Go through these RBSE Class 11 Political Science Notes Chapter 16 Freedom Struggle of 1857 contain important concepts so that students can score better marks in the exam.
Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 Political Science Notes Chapter 16 Freedom Struggle of 1857
Beginning of the Revolt of 1857 and development
- When the revolt of 1857 began, there were six military cantonments in Rajasthan. Their names were: (i) Nasirabad (ii) Neemuch (iii) Deoli (iv) Erinpura (v) Beawar and (vi) Kherwara.
- The A.G.G. of Rajasthan, George Patrick Lawrence, got the news on 19th May 1857, that freedom struggle had started in Meerut.
- A.G.G. Lawrence was much worried because there was, royal treasure and a large amount of arms and ammunition at Ajmer.
Causes of Revolt
In Rajasthan, the revolt of 1857 started from Nasirabad cantonment because of the following reasons:
- A.G.G. distrusted the 15th Bengal Infantry and sent it to Nasirabad from Ajmer.
- Patrol of Nasirabad was performed by First Bombay Lancers.
- Fat was plated on the cartridges.
Effect of the Freedom Struggle of 1857 on Rajasthan
- On 18th May 1857, the revolution broke out in Nasirabad cantonment of Rajasthen.
- At Nasirabad cantonment, soldiers of the 15th Bengal native infantry revolted against the Britishers and looted it.
- The rebel soldiers of Nasirabad reached Delhi on 18th June, 1857 and defeated the English army.
Revolt of Tonk and Neemuch
- The Indian soldiers at Neemuch cantonment revolted on 3rd June, 1857.
- The rebel soldiers at Neemuch cantonment reached Tonk via Chittorgarh, Hammirgarh, Banera, Shahpura, Nimbahera and Deoli. The public enthusiastically greeted them.
Revolt in Erinpura and Auwa
- The soldiers of Jodhpur region reached Erinpura and looted the cantonement and urged them raising the slogan, “Challo Delhi Maro Firangi”. They then marched towards Delhi.
- Thakur Kushal Singh of Auwa took charge of leadership of rebel soldiers of Erinpura.
- On 8th September, 1857, Kushal Singh as army defeated the army of Jodhpur at Bithora.
- The revolutionaries assassinated the political agent of Jodhpur MC Mason and hanged his head on the gate of the Fort of Auwa.
- At Auwa, the British soldiers showered inhuman tyranny on the public and took the statue of Goddess Sugali to Ajmer.
Rebel at Kota
- At Kota, the public and the army had extreme resentment against the British administration. The revolutionaries took full control over the administration under the leadership of Mehrab Khan and Lala Jai Dayal.
- On 15th October, 1857, the army of Kota murdered the political Agent of Kota and his sons. The revolutionaries retained full control over the administration of Kota for six months.
- On 22nd March, 1858, the English army under the command of General Roberts liberated Kota from the control of the rebels.
Role of Tantia Tope in Freedom Struggle of Rajasthan
- The Nawab of Tonk was a supporter of the Britishers, but the public of Tonk and its army was in favour of the revolutionaries.
- In the beginning of 1858 when Tantia Tope reached Tonk, he was welcomed by the army and the people.
Revolt in Dholpur
- Bhagwat Singh, the king of Dholpur, was the supporter of the Britishers, but his army and people were in support of the revolutionaries.
- After about two months, the army of Patiala, in December 1857, took full control over Dholpur.
Revolt in Bharatpur
- In 1857, when the people of Bharatpur supported the revolutionaries, the Britishers had to quit Bharatpur. The British political Agent was ruling over Bharatpur at that time.
Revolt in Karauli
- Maharaj Madanpal, the ruler of Karauli was the supporter of the British officers. He appealed the people not to participate in the revolt and forbade to support the revolutionaries.
Revolt in Alwar
- The Dewan of Alwar Faizullah Khan and the nationalistic feelings and sympathy of the public were with the revolutionaries. But the Maharaja Bunne Singh supported the Britishers.
Revolt in Bikaner
- Maharaja Sardar Singh was the only ruler of Rajasthan who sent his army outside his kingdom to suppress the revolutionaries.
