Go through these RBSE Class 11 Political Science Notes Chapter 15 Non-Cooperation Movement, Civil Disobedience Movement and Quit India Movement contain important concepts so that students can score better marks in the exam.
Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 Political Science Notes Chapter 15 Non-Cooperation Movement, Civil Disobedience Movement and Quit India Movement
→ Mahatma Gandhi returned to India from South Africa on 9 th January, 1915.
→ From 1920, leadership of Indian National Movement came in the hands of Gandhiji. This phase of freedom movement is known by the name of ‘Gandhian Era’.
→ Non-cooperation Movement was the first movement of Gandhian Era.
Background of the Non-cooperation Movement
The First World War
- The First World War began in 1914, creating a new political and economic crisis in the world. The economic problem of India worsened and there was unlimited expenditure in defense affairs.
Gandhiji’s Entry into Indian Politics
- On 9th January, 1915 Gandhiji returned to India from South Africa. On the banks of the river Sabarmati in Ahmedabad, he began to live in an ashram built by him and started studying about contemporary political conditions of India.
- In 1915, he successfully led the Champaran Satyagraha.
- In 1918, he held Kheda Satyagraha and then used Satyagraha for the welfare of mill workers in Ahmedabad.
Rowlatt Act and Satyagraha
- In opposition against the Rowlatt act, on 6th April 1919, on the appeal of Gandhiji, people struck work, and observed a strike throughout the country, which was peaceful and successful.
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
- On 13 April 19i9, on the day of Baisakhi, a meeting was held in protest against the arrest of Dr Satyapal and Saiffudin Kitchlu and the British ordered indiscriminate firing upon peaceful satyagrahis who had gathered to hold a peaceful public meating in Jallianwala Bagh.
- About 20,000 people were present in the meeting. General Dyer, the then governor-general of Punjab, ordered police firing on the unarmed people without warning. In this firing, one thousand people were killed and more than one thousand were injured.
- On April 15, 1919, the British military commanders declared military rule in five cities of Punjab.
- Rabindranath Tagore returned the title of knighthood (Sir), and Shakaran Nair, the Indian member of the Viceory’s executive council, resigned from his post to protest against the Jallianwala Bagh massacre.
- The British government appointed a committee under the chairmanship of Lord Hunter to investigate into the Jallianwala Bagh massacre. This committee acquitted general Dyer.
- The British government betrayed the Indian Muslims by dismantling Turkey after the First World War, and accepted Sheikh Hassan, in place of the Sultan of Turkey as the Khalifa.
- The Indian Muslims got furious and started the Khilafat movement against the British government in India.
- Gandhiji supported the Khilafat movement and decided to base the non-cooperation movement on Hindu-Muslim unity.
- In 1920, at the annual session of the Indian National Congress, Gandhiji placed the proposal of the non-cooperation movement which was unanimously accepted.
- Every government runs on the cooperation of the public, so the non-cooperation movement aimed at ending this basis of cooperation.
- In 1921, the non-cooperation movement under the leadership of Gandhiji, gave Indian public a message of non-cooperation with the British government. So, all the political, social and economic institutions were boycotted.
- Gandhiji decided to make this movement a mass movement throughout the country.
- The movement had both, (i) positive and (ii) negative aspects.’
- The negative aspect was to destroy the administrative system through non-cooperation along with boycotting, the election, the court and even the use of foreign goods.
- Gandhiji gave up the title Kaiser-e-Hind. Many advocates gave up their profession. Even Indian women *:ook an active part in boycotting the use of foreign clothes.
- The positive aspect was the opening of national schools and colleges. The wave of Swadeshi spread like wild fire.
- The British government started arresting chief leaders to suppress the movement.
- On 17 th Nov. 1921, the Prince of Wales was received at Bombay with a strike.
- At Chauri Chaura, in Gorakhpur, there was some violent incident. In protest of this violent incident, Mahatma Gandhi withdrew the non-cooperation movement.
- The decision of withdrawing the movement weakened the position of Gandhiji.
- The significance of non-cooperation movement was that it made Indian people bold.
- The non-cooperation movement boycotted the use of foreign goods and encouraged Swadeshi. This paved the way for the development of Swadeshi and cottage industries of India.
The Background of the Civil Disobedience Movement
- Nehru Report presented the demand for dominion status autonomy; but it was also warned that if this demand was not fulfilled within one year, it would demand complete independence for India.
- The British government paid no heed to the demand and the warning of the Congress.
- At midnight of 31st December 1929, National tricolour flag was hoisted on the banks of river Ravi amidst the singing of ‘Vande Mataram’ and the slogan ‘Inqualab Zindabad’ (Long live the revolution) was given.
- The Congress urged Indian people that January 26,1930 be celebrated as independence day.
Civil Disobedience Movement
- On 12th March 1930, Gandhiji started the Civil Disobedience Movement with the Dandi March.
- To unite the whole country, Gandhiji used the salt law as a weapon. On 6th April 1930, he broke the British salt law by making salt at Dandi.
- The civil disobedience movement received the co-operation of the women, the students, the labourers, the government servants and other groups of Indians society.
- The British government used force to suppress this movement, but miserably failed.
