Go through these RBSE Class 11 Political Science Notes Chapter 14 Liberals, Extremists and Revolutionaries of the National Movements contain important concepts so that students can score better marks in the exam.
Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 Political Science Notes Chapter 14 Liberals, Extremists and Revolutionaries of the National Movements
The Liberals of the National Movement: Gopal Krishna Gokhale
- The initial phase of the Indian national movement is known as the age of liberalism.
- The Indian National Congress was founded by the persons who got western education and represented the capitalists and the upper-middle class of Indian society.
- The liberals of the freedom movement thought that the systematic development of India was made possible with the help and co-operation of the British Government.
- The liberal leaders of the National Movement are called arm-chair politicians.
- Gopal Krishna Gokhale was born in 1866 in the district Kolhapur of Bombay state.
- During his travels to England, Gopal Krishna Gokhale extended praiseworthy cooperation in activating the British council of Indian National Congress and its news-letter, INDIA.
- In 1912, Gokhale went to South Africa on the invitation of Mahatma Gandhi. Under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, he brought about a compromise between South African Government and the Indian Satyagrahis.
- Mahatma Gandhi held Gokhale in high esteem and looked upon him as his ‘political guru’. Gandhiji called him pious-soul Gokhale.
- On 15 February, 1915, Gokhale met an untimely death at the age of 49 years.
- Gopal Krishna Gokhale was a great scholar of History and Economics.
The political philosophy of Gokhale was:
- Faith in just and liberal nature of the British people.
- Unshaken faith in constitutional means.
- Decentralization of power.
- A liberal and national line of thinking.
- Belief in systematic reforms.
- A votary of swadeshi but an opponent of boycotting ways and means.
- Belief in self-rule.
The Extremists of the National Movement: Bal Gangadhar Tilak
- The extremist leaders looked upon the British administration as a curse on Indians. For them, Indian civilization and culture was their only guide.
- The extremists believed in patriotism and had non-co-operative feeling for the Britishers.
- The extremists demanded complete independence in place of step-by-step reformation in administration and declared self-rule as their birthright.
- The programme of the extremists for the achievement of freedom included the boycott of British goods, the adoption of swadeshi and nationalist form of education.
- The extremists wanted to oppose British administration by adopting the path of swaraj and self-elevation.
- The chief among the extremist leaders in Indian national movement were Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Bipin Chandra Pal, etc. They are popularly known by the so(u)briquet ‘Lai, Bal and Pal’.
- Bal Gangadhar Tilak was born on 23rd July 1856 at Ratanagiri in the Konkan district on the western coast of India.
- When the Congress was following the path of liberalism, Tilak gave, not only to the Congress but to the whole country, a new objective of swaraj and the weapons like swadeshi, boycott, nationalist education and non-violent resistance to achieve those objectives.
- Tilak declared ‘“Swaraj is my birthright and I shall have it”.
- The British government feared him more than other Indian leaders. He is called the Architect of Modern India, Lokmanya and the Sage Bhagirath of Indian nationalism.
- Tilak was a great journalist, teacher, hero of the people and a freedom fighter. As an awakened journalist, he published the weakly ‘Kesari’ in Marathi language and another weekly ‘Maratha’ in English language.
- Tilak was not only a politician, but also a great scholar. His books ‘The Arctic Home of the Vedas’ and ‘The Geeta Rahasya’ bespeak of his scholarship.
- Tilak based the Indian national movement on the cultural pride of India. For this, he started celebrating ‘Ganesh Utsava’ and ‘Shivaji Utsava.’
The following are the important points of Tilak’s political philosophy:
- Morality is the foundation of an individual and the society
- The views regarding freedom should be spiritual and morality based
- Rejection of western morality based on materialism and western political philosophy
- Votary of two forms of swaraj – spiritual swaraj and political swaraj
- Indian nationalism influenced by the glory of ancient India
- More stress on the purity of the objectives to be achieved
- More importance to national unity and communal harmony.
Revolutionary Leaders of Indian National Movement
- Sardar Bhagat Singh, Chandra Shekhar Azad, Subhash Chandra Bose, Sukh Dev, Ashfaqulla, Rajguru and Ram Prasad Bismil were the major revolutionary leaders of Indian national movement.
- The main causes of the birth of revolutionary movement in India were, (i) The suppresive policiers of the British Government, (ii) The imprisonment of prominent leaders of the national movement, (iii) The paucity of revolting elements in the national movement.
- The main objective of the revolutionary movement was to inspire people for a violent struggle, to produce terror in the mind of the British government and to end the British reign in India.
- The chief aim of the revolutionaries was to incite hatred against foreign rule, to make people fearless in spreading feelings of love for freedom, to infuse nationalism in the heart of people, to awaken love for freedom and motherland, to engage attention of the British government by the processions of vande-mataram, in boycotting activities and in the meetings of swadeshi programmes. They did all this through writings, through speeches and by sending social messages from one place to another. Other activities of the revolutionaries included making of bombs, buying weapons and arms from foreign countries and to make funds available for revolutionaries.