The Revolt of Mewar and Vagad
- Maharaja Swaroop Singh, the ruler of Mewar, sent his army to help the British army in suppressing the revolutionaries.
- Shahapura was a Thikana of Mewar. The ruler of Shahpura supported the revolutionaries.
- The feudatory of Salumbar (Mewar) and Kotharia extended full support to the revolutionaries. They helped Kushal Singh and Tantia Tope.
- Govind Giri provided his leadership to the tribal revolutionaries in Southern Rajasthan. It is known as Bhagat movement.
Revolt of Mewar Praja Mandal
- In Mewar, Praja Mandal movement started on 24th April,1938.
- In Dungarpur, on 1st Aug 1944, under the leadership of social worker Bhogilal Pandya, Sewa Sangh was postponed and in the state of Dungarpur Praja Mandal was established and Praja mandal movement started here.
- In 1897, at Dungarpur, Municipal committee was established with active partiapation of local administrative institutions. Statewide corruption was openly opposed in 1945.
- On 28th October, 1945, demand for establishment of a responsible government was made. On 3rd, 4th, and 5th April, 1945, the first session of Praja Mandal was held at Dungarpur. On 5th June, 1946, with a view of reformation in judiciary, a demand was raised to give the village panchayats more rights for the benefit of the public at village level.
- Maharaval Udai Singh, the ruler of Banswara, supported the Britishers during the revolt. On 11th December, 1875, Tantia Tope took possession of Banswara.
End of the Revolt
- On 21st September, 1857, the revolt of 1857 suddenly came to an end at Delhi, where the Mughal emperor along with all his family members was arrested. By June 1857, the British rulers re-established their full control over most of the places. But Tantia Tope continued his struggle.
- For want of co-operation from the states of Rajputana, Tantya-Tope had to wander from place to place. At last, he was arrested and was hanged to death.
- After the suppression of the revolution, the chief leaders of Kota-Jai Dayal and Mehrab Khan were hanged to death on the neem tree that was near the agency, openly, and publically.
The Results of the Revolt of 1857 in Rajputana
- After the suppression of the revolt, the rulers of Rajputana were rewarded because they had been helpful to the Britishers during the revolt.
- Law against adoption was abolished.
- Arrangement of English education was made for the princes.
- The Rajas and the Maharajas engaged themselves in establishing the status and order of the British empire.
- The feudals lost their existence.
- The roads and the railways were increased for ease of transportation. By providing facilities of education for the middle class of the society, an educated section of Indian society was formed, for the benifits of British rule.
- Vaishya community was provided protection to make the economy of the country stronger.
Praja Mandal Movement in Rajasthan
- During the revolt of 1857, the contribution of Rajasthan had been unique and dignified. After 1920, the public awareness national movement affected Rajasthan also.
- In Rajasthan, revolutionaries like Arjunlal Sethi, Kesari Singh Barahat and Gopal Singh also made the people aware about the political situation of the country and inspired the feeling of nationalism among them.
- British rule had created discontentment amongst Indian masses therefore after 1938, Praja Mandals were established in Rajasthan.
Praja Mandal Movement in Ajmer
- Ajmer being the headquarter of Agent to governor General (A.G.G.), political awareness emerged among the public naturally.
- Ajmer was also the main centre of the revolt of 1857. Vyas ji and Verma ji made Ajmer the centre of their political activities.
- In 1920, Vijay Singh Pathik established Rajasthan Sewa Sangh at Ajmer. So, peasant movement remained very active in Ajmer and its surroundings.
- In 1936, Captain Durgaprasad Chowdhary, the President of Sewa Dal and a social worker, published the first daily newspaper of Rajasthan “Dainik Navjyoti.”
Praja Mandal Movement in Alwar
- In 1938, with the efforts of Kunj Bihari Lai and Harinarayan Sharma, Praja Mandal was established in Alwar. But it was granted recognition in 1940 because of Vyasji’s decisive efforts.
- In 1925, in the village Nimuchna (Alwar), an incident took place which made the Maharaja popular.
- In 1946, a movement was started to establish a responsible government.
