajya in idealistic form.
Nature of State in ManuSmriti
- Manu, in ManuSmriti, has comprehensively described the origin of state, nature sovereignty, scope of a state, king’s individual qualities and control over the king, etc.
- According to ManuSmriti, God has created a king in order to provide safety to the entire world, to remove any thought of insecurity from the mind of the weak and also to impose control on those who may go tyrannical.
- Indra is the God of Rains who causes rainfall all over the world. The sun absorbs water through its rays and provides light on to the Earth. Similarly, other divine elements such as Vayu, Varuna, Prithvi etc. perform their respective duties.
- By way of divine pledges of a king, Manu has also imposed a moral bondage on the king that he should always discharge his duties towards his subjects.
- Manu has accepted a king to be having the highest position of governance. That is, Manu has accepted the sovereignty of the king. Manu has regarded ‘religion’ and ‘punishment’ as the basis of sovereignty.
- In ManuSmriti, the elemental form of state has been described and it consists of a state having seven organs (elements) which have been named as ‘Prakriti’ (Nature).
- Seven elements of state are Ruler (Swami), the ministers (Mantri), the population (Pur), the fortified capital (Rajya), the treasury (Kosh), the army (Dand), Allies and friends (Mitra).
- As regards duties of a state, Manu has given importance to the protection of people, service to the people and social arrangement according to religion.
Nature of State in Mahabharata
- In the Shanti Parva of Mahabharata written by Ved Vyas, many words are used in the context/meaning of polity, such as Dandaniti (Policy of punishment), Rajya Dharma (duty of a state), Rajopanishad, Rajashastra (Political Science), Rajniti (Politics), etc.
- According to Mahabharata, the creation of Science which was done by Lord Brahma has the amalgamation of Dharma, Arth, Kama and Moksha. (In English, these are respectively called righteousness, economic values, pleasure, salvation. Political science has originated from that itself.
- Teaching and learning of political science was also systematic in the era of Mahabharata.
- Markandey Puranas (Legend) regards Mahabharata as the supreme text of political science. The main and fundamental elements of Arthashastra include acquisition of state and its protection, which are the main subjects of political science.
- A terrifying illustration of the society before the formation of the state or in the absence of the king has been described in Mahabharata. And in order to get rid of this situation, the necessity of a state is highlighted.
Origin of State by Rishis (Saints): NEW PRINCIPLE
- According to the Shanti Parva (Book of Peace), the Rishis (Saints) created a great and powerful man, called Raja. It is also narrated in ‘Shanti Parva’, that the Rishis coronated ‘Indra’ as the king of the gods in ‘Heaven’ and they started ruling on human beings.
- According to Shanti Parva, it was Satyug in the beginning and there was no king, no punishment or no authority deciding punishment, as these institutions were not required in that period.
- There is also a reference of the ‘Power Principle” in the context of origin of state.
- Verse 16th of chapter 271 of Shanti Parva of Epic Mahabharata presents the principle of “Karma” for the appointment of a king.
- In Shanti Parva, all-round moral, cultural, geographical progress and safety have been regarded to be the basis of a state.
Belief in Organic Principle
- Indian thinkers, while using the words Prakriti or organs (Anga) for the elements of state, have clarified that they believe in the organic principle of state.
- In Shanti Parva, the Scope of a state is thought to be very broad and the state is made to be responsible for proper upkeep of the subjects and their progress.
- Other Responsibilities of the State: The other obligatory duties of a state include defence system of the country, resolution of hardships of the society, protection of the weak, protection from external invasions, service to the subjects, arrangement of agricultural business, etc.
Nature of State in Shukra Niti
- In Shukra Niti, Shukra has analysed in detail the origin of state, basis of existence of a state, nature of state, scope of state, classification of kings, individual qualities of a ruler, daily routine of the ruler, inheritance of a ruler and control on the ruler, etc.
- Under a reference, Shukra says that, “When there is no ruler in the world, that is, there is anarchy all over, and people are frightened and start seeking shelter, then there comes a king for the protection of the world.”
- Shukra, while presenting the organic form of a state, puts forth its seven organs: 1. Raja (King) 2. Mantri (Minister). 3. Mitra (Allies) 4. Kosh (Treasury) 5. Rashtra (State) 6. Durg (Fortification) 7. Sena (Army).
- While drawing comparison between a state and a human being, Shukra explains a king as head, a minister as the eyes, ally as ears, treasury as mouth, army as mind, fortress as both the hands, and rashtra as the feet.
