Go through these RBSE Class 11 Political Science Notes Chapter 19 Causes of Decline of British Rule in India contain important concepts so that students can score better marks in the exam.
Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 Political Science Notes Chapter 19 Causes of Decline of British Rule in India
→ After a slavery of centuries, India got independence on August 15, 1947.
→ Indians were not provided independence by British Governance naturally, rather it was a result of British helplessness.
→ Many freedom fighters, revolutionaries, thinkers and patriots sacrificed their lives for the country to make India free from prolonged slavery.
→ Several incidents extended greatest contribution to make India a free nation.
The Causes of End of British Rule in India
1. The Emergence of Different Social and Political Organizations
- Different organizations of 19th century such as Brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj, Ramakrishna Mission, Theosophical Society and Islamic religious reform movement, etc. developed a strong sense of Nationalism amongst Indians, pushed for religious reforms amongst and, re-awakened a sense of historical pride and reverence towards the nation.
- Raja Ram Mohan Roy established the Brahmo Samaj in 1828.
- Father of Indian cultural renaissance, the forerunner of social consciousness and nationalism, Raja Ram Mohan Roy was a versatile genius.
- Raja Ram Mohan Roy published several newspapers as ‘Sambad Kaumudi’ (Bangla), Mirat-ul-Akhbar (Persian) and Bangdoot (Hindi).
- He developed the sense of national feeling amongst Indians by demanding Indianization of Army, reformation in judiciary and reduction in land taxes, etc.
- Swami Dayanand Saraswati founded the Arya Samaj on April 18, 1875.
- Swami Dayanand admitted the importance of Vedas and so advised Indians to return to the Vedas.
- Swami Vivekananda founded the Ramakrishna Mission on May 5, 1897.
- Swami Ramakrishna Paramhansa considered Indian culture as spiritual and the best eternal culture.
- Ramakrishna Mission rendered all special services for the poor, the underprivileged and the down-trodden classes.
- The Russian lady madam Blavatsky and an American colonel Olcott founded the Theosophical Society in 1875. It made its entry in India in 1887.
- An Irish lady Annie Besant provided momentum to the work of Theosophical Society in India in 1893.
- Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, an eminent reformer and educationist, advised the Muslims to remain faithful to the British Government. He removed old traditions among Muslims and promoted education among them.
2. Faulty British Governance: The British government system was quite different from the traditional Indian arrangement of governance. The British judicial system was costly, lengthy and unfair.
3. Effect of Western Education: During the time of Lord William Bentinck, Indians were given western education on the advice of Lord Macaulay.
- After receiving the western education, a group of Indians scorned their own culture, while another group of youth started to take part in the freedom struggle inspired by studying foreign literature.
4. Social Change: Due to English education in India, a new educated group of doctors, lawyers, teachers and other intellectuals and professionals emerged, who played an important role in spreading national awareness.
5. Economic Exploitation: British Free Trade policy put the Indian economy on the verge of destruction.
- Dadabhai Naoroji, known as the Grand Old Man of India, disclosed this economic conspiracy of British Government in his book ‘Poverty and un-British Rule in India’.
- Indians had serious dissatisfaction against economic exploitation committed by the British Government. Indian cottage industries were destroyed.
- Indians opposed the drain of wealth from India on a large scale, destruction of cottage industries and exploitation of farmers.
6. Glorification of Indian Civilization and Culture by European Scholars: Max Muller, Monier, William Jones, Fergusson, Burke, etc were foreign scholars who studied Indian literature and Sanskrit scriptures and language deeply, praised its perfection and superiority.
7. Contribution of Literature and Newspapers: The newspapers of local languages criticized strongly the repressive policy of the British government.
- The British government implemented the Vernacular Press Act, 1879, by which the British Government imposed banned on the freedom of Indian newspapers.
- Some of the important newspapers of that time were The Hindu Patriot, The Hindi Mirror, Amrit Bazar Patrika and Kesari.
- Indians were introduced to the ideas and opinions of Indian social reformers and politicals thinkers through newspapers and magazines.
- The creations such as “Anand Matha” ‘Vande Matram’ by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, ‘Jana Gana Mana’ by Rabindranath Tagore, ‘Bharat Bharati’ by Maithili Sharan Gupta and ‘Matrai Bhasha’ By Bharatendu Harishchandra, created a sense of patriotism and is patriotism revolution in the hearts of Indian people.
8. The Suppressive policy of Lord Lytton: During the rule of Lord Lytton, lakhs of rupees were spent on the felicitation function of Queen Victoria, while the country was facing drought and people were starving.
- During the rule of Lord Lytton, Indians were not permitted to keep weapons without a licence, while this was not essential for the British. The Indians took this as their insult.
9. Dispute over llbert Bill, 1883: The Ilbert Bill, 1883 provided Indian magistrates the right of hearing the cases against European criminals.
- The British were angry with this bill, they united and protested against it. Due to heavy protest against this bill by the Europeans, the government was forced to take it back.
- Indians learnt a lesson from this incident that even the government can be made to surrender, by a united movement or protest. This incident ignited national awareness amongst Indians.