- The role played by revolutionaries in the struggle for freedom is incomparable. They won freedom for the country by sacrificing their lives.
- Sardar Bhagat Singh took inspiration of staunch nationalism from the family inheritance.
- Sardar Bhagat Singh, being a student of IXth class, played an important role in Gandhiji’s non-cooperation movement.
- Bhagat Singh took training in journalism from Ganesh Shankar Vidyarathi and wrote articles for many newspapers and magazines. He also wrote many books during his period of imprisonment.
- The chief books, written while he was in jail are ‘Biography’, ‘Door to Death’ and ‘The Revolutionary Movement in India’.
- The ‘Jail Note Book’ written by Bhagat Singh in jail talks a lot about his political, social, constitutional, literary and philosophical ideology.
- After the ‘Kakori incident’, Bhagat Singh came in contact with Chandra Shekhar Azad and organized the “Hindustan Socialist Republican Army ”to oust the British from India.
- Bhagat Singh stood by Chandra Shekhar Azad and Rajguru and was involved in the murder of Saunders, the Lahore police officer on 17th Dec 1928.
- Bhagat Singh, in the company of Batukeshwar Dutt exploded a bomb in The central Assembly Hall on 8th April 1929.
- On 23th March 1931, Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Batukeshwar Dutt were hanged to death in the Lahore Jail as a punishment for the bomb explosion in the Central Assembly Hall.
- Bhagat Singh, in the freedom struggle, showed a unique example of courage and played historical role as a socialist-thinker.
- Bhagat Singh’s activities sowed the seeds of public awakening against the British power in India. He was the forerunner of the philosophy of revolution, socialism and awakening for the downtrodden. He was an opponent of British imperialism.
- Chandra Shekhar Azad is the brightest star among the revolutionaries. He was not only a revolulionary patriot, but also had an unshaken faith in the detached action philosophy of the Geeta and the Indian culture.
- Chandra Shekhar Azad was born on 23th July 1906 in village Bahor of the district Jhabua of Madhya Pradash .
- At the age of 14 years, he took part in Gandhiji’s non-co-operation movement and , received fifteen strokes of cane by the magistrate.
- On 9th August 1925, he took part in train dacoity at Kakori. On 17th December 1928, he murdered a police officer, Saunders, at Lahore, with the help of Bhagat Singh and Rajguru.
- On 17th February, 1931, in Alfred park at Allahabad, on the tip of a police informer, he was surrounded by the British Police. He faced them with unusual bravery and courage. However, instead of being killed by the impious hands of the enemy, he shot himself dead.
- Subhash Chandra Bose, popularly known as Netaji, was born on 23th January 1897 in an upper-middle class Bengali family of Cuttack.
- Subhash Chandra Bose passed Indian Civil Service (ICS) examination in 1920, but resigned from it in May 1921 and joined Indian National Congress to take an active part in the national movement.
- Subhash Chandra Bose was a staunch opponent of the provincial autonomy of administration. He wanted complete freedom.
- He was twice elected the President of the Indian National Congress Session, at Haripur in 1938, and at Tripura in 1939.
- In May 1939, he established a Forward Blockd wing in Indian National Congress and did his best to activate the leftists.
- In January 1941, Subhash Chandra Bose dodged the British Intelligence Agency and secretly reached Berlin (Germany) from Calcutta. From there, he broadcast a speech favouring India and opposing the British Government.
- On 4th July 1943, Subhash Chandra Bose became the leader of the Azad Hind Fauj in Singapore, and on 21st October 1943, he established the interim government of India in Singapore itself.
- In November 1943, the Japanese Government acceeded the newly-occupied islands of Andaman and Nicobar to the government headed by Subhash Chandra Bose who named the islands as ‘Shaheed’ and ‘Swaraj’ respectively.
- It is said that while flying from Singapore to Japan, his aircraft air-crashed and he (Subhash Chandra Bose) lost his life.
- Subhash Chandra Bose was a versatile genius politician, a top-brass Military-commander and a great patriot. He gave the slogan ‘Jai Hind’, which echoes even today in the heart of every Indian.
Liberals, Extremists and Revolutionaries of the National Movements Notes Important Terms
→ The Liberals: The liberals in Indian National Congress party were those who followed the policy of faith and co-operation regarding the British government. They tried to provide the Indian public their political rights through appeals, memorandums and delegations. They believed that India could get freedom through constitutional means. Dadabhai Naroji, Mahadeo Ranade, pherozeshah Mehta, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya and Surendranath Bannerji were the chief liberal leaders in the Indian National Congress.
→ Arm-Chair politicians: During Indian national movement, the liberals were looked upon as ‘Arm-chair-politicians’.