Nature of State in Arthashastra
- Kautilya, in Arthashastra, has vividly described the origin of a state, nature of a state, scope of a state, dominant powers of a state, etc.
- With regards to the origin of a state, Kautilya says that the people coronated Manu, son of Vivaswan to address the prevalent anarchy in the society, torture and protection from fear.
- Kautilya terms ‘punishment’ as a physical power, which can be used for the protection of religion.
Liberal Outlook of a State
- The literary meaning of liberalism is ‘freedom’. This doctrine favours the optimum liberty in every field of a human life, such as contemplation, expression, interaction, faith, business and cooperation.
- Freedom is the central element of liberalism. The main objective of liberalism is to free an individual from all forms of autocracy.
- In the context of history, liberalism is a doctrine which became prevalent at the end of medieval period and beginning of modern era.
- Many circumstances in the history of Europe – renaissance, religious reformation, ideological revolutions, intellectual revolutions, industrial revolution and reaction against autocracy – played a vital role in the development of liberalism.
- On the basis of historical development of liberalism, two levels can be seen: (i) Traditional Liberalism (ii) Modern Liberalism.
- In traditional liberalism, emphasis has been laid on the negative role of the state for the protection of freedom of a person.
- In the development of the traditional liberalism, Jeremy Bentham, Adam Smith, Herbert Spencer have contributed in a big way.
- Modern liberalism developed in the form of a concept of a welfare state.
- The main proponents of modern liberalism were John Stuart Mill, T.H. Green, Maclver and Laski, etc.
- Main features of liberalism are: (i) Faith in intelligence of an individual, (ii) Opposition to historical traditions, (iii) Person as the accomplishment, society and state as the means, (iv) Concept of owner-free person, (v) Mechanical form of society and state, (vi) Recognition to ideals of freedom and equality, (vii) Support to democratic system of governance, etc.
- Main criticism of liberalism: (i) State is not a necessary evil, (ii) Philosophy of capitalist class, (iii) Wrong principle of social change, (iv) State does not compromise freedom, (vi) Open competition is harmful to the weaker class of the state.
- Contribution of liberalism is visible in many fields of life, such as social, religious and political fields.
- Liberalism has laid stress on religious freedom and tolerance.
- Liberalism advocates free-trade policy without state intervention.
- Liberalism in political field supports democratic system of governance on the basis of freedom and equality.
- Ancient liberalism is also called negative liberalism because in this there has been stress on negative role of the state for protection of freedom of an individual.
- The revolution in 1688 is thought to be the very first liberal revolution, whereby all the achievements of this century were consolidated and it gave a definite constitutional form to them.
- In the early years of 19th century, ancient liberal outlook began to be transformed into modern liberal outlook. In this process, the positive aspect of the state was emphasized, in place of its negative role.
Marxist Outlook of a State
- Karl Marx was the first social thinker whose work is considered to be scientific. His philosophy is known as Marxism.
- Karl Marx negated the beliefs of Church-oriented thinkers, idealists and individualists in respect to state-related conventions.
- According to Marx, there was a lack of state in communism. Besides, individual property did not have any existence.
- According to Marx, state is an artificial institution whose formation is done by the exploiters in order to preserve their interests. It is a means of oppression and torture of the oppressed at the hands of the oppressing class.
- According to Marx, the objective of the state is to preserve the interests and the growth of that class of the society which is having rights on its governance.
- According to Marx, state is not a permanent institution. In socialist system, the state authority is continuously on the decline. With the destruction of individual property, a class-less society will emerge.
- The following are the main criticisms of state principle of Karl Marx: (i) State is not a classified class-oriented institution, (ii) State is a welfare institution, (iii) Misconception regarding the concept of capitalist state, (iv) Formation of stateless society is not possible, (v) Socialist state-related concept is defective, etc.
- Marx thinks that a state is an institution which encouragers the exploitation by a class, whereas the objective of a state is public welfare.
Nature of State Notes Important Terms
→ State: In political science, a community of organized people under a structured government in a designated boundary, without any outside control is called a state.
→ Dharma (Religion): It implies ‘to adopt’. Hence, religion is element of that principle which is adopted for an objective. In traditional Indian belief, religion (Dharma) is an expression of a collection of moral rules.
→ Saptang: It means seven organs:
(i) Swami (king) (ii) Mantri (minister) (iii) Janpad (state) (iv) Durg (fortress) (v) Kosh (treasury) (vi) Dard (punishment) (vii) Mitra (allies).