10. Indian Independence Struggle, 1857: Intense dissatisfaction against the British government was increasing day by day amongst Indians. The imperialist policy of the British and economic exploitation added fuel to the fire and increased that resentment.
- The struggle of Indian independence 1857 was the result of that dissatisfaction and resentment.
- Veer Savarkar called the revolt of 1857 as the First Struggle for Independence. The British had to face a joint protest by the Indians for the first time.
11. Emergence off Indian National Congress: The retired British bureaucrat A.O. Hume founded the Indian National Congress along with 72 political workers on December 28, 1885.
- In the beginning, the aim of Indian National Congress was to stem the resentment against the British rule in India. It was expected to work like a safety valve.
- In 1906, Dadabhai Naoroji said that the main object of Congress was to achieve self-governance like the United States of America and other former British colonies.
- The chief moderate leaders of congress were Dadabhai Naoroji, Mahadev Govind Ranade, Surendra Nath Bannerjee, Pherozeshah Mehta, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, K.T. Telang, etc.
- The prominent extremist leaders of congress were Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Raw, Bipin Chandra Pal and Aurobindo Ghosh etc.
- Mahatma Gandhi made an entry in Indian politics in 1915. In his leadership, the Indian National Congress provided a new direction to the independence movement.
12. Other Revolutionary Movements: Due to the policy of British government, many revolutionary movements started in Indian politics.
- The main object of revolutionary leaders was to bring an end to the British rule. To achieve their target, they adopted every violent method, including loot, murder, etc.
- The revolutionaries founded many institutions such as Abhinav Bharat, Anushilan Samiti, Yugantar, etc. to provide ammunition and to train the freedom fighters.
Global causes (Global Timeline) and International Pressure
- As a result of World War I and II, United states of America and the Soviet Union emerged as global superpowers and it made Britain weaker.
- India got moral support from the Russian revolution of 1917. Many other countries were coming out in support of Indian independence.
- The countries like Germany, Russia, Japan, China and United States of America supported the cause of Indian movement for freedom and pressed Britain hard to make India free.
The Victory of Labour Party in Britain in 1945: There were many people in the Labour Party who had sympathy with Indians. In 1945, Labour Party of Britain won election, and Clement Attlee was made the Prime Minister.
e Clement Attlee had declared in his manifesto to grant independence to India. He kept his word and India got independence.
Causes of Decline of British Rule in India Notes Important Terms
→ Nationalism: The complete dedication or the feeling of reverence towards one’s motherland, is called nationalism.
→ Brahmo Samaj: An institution founded by Raja Ram Mohan Roy on 20th August, 1828. The main object of this institution was to remove the superstitions amongst Indians and to check the spread of Christianity in India. It was based on the Vedas and Upanishads.
→ Sambad Kaumudi: Raja Ram Mohan Roy started the publication of weekly Bangla news- paper Sambad Kaumadi in 1821.
→ Mirat-ul-Akhbar: A weekly magazine in Persian language was published by Raja Ram Mohan Roy in April, 1822.
→ Bangdoot: A daily Hindi newspaper published by Raja Ram Mohan Roy in 1829.
→ Arya Samaj: This institution was founded by Swami Dayanand Saraswati on April 10, 1875. The main object of the institution was to remove social evils. Arya Samaj enforced the truth of Vedas.
→ Ramakrishna Mission: This institution was founded by Swami Vivekananda at Belur in Kolkata on May 5, 1897. The institution published such ideals and principles that could be adopted by the people belonging to all religions and cultures.
→ Theosophical Society: Russian madam Blavatski and American Colonel Olcott founded this institution in New York in 1875. Its office was opened at Adyar (Madras) in India in 1886. The chief object of Theosophical Society was to perform a comparative study of ancient religions. The society tried hard to strengthen Hinduism, Buddhism and Zoroastrianism, etc.
→ Western Education: The education provided by British government to the Indians in English language was meant to create an Indian educated class of mental slaves.
→ Vernacular Press Act: This Act was passed in 1878 in the reign of I/ord Lytton. The newspapers of Indian languages were banned by this act. The educated Indians named the bill as ‘Gagging Act’. It was enacted in 1879.
→ Hindu Patriot: It was the first daily newspaper in English language published by Indians.
→ Amrit Bazar Patrika: Motilal Nehru started this weekly news magazine in Bangla language in 1868. To avoid the vernacular Act, the newspaper was converted into English language in 1876. Its opinion was purely nationalist.
→ Kesari: This nationalist newspaper of Marathi language was published in Bombay by Bal Gangadhar Tilak in 1881.
→ Anand Matha: This novel was written by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee. Our National song ‘Vande Mataram’ has been taken from this novel.
→ Bharat Bharati: This lyrical anthem is composed by famous writer and poet Maithili Sharan Gupt.
→ Vande Mataram: The national song of India was taken from the novel ‘Anand Math’ written by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee.
→ Abhinava Bharat: A revolutionary organization founded by Veer Savarkar (Vinayak Damodar Savarkar) at Midnapur (West Bengal) in 1904.
→ Anushilan Samiti: A prominent revolutionary organization was founded by Gyanendranath Bose in Calcutta in 1902.
