Go through these RBSE Class 11 Political Science Notes Chapter 22 Important Personalities of National Movement in India and Their Contribution in Political Contemplation contain important concepts so that students can score better marks in the exam.
Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 Political Science Notes Chapter 22 Important Personalities of National Movement in India and Their Contribution in Political Contemplation
Swami Dayanand Saraswati
- Swami Dayanand Saraswati initiated the beginning of religious and social reforms in modern India.
- Swami Dayanand Saraswati was born on 12th January, 1824 at Tankara in the state of Morbi, Kathiawar in Gujarat.
- His childhood name was Moolshankar. In 1845, he left his home and wandered in search of knowledge, truth and salvation and became an ascetic. He named himself Dayanand Saraswati.
- Swami Dayanand Saraswati founded the Arya Samaj in Bombay on 10 th April, 1875.
- In 1874, he wrote a famous book, ‘Satyarth Prakash’ during his stay in Udaipur.
- Swami Dayanand Saraswati passed the last days of his life in Udaipur. Swamiji passed away from this mortal world on 30 October 1883 at Ajmer.
- Swamiji was a staunch supporter of Swadeshi, Swadharma, Swabhasha and Swarajya (self rule).
- Swamiji always opposed social and religious evils. He studied the Vedas, Upanishads and philosophy, and later propounded the philosophy of ‘Tretvaad’. He campaigned actively against illiteracy, inequality towards women and discrimination with women, child marrige, polygamy, dowry system, superstitions, untouchability and bigoted religious customs, etc.
- Main points of his contribution in political contemplation are: (i) State is a welfare institution, (ii) State is a community of many communities, (iii) Importance of republic, (iv) Rejection of Divine form of a State, (v) Support to decentralization of governance, (vi) Support to diplomacy, (vii) Emphasis on the necessity of Armed forces.
Swami Vivekananda was a great philosopher and an ascetic, a great personality of India, who was not active in politics. Yet, with his talent, he lit the torch of nationalism in the country.
- Swamiji made the world familar with Indian culture, religon and the social concepts of Indian society.
- Swami Vivekananda was born in the family of Vishwanath Datta in Calcutta on 12 th January 1863. His childhood name was Narendranath Datta.
- In 1881, Swami Vivekananda met Ramakrishna Paramhansa in Dakshineshwar, Calcutta, who helped him in the manifestation of God. Since then, he became a true follower of Ramakrishna Paramhansa.
- In 1893, Swami Vivekananda got an opportunity of participating in the Conference of World Religions at Chicago in United States of America.
- Swami Vivekananda founded the Ramakrishna Mission at Bellur in Calcutta on 1st May, 1897, for propagating the teachings and concepts of his Guru Ramakrishna Paramhansa. At present, its branches are spread in India and abroad.
- Swamiji contribution towards the service of mankind is very important.
- He was a serious critic of orthodoxy, superstition, poverty and illiteracy. He did not support untouchbility, and discrimination on the basis of gender, colour, creed or caste. He was motivated by the feeling of welfare towards mankind.
- Swami Vivekananda’s contribution to political contemplation – (i) He had faith in global brotherhood, (ii) Socialist, (iii) Hypothesis of Ideal state, (iv) Political Salvation possible only after upliflment of all, (v) Faith in dignity of human being, (vi) Principles related to freedom, (vii) Spiritual theory of Nationalism, etc.
- Swami Vivekananda encouraged the feelings of self-respect and pride and patriotism among the youth of India. Hence, his birthday is celebrated as “Youth Day’ in India.
Maharishi Aurobindo Ghosh
- Maharishi Arvind Ghosh was born on 15th August, 1872 in a prosperous family of Calcutta.
- He took active part in politics during 1905 to 1910, and during this period, was sent to prison for one year.
- Maharishi Aurobindo was deeply influenced by religious epics and faiths which is reflected in his contemplation.