Praja Mandal Movment in Bharatpur
- In Bharatpur, Praja Council was established in 1930 under the presidentship of Gopilal Yadav. Its secretary was Deshraj. The Praja Council (Mandal) did not get recognition till 1938. Even Kishanlal Joshi is efforts could not of succeeded in this regard. After that, Bhagwati Devi and Triveni Devi led the movement. In 1939, as many as 32 women revolutionaries were arrested and jailed.
- At last, in 1939, it was granted recognition as Praja Council. In 1942, the Praja council remained active, and in 1947, to make the movement more effective among masses, Aditya Chandra and Yadav were included in the popular government. In 1938, the political conference of Bharatpur Praja Mandal and eastern Rajasthan was held at Fatehpur Sikri.
Praja Mandal Movement in Banswara
- On 17th November, 1913, all the Bhils were busy in social, religious and national ceremonies on the Mangarh hill (Banswara) under the leadership of their Guru Govind Giri. Like Jallianwala Bagh, the Britishers killed them all. This massacre created political and national awareness among the Bhils.
- In 1943, at Banswara, Praja Mandal was established by Bhupendra Nath Trivedi. Motilal, Sidhi Shankar, Manishankar and Dhulji Bhai were the main workers with him.
- The Maharana established the legislature in 1946 on the demand of a responsible government.
- On 18th December, 1858, Tantia Tope had visited Banswara and had spread the message of national movement here.
Praja Mandal Movement in Bikaner
- On 4th October, 1936, Magharam Vaidya established the Praja Mandal at Bikaner for the first time.
- Maharaja Ganga Singh exiled Magharam Vaidya from Bikaner for 6 years to suppress the Praja Mandal.
- In July 1942, Raghuvar Dayal again established the Praja Mandal.
- On 31st December, 1945, under the presidentship of Pt Jawaharlal Nehru, an all India conference of the states king was held at Udaipur. In this conference, the autocratic rule of the king of Bikaner was criticized.
- On 30th March, 1949. Sardar Patel inaugurated Greater Rajasthan. This ended the separate status of the state of Bikaner.
Praja Mandal Movement in Bundi
- An awareness came in Bundi because of peasants’ movement. Forced labour, collection of Lal-Bag (unnecessary taxes) by the zamindars were the main causes of this awareness.
- The chief source of inspiration behind this, movement was Nathu Ram Sharma and Nagar family.
- Public Council was established in 1944. In 1946, Maharaja Bahadur Singh declared to form Legislative Council and Popular Council of ministers at Bundi.
Praja Mandal Movement in Dholpur
- In 1918, with the efforts of Swami Shradhanand there arose a national awareness among the people. In 1934, Johari Lai Indu and Jwala Prasad Jigyasu organised Nagri Pracharini Sabha.
- In 1946, the police fired bullets at Takhimare revolutionaries.
Praja Mandal Movement in Dungarpur
- With the inspiration of Thakkar Bappa, Harijan Sewak Sangh was established in 1935.
- In April 1946, under the leadership of Bhogilal Pandya, the first session of the Praja Mandal was held here.
- All social groups of Dungarpur actively participated in the activities of the Praja Mandal.
Praja Mandal Movement in Jaipur State
- In 1931, Kapoor Chand Patni established [the Praja Mandal in Jaipur state. In 1937, Seth Jamunulal Bajaj’s inspiration re-organized the Praja Mandal.
- In 1938, the first session of the Praja Mandal was held under the presidentship of Seth Jamnalal Bajaj.
- On 30th March, 1949, Jaipur state was merged into Joint Rajasthan. Only after the merger of Jaipur, a truly responsible government was established in Rajasthan.
Praja Mandal Movement in Jaisalmer
- The credit of starting a struggle against the feudal and autocratic system of government goes to Sagarmal Gopa.
- On 15th Dec, 1945, Meethalal Vyas established the Praja Mandal in Jodhpur.
- In August 1947, the state of Jaisalmer merged with Indian Union and the Praja Mandal movement also ended.
Movement Praja Mandal Movement Started in Jhalawar
- In 1947, the first meeting of the Praja Mandal was held in Jhalawar.
Praja Mandal Movement in Karauli
- In 1921, peasants, movement started in Karauli under the leadership of Kunwar Madan Singh.
- In 1938, Munshi Trilokichand Mathur established Rajya Sewak Sangh in Karauli.
- In 1946, many campaigns were carried out to form a responsible government.