→ Yugantar: A prominent revolutionary organization founded by Varindra Ghosh in Calcutta in 1906.
→ Colonialism: The policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, and occupying and exploiting its resources for own economic benefits.
→ Atlantic Charter: It was a pivotal policy statement issued during World War II on 14 th August, 1941, jointly signed by American President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill.
→ Raja Ram Mohan Roy: Raja Ram Mohan Roy was born on May 22, 1772 at Radhanagar, West Bengal. A great social reformer and forerunner of nationalism. He formed the Brahmo Samaj.
→ Swami Dayanand Saraswati: The founder of Arya Samaj. He was born in Morbi state in Gujarat province in 1824. He accepted Hindi as the national language and made Swaraj the basis of his functioning.
→ Swami Ramakrishna Paramhansa: He was the teacher (Guru) of Swami Vivekananda. He considered Indian culture as the best eternal spiritual culture.
→ Swami Vivekananda: He was born on February 12, 1863 in Bengal. He was a great nationalist and introduced the merits of Indian culture, religion and society at the World Congress of Religions.
→ Madam Blavatsky: A Russian lady who founded the Theosophical Society in New York in 1875.
→ Colonel Henry Steel Olcott: An American who founded the Theosophical Society along with madam Blavatsky in New York in 1875.
→ Annie Besant: She was a British socialist, theosophist, women’s rights activist, writer and orator and supporter of Irish and Indian self-rule. She founded the Theosophical Society in India. She was the first lady president of Indian National Congress.
→ Sir Syed Ahmad Kha: A famous reformer of Muslim society and educationist. The founder of Muslim Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh. This college is famous as Aligarh Muslim University today. He advised the Muslims to remain faithful to the British Government.
→ Max Muller: The great educationist, a great scholar of Sanskrit and comparative science of languages. He translated the Rigveda into German language and edited many books.
→ Dadabhai Naoroji: He was a famous freedom fighter who publicly declared for the first time that the British were exploiting Indian economy and sending Indian money to Britain. He disclosed the secret of economic conspiracy planned by the British in his book “Poverty and Un British rule of India”.
→ Bal Gangadhar Tilak: He was a great patriot, famous by the name “Lokmanya”. He started the publication of a newspaper named ‘Maratha’ in Marathi language. His famous slogan was “Swaraj is my birthright and I shall have it”.
→ Bankim Chandra Chatterjee: A famous writer of Bangla language, he wrote the famous novels “Anand Matha” and “Durgesh Nandini”. Our National song is taken from his book ‘Anand Matha’.
→ Rabindranath Tagore: He was famous as Gurudev, an Indian poet, patriot, novelist,
philosopher and sculptor. He composed the National Anthem ‘Jana Gana Mana’. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature, for his well-known work ‘Gitanjali’.
→ Bharatendu Harishchandra: The famous writer and founder of modern Hindi prose “Khari Boli”.The writer of famous plays including “Chandravali”, “Bharat Durdasha” and “Andher Nagari”. He was an ardent supporter of our native language Hindi.
→ Maithili Sharan Gupt: A famous poet of Hindi language. “Bharat Bharati” is his famous work.
→ Lord Lytton: He was the Viceroy in India during 1876-80. Lakhs of rupees were spent on the welcome function of Queen Victoria during his reign, while there was a drought in South India and people were starving.
→ Queen Victoria: The Queen of Britain. She was awarded the title Kaisar-e-Hind in the Delhi Court.
→ Illbert: The legal member of the Indian government; had passed a bill to provide the right to hear cases of Europeans to Indian magistrates just like European magistrates. The Britishers opposed it.
→ Lord Rippon: The Viceroy of India during 1880-84. The Ilbert Bill dispute took place in his period.
→ Veer Savarkar: A well-known freedom fighter; he called the revolt of 1857 as the first war of Indian independence.
→ Allan Octavian Hume: A retired British civil servant; he founded the All India National Congress on December 28, 1885. The first president of the Congress was Womesh Chunder Bannerjee and Mr. A.O. Hume himself was its first secretary.
→ Lord Dufferin: The Viceroy of India during 1884-88. The foundation of Congress took place during his rule.
→ Prafulla Chacki: A famous freedom fighter. He made an effort to kill Kingsford, the magistrate of Muzaffarpur on April 30, 1908. Kennedy was killed by mistake.
→ Khudiram Bose: The famous young freedom fighter. He tried to kill Kingsford the magistrate of Muzaffarpur along with Prafulla Chaki. He was sentenced to death.
→ Aurobindo Ghosh: An important extremist leader of independence movement.
→ Shyamji Krishna Verma : The Freedom fighter who founded the “India Home Rule Society” in London in 1905.
→ Madam Bhikaji Cama: The Parsi lady, a colleague of Shyamji Krishna Verma; she visited Europe and America to gather support for the cause of Indian independence.
→ Clement Attlee: The Prime Minister of Britain during 1945-1951. The leader of Labour Party. India got independence in his premiership.
→ Womesh Chunder Bannerjee: The first president of Indian National Congress and a prominent moderate leader of Indian national movement.