- Maharishi Aurobindo rendered the theory of nationalism based on spiritual values. According to him, the main purpose of national and political struggle was to get freedom from slavery and independence of the Nation.
- He planned for getting independence through peaceful and non-aggressive movements. He was a great supporter of non-violence, but for unavoidable reasons he favoured even violence.
- He glorified Indian culture and civilization by giving a general concept of nationalism. He also tried hard to get back the glory and pride of India. He did not consider India as only a nation and a piece of land, but something divine that could maintain the faith and honour for motherland even after independence.
- He considered nationalism as the staircase of human progress, whose ultimate goal is the establishment of Global Union based on human unity.
Vinayak Damodar Savarkar
- Vinayak Damodar Savarkar was born on 28th May, 1883 at a small village Bhagur in Nashik district of Maharashtra. He was a Brahmin by birth.
- Vinayak Damodar Savarkar along with his elder brother Ganesh Savarkar and younger brother Narayan Savarkar, played a historic role as a forerunner in the freedom movement of India.
- Vinayak Damodar established a revolutionary organisation named Abhinav Bharat to spread the revolutionary feelings in India and to provide weapon training to the revolutionaries.
- He celebrated the “Independence day of 1857” in India House located in London on 8th May, 1908 and he also wrote a book named, “The Indian war of Independence of 1857.”
- The British Government arrested him on March 13, 1910 and sentenced him to rigorous imprisonment for 50 years and sent him to the infamous Cellular Jail of Andaman, where he was made to work as a plodder.
- The personality of Veer Savarkar was very impressive. He was a first class orator, gifted writer, organiser skilled and a young leader of ‘Abhinav Bharat’ which was a secret revolutiauasy organization. Contribution of Vinayak Damodar Savarkar in political contemplation: (i) Concept of Nationalism, (ii) Demand for total political freedom, (iii) Opposition of the partition of India, (iv) Opposition of separatist Muslim communal politics, (v) Explanation of the concept of Hinduism.
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
- Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel was born in a small village karamsad in Gujarat on 31st October, 1857 in a patriotic family.
- Sardar Patel performed the important task of merging the princlely states in India. He was the first deputy prime minister and popular home minister of independent India.
- He organised the Bardoli movement for the cause of Farmers, on the success of the movement, the local people and Mahatma Gandhi addresed him as a “Sardar”. Since then, he was popularly known as Sardar Patel.
- He always respected all the religions equally and opposed the policy of appeasement.
- Principal political philosophy of Sarder Vallabhbhai Patel: (i) Passion for the Nation, (ii) Thoughts regarding Swadeshi and Indian culture, (iii) Thoughts regarding non-violence, (iv) Thoughts regarding partition of India and Pakistan, (v) Thoughts regarding about lifestyle.
- In memory of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and for paying honour and tribute to him, Gujarat Government is erecting the statue of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel as the Statue of Unity at an island named Sadhuvent on the banks of Narmada River. The height of this statue is 182 meters and it is the highest in the world.
Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar
- Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar was born at Mhow cantonment in Madhya Pradesh on 14 April, 1891. He belonged to Mahar caste which was considered as inferior.
- Dr. Ambedkar was deeply influenced by the teachings of Gautama Buddha, wise and secular thinking of Saint Kabir, and Jyotiba Phule’s services and welfare to mankind.
- Dr. Ambedkar gave the slogan, “Be educated, remain united and struggle”.
- Dr. Ambedkar did a lot for the upliftment of oppressed classes and played an important role in framing the Constitution of India.
- Dr. Ambedkar wrote several books – (i) Caste in India, (ii) Who were the Shudras, (iii) Gandhi and Gandhism, (iv) The Rise and Fall of Hindu Women in Parliamentary Democracy and (vi) The Emancipation of the Untouchables.
