Go through these RBSE Class 11 Political Science Notes Chapter 20 Indian Independence Act of 1947 contain important concepts so that students can score better marks in the exam.
Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 Political Science Notes Chapter 20 Indian Independence Act of 1947
- Due to extended struggle of united Indians, national movements and conditions arising after War World II, Parliament of the United Kingdom was forced to pass Indian Independence Act, 1947.
- The Indian Independence Act, 1947 was not a result of sympathy towards India and Indians, but it was the result of the helplessness of British government.
- In Lahore session of Congress held on December 31, 1929, the proposal that the Independence Day would be celebrated on January 26, 1930 was passed.
- The first Independence Day in India was celebrated on January 26, 1930.
- After that, the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930, Quit India Movement in 1942 and the Naval mutiny in 1946 created an awakening all over India which was not possible to be overlooked by the British Government.
The Changed Circumstances due to Second World War
- The circumstances arising due to World War II and various other plans proposed by the Cripps Mission, the Cabinet Mission and the Mountbatten Plan, forced the British government to declase India its independence.
- The British Prime Minister Churchill sent a socialist leader Sir Stafford Cripps to India on March 22, 1942. The plan, proposed by Cripps to,remove constitutional obstructions in India, is called the Cripps proposal.
- There was a proposal of colonial self-governance in it, so Indian leaders refused to accept it.
- The British Prime Minister Clement Attlee sent the Cabinet Mission to India on March 23, 1946. Lord Pathic Lawrence, Sir Stafford Cripps and A.B. Alexender were included in this group. It was called the Cabinet Mission.
- Cabinet Mission suggested three points: (i) The formation of Federal State in India, (ii) the formation of Constituent Assembly and (iii) The formation of an interim government.
- Due to the policy of direct action of Muslim League, communal riots spread all over the country.
Declaration of British Prime Minister
- British Prime Minister Clement Attlee declared on February 20, 1947, that the British Government would hand over the governance of India to the responsible government of India by June 1948; and this may also be done earlier than June.
- Clement Attlee appointed Lord Mountbatten as the Viceroy of India in place of Lord Wavell.
- Lord Mountbatten decided the day August 15, 1947, for handing over the governance to the Indians.
- On June 3, 1947, Lord Mountbatten presented the plan for transferring the governance along with the partition of India, which was known as Mountbatten plan.
- Gandhiji opposed it and said that the partition of the country would be over his dead body.
- Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan and Purushottam Das Tandon kept on opposing the partition of India to the very last moment.
- British Parliament passed the Indian Independence Act on July 18, 1947.
- According to the Indian Independence Act of 1947, British India was partitioned into two independent dominions, India and Pakistan.
Main Features of Indian Independence Act, 1947
- Main features of Indian Independence Act, 1947 are-(i) Establishment of two dominion states, (ii) Demarcation of two dominions, (iii) Right of making Constitution to Constituent Assemblies, (iv) Double format of constituent assemblies, (v) Separate Governor-Generals for two dominions, (vi) Right for amendments in the Act of 1935. (vii) An end of the sovereignty of British Government and British Emperor, (viii) An end of specific powers of Governor-General, (ix) An end of the post of India Secretary, (x) Rights of Indian Civil Services, (xi) An end of British supremacy from princely states.
- For the boundary demarcation between India and Pakistan, Sir Radcliffe was appointed as the chairman of the Boundary Commission.
- India got independence on August 15, 1947. Lord Mountbatten was appointed the first Governor-General of free India. He sweared in Jawaharlal Nehru as the first Prime Minister of Independent India.
- The Indian Independence Act, 1947 was a grand and glorious farewell of the British from India.
Indian Independence Act of 1947 Notes Important Terms
→ The Battle of Plassey: In this battle, the British East India Company defeated Siraj-ud-Daulah, the Nawab of Bengal and laid the foundation of British Empire in India.
→ Naval mutiny: The naval mutiny took place on February 18, 1946. After 1857, it was the first time when Indian armed forces gave an open challenge to British governance.
→ World War II: War between Allied nations and Germany, Italy, Japan, etc. the Axis Nation from 1 September 1939 to 14 August 1945 in which Allied Nations got victory.
→ Cripps Proposal: British Prime Minister Winston Churchill sent a mission under the leadership of Sir Stafford Cripps to solve the constitutional obstructions in India. Its proposal was called the Cripps Proposal.
→ Colonial Self-rule: Limited independence under British sovereign rule. It was described in the Cripps Proposal.
→ Cabinet Mission: Cabinet Mission arrived on March 24, 1946, with the objective to make arrangement for independence of India.
→ Commonwealth: An international association consisting of the UK together with countries that were previously a part of the British Empire.
→ Attlee: A leader of British Labour Party who became Prime Minister of Britain on July 26, 1945.
→ Lord Mountbatten: Lord Mountbatten was the last Viceroy of British India and the first Governor-General of independent India.
→ Dr Rajendra Prasad: The first President of independent India.
→ Subhash Chandra Bose: A great revolutionary leader who founded “Azad Hind Fauj”.