This ‘Saptang’ principle of state is found in description in Manu Smriti, Arthastastra, Shukra Niti Sara and other ancient Indian scriptures.
→ Swami: Swami means head of the state organization. He is the sovereign.
→ Amatya: Amatya (Minister) works as an officer-in-charge of the king and assists the king in preforming different functions of the state.
→ Durg: It means a large, fortified building/citadel. Strategically, it is very important.
→ Janpad: It refers to a definite area of land and population.
→ Treasury (Kosh): It means royal fund. That is, a state must have royal treasury in a significant amount for executing its administrative obligations.
→ Dand (Punishment): ‘Dand’ means state has the right to give punishment.
→ Mitra: It means important and faithful persons of a state, who are always ready to help the state in an emergency situation.
→ Rajdharma: A sequential form of political knowledge is called state religion (Rajdharma). Under this, there is a vivid collection of ideal directives with regard to mutual relations between the ruler and the subject, scope of the state, purposes of state and control and equitable use of royal authorities.
→ Liberalism: In political thought, liberalism is an important concept which not only freed an individual from medieval thinking, but also contributed in the sustenance of freedom of an individual. Liberalism means freedom and liberation from slavery and restrictions, and the right to think and work as per one’s own discretion.
→ Individualism: This doctrine came into existence in the 15th and 16th century. Individualism considers the state to be a necessary evil.
→ Renaissance: The literary meaning of renaissance is ‘New birth’. In pragmatic terms, re-birth of mental condition of a human, nature of articulation and desirability can be termed as Renaissance.
→ Religious Reforms: It is such a movement led by Martin Luther, which emerged in the form of a protestant religion in Europe in the 16th century. Through this movement, unlimited authority of the church was challenged.
→ Industrial Revolution: An economic and technical development which became very strong and dynamic in the 18th century and because of which modern industrialisation resulted is called “Industrial Revolution”.
→ Aristocracy: Such a government or administrative system under which, there is no control upon the governance.
→ Negative Liberalism: A kind of liberalism which emphasizes on the negative role of a state for the freedom of an individual is called Negative Liberalism or traditional liberalism. This doctrine is limited to constitutional protection of individual rights, religious freedom, tolerance and demand for political rights.
→ Positive Liberalism: The thought having belief in moral and welfare form of a state. This doctrine believes that a state should execute positive role in respect of mutual relations of people and their control and balance.
→ Marxism: The entire ideology of Karl Marx is called Marxism. Marxism is the political philosophy of the labour class, which supports equality, social justice, elimination of all kinds of exploitation, controlled economy along with employment to all.
→ Utopian Socialism: The socialist thinkers before Karl Marx, are called Utopian socialism or preceding welfare socialism. It presented a perfectly ideal form of society and state.
→ Capitalism: It refers to an economic system wherein industries and farms have ownership of private individuals and they use the profits for their own sake.
→ Socialism: This is derived from the word ‘Social’, that means society. In this way, socialism is a doctrine which is linked to the society.
→ Scientific Socialism: The doctrine propagated by Karl Marx and Engels is called Scientific Socialism.
→ Manu: A distinguished ancient Indian saint and religious propounder. He is regarded as the Father of Human Race and the first law-giver. ‘Manu Smriti’ is his famous creation. Manu has analyzed in detail subjects like the nature of a state, sovereignty, nature of administration, necessity to have a control on state government, its method to provide, Justice and punishment system, state, society and people.
→ Kautilya: He is also known by the name ‘Chankya’ or “Vishnu Gupt’. He played an instrumental role in the decimation of Nand dynasty and enthronement of Chandra gupta Maurya. ‘Arthashastra’ authored by Kautilya is a famous scripture on state system and management.
→ Mahatma Gandhi: He was a Karmayogi, political and humanist leader. The fight for independence of India was conducted under his leadership. His holistic philosophy on various aspects of human life is called. As an ideal, Gandhi propagated the principle of ‘Ram Rajya’ (Utopia).
→ Martin Luther: Martin Luther opposed the Roman Catholic church and its religious leaders. His idea was called protestantism. He accepted ‘Bible’ as a proven epic of Christianity. ‘The Freedom of Christian Man’, The Captivity of the Church’ are his major creations.
→ Karl Marx: He was a German philosopher who lived with Engles in England. He is called the Father of Scientific socialism. Materialism, principle of class struggle, principle of additional cost, principle of conclusion of a state and economic system of history etc. are his main principles. ‘Das Kapital’ and Communist Manifesto’ are his famous creations.