- The political thoughts of Ambedkar were : (i) State and importance of democracy, (ii) Support to Parliamentary governance, (iii) Adult Franchise, (iv) National language and linguistic states, (v) Protest against the alliance of communist and Islamic countries, (vi) Thoughts on the partition of the country, (vii) Thoughts about the constitution, (viii) Affiliation with the commonwealth.
- Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar tried hard to eradicate social and religious evils from the society. He advised the people to give up bad customs, to educate their daughters and help them to be ambitious. Besides, he castigated the people for the consumption of alcohol and eating beef.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
- Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born at Porbandar in Gujarat on 2nd October, 1869.
- Gandhiji started his political activities in 1917 from a place called Champaran in northern Bihar.
- Gandhiji’s thinking was deeply influenced by religious epics such as the Vedas, Upanishads, Ramayana, and Shrimad Bhagwat Gita.
- Gandhiji was a supporter of moral and spiritual thinking. He always opposed violence of thought, action and speech.
- Main books written by Mahatma Gandhi are: ‘My Experiments with Truth’, ‘Hind Swaraj’, ‘Sarvodaya’ and ‘Gita Bodh’, etc.
- Gandhiji always emphasized the necessity of self-governance in India and explained the theory of trusteeship.
- Gandhiji considered the State to be an immoral institution. Gandhiji always imagined the concept of Ram Rajya, that is very close to establishment of a casteless, groupless, stateless society.
- Contribution of Gandhiji in political Contemplation : (i) Satyagraha, (ii) Concept of Sarvodaya, (iii) The principle of Trusteeship, (iv) Contemplation of Totality, (v) Salvation (Deliverance) of oppressed class, (vi) Important thoughts regarding global brotherhood, (vii) Supporter of humanism, (viii) Imagination of foundation of an ideal society (ix) A leader of common people, (x) Emphasis on the purity of both, means and end.
- The thoughts of Mahatma Gandhi are not only relevant, but also the need of the present time. The ‘Clean India’ mission of today is nothing but adherence to the principles of Gandhiji.
Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru
- Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru is called the Architect of modern India. He was the first prime minister of independent India who remained on this post for 17 years.
- Jawaharlal Nehru was born on November 14, 1889, in Allahabad. His father was a famous advocate and freedom fighter of his time.
- He struggled a lot to make India free assisting Mahatma Gandhi.
- His famous books are: (i) Discovery of India, (ii) An Autobiography and (iii) Glimpses of World History.
- Pt. Nehru was the supporter of moderate nationalism. He always supported the soft, well-balanced form and the emotional side of nationalism.
- Supporting the theory of national independence, Jawaharlal Nehru always opposed narrow nationalism and imperialism.
- Nehruji considered that the basis of Internationalism is the glorious tradition of India, “Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam”. He considered that Nationalism and Internationalism are complementary to each other.
- The formulation of ‘Panchsheel Principles’ is the main element of Nehru’s Internationalism. By virtue of his policy of Non-Alignment at international level, India led the entire world.
Pt. Deendayal Upadhyaya
- Pt. Deendayal Upadhyaya was born at Nagla Chandrabhan in Mathura district of U.P. on September 25, 1916.
- Pt. Deendayal Upadhyaya came into contact with Rashtriya Swayam Sewak Sangh during his studenthood and became a Sangh propagator.
- He had deep faith in eternal Indian culture.
- His philosophy of integral humanism is a wonderful adjustment of spiritual deeds and politics in the present perspective.
- Pt. Deendayal Upadhyaya called upon to discover Indian thoughts in ancient Indian values.
- Pt. Deendayal Upadhyaya propounded the theory of integral humanism, and challenged the concepts of individualism and socialism.
Important Personalities of National Movement in India and Their Contribution in Political Contemplation Notes Important Terms
→ Vedas: Vedas are the most ancient epics of the world. There are four Vedas : Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samveda, and Atharvaveda. The four Vedas are jointly called Samhita (code).
→ Upanishads: Those last parts of Brahmans of the branches of Vedas in which there is the concept of soul and God are called Upanishads.