Praja Mandal Movement in Kishangarh
- In 1930, Krantichand Chauthani, who was in the state services founded the ‘Upkarak Mandal’.
- In 1939, after resigning from the state services, Chauthani established the Praja Mandal in Kishangarh.
Praja Mandal Movement in Kota
- In 1939, Pt. Nainuram Sharma and Pt. Abhinn Hari established the Praja Mandal in Kota. In August 1942, during the Quit India movement, the Praja Mandal of Kota started satyagraha to fulfill the demand of a responsible rule.
Praja Mandal Movement in Marwar
- In 1920, Marwar Sewa Sangh was established.
- In 1926, successful satyagraha were organized in context to a large-scale animal migration from the state.
- In 1934, Chaganlal Chopasaniwala, Abhay Jain and Manmal Jain unitedly established Praja Mandal in Marwar.
- In 1938, Public council was established, and in 1940, it was declared illegal.
- On 31st August, 1948, under Vyasji’s leadership, a popular government was established in Marwar.
Praja Mandal Movement in Mewar
- In 1938, under the presidentship of Balwant Singh Mehta, Praja mandal was established in Mewar.
- On 31st December, 1948, All Indian princely States Council was established. Mewar Harijan Sangh was also established.
Praja Mandal Movement in Shahpura
- In 1938, Ladooram Joshi and Ramesh Chandra Ojha established the Praja Mandal.
Praja Mandal Movement in Sirohi State
- On 22nd January, 1939, Gokul Bhai Bhatt established the Praja Mandal in Sirohi state.
- On 8th November, 1948, the Indian government took over the administration of Sirohi state and appointed Gokul Bhai Bhatt as the Prime Minister of Sirohi State.
Peasants’ Movement in Rajasthan
- The peasants’ movements in Rajasthan opposed the tyranny of the rulers and the Zamindars and carried out a mass movement against the policy of suppression. Thus, they created national awareness among the people.
- The peasants movement of Bijolia became very popular.
The Peasants’ Movement of Bijolia
- Bijolia(Uparmal) belonged to the first category of Mewar’s Jagir. The rich people of Bijolia were called ‘Rao’.
- The Thikanedar of Bijolia levied ‘Lai Bag’ and forced labour like atrocities on the peasants.
- For the first time, in 1897, the pearants’ discontentment burst out.
- In 1913, the peasants had become hopeless and inactive and they needed encouragement and guidance.
- In 1914, the peasants were again exploited and suppressed by Amar Singh Ranawat and Dungar Singh Bhati.
Freedom Struggle of 1857 Notes Important Terms
→ Revolution: A sudden uprising by which people try to bring about a change in the administration or the government.
→ Rajputana: Before Independence, Rajasthan was known as Rajputana.
→ Military Cantonment: During British rule, the British rulers built military cantonments for the residence of British soldiers. In Rajasthan, there were six cantonements – Nasirabad, Neemuch, Deoli, Beawar, Erinpura and Kherwara.
→ Armory: The place where arms and ammunitions are kept.
A.G.G.: The British government, in 1832, established Rajputana Residency at Ajmer to control the states of Rajasthan. For this, they appointed an English officer who was called Agent to Governor-General (A.G.G.).
→ Political Agent: The British rulers appointed a political representative to look after the various treaties between the states and the British rulers. This officer was called political agent.
→ Infantry: The army of soldiers who fight battle on foot are known as infantry.
→ 15th Bengal Native Infantry: The infantry posted at Ajmer.
→ Merr Regiment: The military group of Merr caste posted at Beawer cantonment.
→ First Bombay Lancers: For the safety of Nasirabad contonment, a troupe of faithful soldiers.
→ Enfield Rifles: The new rifle provided by the British rulers to the soldiers. In this rifle, the cartridge had to be torn off with teeth before inserting it into the rifle. The cartridge was smeared with cow fat and pig fat. This rumour incited both the Muslim and the Hindu soldiers to revolt in 1857.
→ Jodhpur Legion: In 1835, the British rulers accused the Jodhpur cavalry of being inefficient and formed its own army of British solders by the name of Jodhpur legions. Its headquarters was made at Erinpura cantonment.