- The British government organised three round-table conferences at London in 1930, 1931 and 1932 respectively. The Congress participated only in the second round-table conference.
- On March 5, 1931, there was pact in Delhi between Mahatma Gandhi and Lord Irwin with the efforts of Tej Bahadur Sapru and Dr. Jayakar.
- Under this pact, Gandhi Ji postponed the civil disobedience movement.
- The Gandhi-lrwin pact having failed, the Congress again started the civil disobedience movement on 1st January, 1932. Mahatma Gandhi was arrested and the Congress was declared an illegal organization.
Macdonald’s Communal Award
- On 16th August 1932, the British prime minister Ramsay Macdonald announced the provision of a separate electorate for the downtrodden castes of India also.
- Gandhiji went on fast in its protest. Later, Gandhiji and Dr. Ambeakar signed the Poona Pact which was accepted even by the British government. Thus, the separate electorate for the downtrodden people came to an end.
Quit India Movement
- On 14 July 1942, the Congress organised its session at Wardha. Here, the resolution of running the Quit India movement was accepted.
- In 1942, Lai Bahadur Shastri gave the revolutionary slogan, ‘Kill and Do not die’.
- On 9th August 1942, Quit India movement started. Gandhi Ji gave the slogan ‘Do or Die’.
- Quit India movement was the most important attempt made for the freedom of the country. This movement failed to achieve its aim, but it created such an awakening amongst Indians, that it became impossible for the Britishers to stay here for longer time. At last, the Britishers were forced to quit India.
Foundation of Partition
- In Feb. 1947, Lord Mountbatten was appointed the viceroy of India in place of Lord Wavell.
- He declared that British India would be provided freedom, but it would be partitioned. 15th August, 1947 was decided the day when transfer of power from the British to the Indians would formally be made.
Non-Cooperation Movement, Civil Disobedience Movement and Quit India Movement Notes Important Terms
→ Satyagraha: To persist on truth and non-violence.
→ Gandhian Era: The third phase (1919-1947) of the Indian National Movement is called the Gandhian Era.
→ Sabarmati: In 1915, Mahatma Gandhi established the Sabarmati Ashram on the banks of the river Sabarmati in Ahmedabad.
→ Champaran: A place in Bihar connected with indigo growers. Here, in 1917, Mahatma Gandhi conducted his first satyagraha. Mahatma Gandhi inspired the indigo growers against the suppressive policies of the Britishers.
→ Rowlatt Act: It was such an act by power of which the British government could keep any person behind the bars without assigning any reason at all.
→ Non-cooperation Movement: It was started by Mahatma Gandhi in January, 1921.
→ Untouchability: Under the programme of non-cooperation movement, the worst social evil of untouchability was to be abolished completely.
→ Chauri Chaura Incident: On 5th Feb. 1922, at Chauri Chaura, Gorakhpur district Uttar Pradesh, a violent crowd burnt a police post. In this incident, 22 policemen were burnt alive. Gandhiji was saddened by this violence, and he withdrew the non-cooperation movement.
→ Young India: An English weekly published by Mahatma Gandhi from Ahmedabad.
→ Civil Disobedience: On 12th March 1930, Gandhiji started this movement.
→ Swaraj: That form of administration, wherein the citizens of a country rule over this country without any foreign pressure or threat.
→ Dandi March: On 12th March 1930, Gandhiji started a march from Sabarmati Ashram for Dandi, a place in Gujarat situated on the sea-coast, followed by 78 Ashram dwellers. There, they prepared salt from the seawater and broke the salt law.
→ Muslim League: A political party founded by Mohd. Ali Jinnah.
→ Rani Gadilio: A famous freedom fighter of Nagaland.
→ Vinoba Bhave: The chief leader of Sarvodaya and Bhoodan movements.
Non-Cooperation Movement, Civil Disobedience Movement and Quit India Movement Important Dates & Events
→ 1914:1 First World War began.
→ 1915: Gandhiji returned from South Africa and built the Sabarmati Ashram on the banks of river Sabarmati in Ahmedabad.
→ 6th April 1919: On Gandhiji’s appeal, a nationwide peaceful strike was observed against the Rowlatt Act.
→ 12th April 1919: Meetings in Amritsar were banned by the British government.
→ 13th April 1919: On 13th April 1919, on the eve of the Baisakhi festival, the Indian leaders had been arrested. In protest of these arrests, a public meeting was being held at Jallianwalla Bagh in Amritsar, where, without any warning, General Dyer ordered ruthless firing. At least 1000 persons were killed and many more were seriously wounded.
→ 17th Nov. 1921: Prince of Wales was received at Bombay with a strike.
→ Dec. 1921: At the Ahmedabad session, the non-co-operation movement was given a widespread form.
→ 5th Feb. 1922: At Chauri-Chaura in Gorakhpur district, a violent crowd of people burnt the police station. A least 22 policemen were burnt to death.
→ Dec. 1929: Congress session was held at Lahore presided by Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru. In this session, the demand for Complete Independence was passed.
→ 9th Aug. 1942: Quit India movement started.
→ 26th Jan. 1950: Constitution of independent India was implemented.