→ Religion: The word ‘religion’ means to adopt or embrace. Thus, religion is that concept which can be adopted. This is a basis upon which the entire world is based. Manu has explained ten features of religion.
→ Artha: Artha is the means through which all needs human life are fulfilled. Artha also refers to fixed and movable assets, without the existence of which, human being is neither protected nor secure.
→ Kama: It means “desire, wish or longing”. In contemporary literature, Kama refers usually to sexual desire. However, the term also refers to any sensory enjoyment, emotional attraction and aesthetic pleasure such as from arts, dance, music, painting, sculpture and nature. Kama is in the root of human existence and human society.
→ Salvation: It is the fourth effort of life. All the philosophies consider salvation as the final objective of life. In Shrimad Bhagwad Gita, salvation refers to submission to God. Through selflessness, a man can achieve Salvation.
→ Nationalism: It means to unite in a form of country and to have deep reverence for it.
→ Arya: Arya is a term frequently used in Buddhism that can be translated as noble not ordinary, “valuable”, ‘precious’, ‘pure’, etc. Arya, in the sense of noble or ‘exalted’, is frequently used in Buddhist texts to denote a spiritual warrior or hero.
→ Passive Resistance: Passive resistance means the act or deed or trade not helpful to British trade or administration. Non-violent opposition to authority, especially a refusal to cooperate with legal requirements. Maharishi Aurobindo Ghosh added boycott of educational and judicial administration and social activities in it. He also added the boycott of foreign goods within passive resistance.
→ Fascism: A political philosophy, movement or regime, that exalts nation, and often race, above the individual and that stands for a centralized autocratic government headed by a dictatorial leader, severe economic and social regimentation and forcible suppression of opposition.
→ Totalitarianism: It is an important expression of dictatorship. All the activities of
people are but under state surveillance and they are ordered to be the part of the system. “Totalitarianism is a political concept wherein the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.”
→ Dictatorship: It is a government system in which a person occupies the governance illegally and by force and uses it without any external control.
→ Inter-caste marriage: Establishing marital relations out of the caste.
→ Adult-voting or Franchise: Adult voting means the right to vote given to all the adult citizens, without the discrimination of caste, class, colour, religion or sex. In India, a person who is 18 and more than 18 years of age can vote.
→ Satyagraha: This is a policy of passive political resistance, especially that advocated by Mahatma Gandhi against British rule in India.
→ Sarvodaya: Sarvodaya means Sarva + Udaya, i.e. good or welfare of all. The economic and social development of community as a whole, especially as advocated by Mahatma Gandhi.
→ Socialism: A political and economic theory of social organization which advocates that the means of production, distribution and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole.
→ Capitalism: An economic and political system in which a contry’s trade and industry is controlled by the private sector for earning maximum profit, rather than by the state.
→ Moderate: Moderate is an important concept in the field of politics, which not only enabled men to be free from the barbaric middle-ages tyranny, but also helped them to maintain their freedom constantly. This concept enabled the human beings to enjoy their freedom intact.
→ Utilitarianism: Utililarianism was a broader reform movement that brought several reforms in political, social and economic fields of human life. It believes in morals and considers morals the basis of Political Science. According to this concept, the state forms laws for the maximum welfare of maximum number of human beings.
→ Gandhism: Gandhism is a set of ideas that describes the inspiration, vision and the acts of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. It is particularly associated with his contribution to the ideal of non-violent resistance. Gandhiji’s ideas, concepts and contribution to mankind include moral and truth-based simple living, with concern for all.
→ Terrorism: The unlawful use of force or violence againt individuals or property in an attempt to overpower the government or society to achieve political, religious or ideological objectives.
→ Disarmament: This concept means voluntary reduction or withdrawal of military forces and stock of weapons.