→ Sugali Mata: The family diety of Auwa, has been the goddess of the whole Marwar area. This goddess had six ears and fifty-four hands. She has been a great source of inspiration for freedom fighters of 1857. It is said that the revolutionaries started their activities after having a ‘darshan’ of this goddess. She is also called Maha Kali.
→ Revolt: The freedom struggle of 1857 was named as a revolt. Dr. Tara Chand, the famous historian, called the revolution of 1857 ‘A national uprising’.
→ Parvana: An order issued by a Maharaja (king/monarch) to his subordinate was called ‘parvana’.
→ Maharana: The ruler of Mewar state (Udaipur) was Called Maharana.
→ Samant: After the death of a king, his eldest son sat on the throne. The newly installed king gave land to his younger brothers for their livelihood. The owner of such given land was called samant.
→ Riyasat: (State) In British India, there were some kingly states. They were called Riyasat or Rajwara. The kings and the nawabs of these states existed under the sovereignty of the British empire. These states occupied one-third of the area of British India.
→ Kamal and Chapati (Lotus and Loaf): During freedom atruggle of 1857, the revolutionaries used often these symbols against the British rule. The Rajasthan public welcomed these symbols.
→ Bhagat Movement: The movement of the tribes of southern Rajasthan under the leadership of Govind Giri to achieve independence is known as Bhagat Movement.
→ Abhinav Bharat: A secret Agency of revolutionaries. This Agency was established by Sachindra Nath Sanyal.
→ Kesari: An aggressive nationalist newspaper published by Bal Gangadhar Tilak in 1881 in Marathi language.
→ Punishment of Kala Pani: After arresting the revolutionaries, the British government sent them to the cellular jail in Andaman Island. This imprisonment was called ‘kala pani ki saza’.
→ Communal Harmony: Unity among the groups of various religions.
→ Sarvadharman Sambhava: Having the same regard for all religions.
→ Dingal Language: This is a major dialect of Rajasthani language. Most of Rajasthani literature has been written in the same dialect. The charan bards used and developed this dialect.
→ Chetavani-ra-Chungtaya: Thirteen phrases written by the warrior Kesari Singh Barahat. Having read these phrases, the Maharana Fateh Singh of Mewar boycotted the Delhi Court.
→ Thikana: (Place) A place for staying or a residence or Jagir, region.
→ Nav-Sandesh: A newspaper published from Agra by Vijay Singh Pathik in 1930. During Quit India movement in 1942, it was confiscated.
→ Colonialism: It is a trait of a powerful country which establishes its sovereignty over other country/countries to exploit their economic and political conditions.
→ Capitalism: This refers to that system of economy whereas the ownership of factory or farming belongs to an individual or a group of individuals and they use the earned money for their personal use.
→ Feudalism: That system of administiation, where in the land of the government is owned by big zamindars.
→ Non-Intervention Policy: To limit the working area of the state and to let an individual work according to his sweet will.
→ Praja Mandal: The public of Rajasthan established praja mandals to form a responsible government in the states of Rajasthan. Raja Madan Pal formed such praja mandals in his different estates.
→ Responsible Government: Such government, which is resposible towards the public. For the establishment of a responsible government in Rajasthan, the peasants and the praja mandals carried on many movements.
→ Lag-Bag: An unlawful tax levied by the jagirdars and the free forced labour taken from the peasants and their women besides the government tax levied by the state ruler.
→ Jagirdar: The land and the haveli given by the ruler to his close relatives who become the owners and are called Jagirdars.
→ The Exiled: One who is exiled from his home place as a punishment for some crime.
→ Autocracy: An administration overshadowed by terror and crime. In such an administration, the public has no freedom of any type. The people have no right, but are overladen with duties. The ruler is almost a dictator and has complete control over the press.
→ Citizens’ Rights: The various rights provided to the bonafide citizens of a country.
→ Autocratic Rule: When the power of the state resides in one despotic king, the system is known as despotic rule. Now a-days, there is hardly any such rule in the world.
→ Matsya Union: In the first phase of integration of Rajasthan, Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur and Karauli along with Neemrana Thikana formed one union. On 18th March, 1948, this integrated unit was called Matsya Sangh. Maharaja of Dholpur, Udai Singh became its head and Shobha Ram Kumawat became its Prime Minister.