→ Pious-soul Gokhale: Mahatma Gandhi called Gopal Krishna Gokhale by this name.
→ Knighthood: An honorary title awarded by the British Government. Gokhale refused to accept it.
→ Colony: The master country called its enslaved country a colony.
→ Dominion state: A self-ruling colony within the framework of British empire; it is colonial autonomy. According to Gopal Krishna Gokhale, the objective of the liberals was to achieve this colonial autonomy within the framework of British empire as the sovereign.
→ Centralization: To concentrate all the powers at one place.
→ Liberalism: It is an ideology which aims at creating such a political and social atmosphere, wherein freedom and morality should be safe-guarded.
→ Decentralization: It means distribution of powers.
→ Nationalism: The feeling which inspires people to form a non-individualistic, selfless and patriotic unit which thinks and works for the cause of the country. It overlooks all considerations of religion, beliefs and family.
→ Freedom: For all-round development of human, being, the state, wherein one can think, act, move and conduct oneself without any bondage is known as freedom.
→ Spiritual Freedom: According to Bal Gangadhar Tilak, spiritual freedom helps a person in elevating him/her spiritually.
→ Partition of Bengal: In 1905, the British government divided Bengal into Bengal means W.B. and East Bengal. This action was named as Bang-Bhang. The extremists opposed it. Bal Gangadhar started the boycott movement. On 12th August 1911, the British government revoked the division of Bengal.
→ Boycott: The extremists believed that foreign goods, government services, government institutions and degrees and titles must be boycotted.
→ National education: According to the extremists, national education must be planned, controlled and conducted by the representatives of the nation. The national education policy should be framed, keeping in view the needs of the society.
→ Non-violent resistance: According to the Bal Gangadhar Tilak, people’s non-co-operation movement should be based on nonviolence and goodwill.
→ Revolutionaries: The leaders of Indian National Movement who wanted to end the British rule through violent means to get complete freedom for the country were known as revolutionaries. They did not aim at establishing a rule of terror, but they wanted to terrorize the British rulers for the tyranny they inflicted on the Indians. Chandra Shekhar Azad, Subhash Chandra Bose, Savarkar Brothers, Batukeshwar Dutt and Raj guru were the chief revolutionaries.
→ Freedom Fighter: All the patriots fighting for the freedom of the country were known as freedom fighters.
→ Gopal Krishna Gokhale: He was the chief liberal leader. He had a deep faith in freedom of the people, respect for the individual, rule of the law, ideal government and justice. He favoured step-by-step reformation to get freedom for the country. He aimed at nation-building through education.
→ Bal Gangadhar Tilak: He was an extremist. He suggested a new means to gain freedom for the country through swadeshi, boycott,national education and non-violent resistance. He is called the architect of modern India.
→ Lala Lajpat Rai: Lala Lajpat Rai, populary known as ‘Punjab Kesari’, was a social reformer, a worshipper of Indian system of education, a zealous speaker and a great writer. He was an extremist leader. He was badly wounded while opposing Simon Commssion. After some days he passed away.
→ Bipin Chandra Pal (an extremist leader ): He delivered exciting speeches in favour of Swadeshi and Boycott’, while opposing Bang-Bhang (the partition of Bengal).
→ Sardar Bhagat Singh (chief revolutionary leader): He played a historical role as a revolutionary and socialist thinker in the freedom struggle of India with unique courage. On 23rd March 1931, he was hanged to death.
→ Chandra Shekhar Azad (chief revolutionary leader: He dedicated his whole life to free his country from the slavery of British rule. He was not only a revolutionary patriot, but had unshaken faith in Indian culture.
→ Subhash Chandra Bose: Subhash Chandra Bose, popularly known as ‘Netaji’, resigned from Indian Civil Service and decided to live a purposeful life for freeing his country from the slavery of British rule.
→ Ganesh Shanker Vidyarthi: A famous freedom fighter. He was the editor of the weekly ‘Pratap’ published from Kanpur. Sardar Bhagat Singh took training in journalism from him and started writing articles for ‘Pratap.’ by the pen name Balwant.
→ Dr. Pattabhi Sitarammaya: He presided over the first session of the Indian National Congress after independence at Jaipur in 1948.
→ Batukeshwar Dutt: (a famous revolutionary) He was hanged to death in connection with throwing a bomb at the Central Assembly Hall on 23rd March 1931.
→ Rajguru: A famous revolutionary founding member of Hindustan Socialist, Republican Army, associated with the murder of Saunders and connected with throwing bomb at the Central Assembly Hall. The British government hanged him to death in Lahore Jail on 23rd March 1931.
→ Ram Prasad Bismil: (a famous revolutionary) He was hanged to death in Gorakhpur Jail in 1927 in connection with train treasury looting incident at Kakori.
→ Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das: He was the founder of the Swaraj Party. Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose was highly influenced by him.