→ Panchsheel: The five principles of peaceful co-existence, are known as Panchsheel. It means non-interference in others’ internal affairs and respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty. These include :
- Mutual respect for each others’ territorial integrity and sovereignty,
- Mutual non-aggression,
- Mutual non-interference in each other’s internal affairs,
- Equality and mutual benefit and
- Peaceful co-existence.
→ Integral humanism: It is a philosophical and scientific thought developed by Deendayal Upadhyaya and adopted by Jan Sangh in 1965 as its official philosophy. It aims to appeal to broader sections of Indian society by presenting an indigenous development model that puts human identity at its centre.
→ Swami Dayanand Saraswati: A great social reformer, who founded the Arya Samaj. He strengthened the independence movement in India. He used the word ‘Swarajya’ for first time to achieve independence. He urged the Indians to boycott foreign goods and to use country-made goods. He motivated nationalism as love and respect for ‘Swadeshi’.
→ Swami Vivekananda: Swamiji was great saint, humanist, and the messenger of Advaita-Vedanta. He introduced the world to the excellence of Indian culture, civilization and religion. He urged the people to serve their motherland. He consider patriotism as the ‘True Karma Yoga’. He motivated the Indian youth towards the feelings of national pride, self-respect and patriotism.
→ Maharishi Aurobindo Ghosh: An extreme nationalist. He advocated the concept of spiritual nationalism. He even supported the use of the non-violent methods to achieve independence in the case of unacceptable conditions. According to Maharishi Aurobindo, every step taken towards achieving independence is pious, just like the soldier’s religion described in the Geeta.
→ Vinayak Damodar Savarkar: A great nationalist and revolutionary Indian, remembered for his struggle and sacrifice. He joined the Indians in the struggle for independence in foreign countries. According to him, the geographic expression of nationalism is a reflection of Hindu nationalist culture.
→ Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel: The first deputy prime minister and home minister of independent India. He played an important role in the integration of India. He is also called the builder and integrator of modern India.
→ P.V. Menon: The Home Secretary of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel. He talked to the heads of princely states and made them agree to merge with the republic of India.
→ R. Venkataraman: Ex-president of India. He considered that there was a strength of iron and purity of gold in Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.
→ Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar: The chairman of Drafting Committee of the Constituent Assembly. He struggled hard to provide justice to the under privileged classes.
→ Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi: A worshipper of truth and non-violence. He made a notable contribution to make India free. His thoughts are known even today as Gandhism. He presented the concept of Ram Rajya.
→ Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru: The first Prime Minister of independent India. He was a supporter of emotional feelings towards India. According to him, emotional relation with motherland is nationalism. At international level, by virture of his non-alignment policy, India led the world.
→ Pt. Deen Dayal Upadhyay: A great thinker and a nationalist leader, he always advocated the doctrine of integral humanism. His concept is appropriate even in this present materialistic age.
→ Ganesh Savarkar: The elder brother of famous freedom fighter Veer Savarkar. He gave a notable contribution in the revolutionary movements for independence of India.
→ Narayan Savarkar: The younger brother of great soldier of freedom movement, Veer Savarkar. He took an active part in revolutionary movements.
→ Bismarck: He was a great personality of Prussia. He united Germeny with the help of army and bureacracy. He is remembered for his ‘Blood and Iron’ policy.
→ Mahmood Ghaznavi: A Muslim invader, who robbed and destroyed the temple of Somnath in 1026.
→ Jyotiba Phule: A great social reformer of 19th century. He established the Satyashodhak Samaj in 1873.
→ Bal Gangadhar Tilak: A famous patriot and political leader and popularly known as Lokmanya. His well-known slogan was “Freedom is my birthright and I shall have it.”
→ Gopal Krishna Gokhale: A prominent leader of National Congress. He extended an important contribution in making India independent. He was a leader of moderate group and believed in getting freedom by cooperating with the British Government.
→ T.F. Brooks: The first teacher of Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru in his early days. Due to him, Jawaharlal Nehru began to take interest in his studies.