→ Forced Labour: A social custom where by the strong takes free work/service from the weak and the helpless.
→ Joint Rajasthan: In the third phase of the integration of Rajasthan, on 18th April, 1948, Udaipur state was merged with Rajasthan Sangh. Maharana Bhupal Singh of Mewar became the head and Manikyalal Verma became the Prime Minister of the Joint Rajasthan.
→ Land revenue: The government tax levied on land.
→ Rekh: A sort of military tax taken by the Jagirdars. This is an annual tax paid by the Jagirdars to his ruler and recovered from the peasants.
→ Talwar Bandhai: It is a tax levied and recovered by the king from the public when a new heir to a jagir is appointed by the king.
→ Chakri or Chatoond: The annual amount recovered from a person for rendering military safety services to him. This amount was given by the jagirdars to the rulers of the state.
→ Nazrana: The presents (gifts) given by the Jagirdars to the rulers of the state.
→ Chanwari Tax: This was the tax which the peasant paid to the jagirdar on occasion of the marriage of the peasant’s daughter. It was an amount of rupees five.
→ Maratha: An English newspaper published by Bal Gangadhar Tilak in 1882.
→ Princely States: Before independence, the states ruled by the kings and the nawabs were called.
→ Young India: An English newspaper published by Mahatma Gandhi in 1919. Later on, its name was changed to Harijan.
→ Panchayati Raj: A form of administration. In this system, decentralization of powers is done at the village level so that more people take part in the administrative development of the country and a larger number of the citizens may be made self-dependent. The villagers learn self governance. In Rajasthan, there are three levels of Panchayati Raj: (i) At village level, there is village Panchayat: (ii) At block development level, there is panchayat samiti and (iii) At district level, there is District Board (Zila Parishad).
→ Lord Patrick Lawrence: During the revolt of 1857, he was the A.G.G. of Rajasthan. He had instructed all the rulers of the Rajasthan state not to allow the revolutionaries to enter their states. But if they did so, they must be arrested immediately.
→ Thakur Kushal Singh: Thakur Kushal Singh of Thikana Auwa in Jodhpur state had defeated the combined armies of Jodhpur state and the British army during the revolt of 1857.
→ Me Mason: He was the political agent of Jodhpur during the revolt of 1857. He was assassinated by the revolutionaries and his head was hung at the gate of Auwa Fort.
→ Brigadier Holmes: He was a British army officer. On 29“ January, 1858, he invaded Auwa along with his army.
→ Major Burton: He was the political agent of Kota during the revolt of 1857. On October, 1857. the army of Kota assassinated him and his sons. His head was Circulated through the Kota city.
→ Ram Singh: He was the ruler of Kota during the revolt of 1857. Major Burton had advised him to punish the anti- British people in his state. But, he refused to do so. The revolutionaries surrounded his palace and took possession of the administration.
→ Mehrab Khan: Born in Karauli, he was an officer in the army of Kota state and was a Major revolutionary. He led the revolutionaries of Kota during the 1857 revolt.
→ Lala Jai Dayal: An advocate in Kota Durbar. He was a popular freedom fighter. He too along with Mehrab Khan led the revolutionaries of Kota and took possession of Kota city. Later, he was arrested and hanged to death.
→ General Roberts: A British army officer. On 22nd March, 1858, under his command, a British Army got back Kota from the revolutionaries.
→ Wazirudaulah: During the revolt 1857, he was the Nawab of Tonk and the supporter of the Britishers.
→ Tantia Tope: A chief revolutionary, a successor of Peshwa Baji Rao and a devout servant of Nana Saheb. During the revolt of 1857, he reached Rajasthan and organised the revolutionaries. His anti-British activities became a headache for the Britishers, ultimaely, he wars arrested and hanged to death by the Britishers.
→ Bhagwant Singh: He was the ruler of Dholpur state during the revolt of 1857, He was a supporter of the Britishers. The revolutionaries, with the help of Dholpur army, removed him from the throne and took administration of the state in their own hands.
→ Sardar Singh: During the revolt of 1857, he was the king of Bikaner state. He was the only ruler of the Indian states who went out of Bikaner with his army to suppress the revolutionaries.
→ Swaroop Singh: He was the Maharana of Mewar. He was a supporter of British government. He sent his army along with British army to suppress the revolutionaries.
→ Govind Giri: The first reformer and uplifter of the Bhils in the vagad region. He established the ‘Samp Sabha’. He conducted social and religious movement. He is also called Govind Guru.
→ Rash Behari Bose: A very popular revolutionary, he had entrusted the entire responsibility of armed revolutionary party to Kesari Singh Barahat. In April, 1915, he left India for Japan, where, under the command of Subhash Chandra Bose, he organized Azad Hind Fauj.
→ Sachindra Nath Sanyal: A great revolutionary, he organized an institution Abhinav Bharat’. He played an important role in preparing the youth of Rajasthan to actively participate in the movement against the British rule.
→ Arjun lal Sethi: The first revolutionary of Rajasthan. He established Vardhaman Vidyalaya at Jaipur to prepare the youth for revolution and freedom of the country. Besides being a political leader, he was a litterateur.
→ Kesari Singh Barahat: He was born in the village Deopura of Riyasat Shahpura of Mewar State. He was a famous revolutionary, poet and historian. He dedicated his entire life for the nation. He wrote 13 phrases to the Maharana Fatah Singh of Mewar which forbade him from attending the Delhi Court. Rash Behari Bose had entrused to him the entire responsibility of the armed revolution in Rajasthan. Pratap Singh Barahat. another famous revolutionary, was his son.
→ Ram Gopal Singh Kharwa: Rao Ram Gopal Singh Kharwa of Kharva Thikana of Amer state was a famous revolutionary. He, along with Rash Behari Bose and Sachindra Nath Sanyal, had organised an armed revolution in Rajasthan, but unfortunately, it was disclosed and met a tragic failure.
→ Joravar Singh Barahat: A noted revolutionary and brother of Kesari Singh Barahat. He had thrown bomb on viceroy Lord a Hardinge on 23rd April 1912, when he was passing in a royal procession through Chandni Chowk.
→ Pratap Singh Barahat : Son of Kesari Singh Barahat, a patriot and a revolutionary and a litterateur. He had thrown a bomb at Hardinge along with his uncle Joravar Singh. He was arrested in varanasi conspiracy and was imprisoned in Bareilly jail in 1818. He was tortured to death in Bareilly jail.
→ Vijay Singh Pathik: The chief conductor of the Bijolia peasant movement and a well known revolutionary. His actual name was Bhoop Singh. He was the editor of ‘Rajasthan Kesari.’ He organised “Veer Bharat Sabha.”
→ Jai Narayan Vyas: He was popularly known as Lok Nayak. He was one of the major freedom fighters of Rajasthan and a social reformer. He was the Prime Minister of the responsible government of Jodhpur state and twice remained the chief minister of Rajasthan. He also remained a member of the Constituent Assembly of India.
→ Hanwant Singh: Maharaja of Jodhpur, He signed the accession accord with the India union on 9th August, 1947.
→ Magharam Vaidya: He was the father of freedom struggle in Bikaner. He was the founder of Praja Mandal in Bikaner. He led the Kisan movement named, Dudhwa Khara’.
→ Ganga Singh: He was the ruler of Bikaner state. He got the Gang nehar (Ganga canal) built. He developed Ganganagar city. After World War I, he participated in the Treaty of Versailles. He supported the British army with camel cavalry, against China. He died on 2nd February, 1943.
→ Shardul Singh: After the death of Maharaja Ganga Singh, he became the ruler of Bikaner.
→ Sardar VallabhBhai Patel: The first Deputy prime Minister and Home Minister of free India, played an important role in integrating the different Princely states of Rajasthan into one state. On 30th March, 1949, he inaugurated Greater Rajasthan. He was popularly known as the ‘Iron man of India’.
→ Manikyalal verma: A popular freedom fighter of Rajasthan. He remained the prime minister of Joint Rajasthan. He wrote a book “Modern Administration of Mewar’Tn this book, he has described the tyrannical administration of the aristocrats (feudals) and the pitiable plight of the people. He also remained a member of the Constituent Assembly.
Important Dates in the Chapter and the Incidents associated with those Dates