Go through these RBSE Class 11 Political Science Notes Chapter 13 Causes of the Rise of National Movement contain important concepts so that students can score better marks in the exam.
Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 Political Science Notes Chapter 13 Causes of the Rise of National Movement
→ The history of Indian national movement to achieve independence is touching, inspiring and full of glory.
→ The origin and development of national movement in India is the result of socialist system.
→ The duration of the national movement is regarded to be between 1857 A.D. and 15 August 1947 A.D.
Causes of the Rise of National Movement
Following are the main causes of the rise and development of the national movement:
- Struggle for independance in 1857
- Social and cultural awakening
- Political unity of India
- The influence of the English rule
- Establishment of peace and administrative unity
- Spread of modern education
- Development of the means of speedy transportation and communication
- Growth of modern newspapers
- Effect of historical research work
- Economic exploitation of the country by the British rule
- Discrimination between the Indians and the English race
- Effect of the contemporary movement in Europe
- Rise of the middle-class intellectuals.
Special Features of the Indian National Movement
- Long duration of the movement
- Peaceful but revolutionary movement
- Social and economic movement
- Constitutional development
- World-wide influence
- Public movement
- Significant role of the religious reform movements
- National form of the movement
- Doubtful form of the national movement.
Phases of the National Movement
The national movement of India can be divided into three phases.
(i) The period of the liberal movement (1857-1905)
(ii) The period of the extremists (1906-1922)
(iii) The period of the revolutionary movement and Gandhiji’s parallel political role (1923-1947).
- The national movement during the liberal period was peaceful and based on mutual regard and co-operation.
- During the period of the extremists, the leaders’ goal was to achieve complete independence. Their chief programmes were swadeshi, boycott and nationalist education.
- During the revolutionary period, Mahatma Gandhi played a significant role.
Causes of the Rise of National Movement Notes Important Terms
→ National Movement: Country-wide movement run by the Indians to attain freedom from the British rule.
→ Nationalism: To organise the people of a country as one unit and to cherish the feelings of faith in such unity is called nationalism. In other word, it can be said that whole-hearted dedication towards the country is called nationalism.
→ Renaissance: It means the revival of art and learning. This word is used for the age when constructive activities are done on a large scale. In India, there was a movement in the 19th century for reforms in religion and society which was called social and cultural renaissance.
→ Arya Samaj: An institution established by Swami Dayanand Saraswati on 10th April 1875. The two main principles of Arya Samaj are: (i) Stress on the truth of the Vedas, (ii) God is formless, omnipotent and immortal.
→ Brahmo Samaj: An institution founded by Raja Ram Mohan Roy on 20th August 1828. It is basically founded on the Vedas and the Upanishads. Its main teaching is that God is one. He is the creator, the protector, infinite, unborn and formless.
→ Swarajya: That system of administration wherein the inhabitants of a country themselves look after the whole administration of their country.
→ Ramakrishna: An institution established by Swami Vivekananda on 5th May 1897 at Belur in Calcutta. The mission propagates such ideas and principles which may be adopted by the people of all religions and cultures.
→ Theosophical Society: An Irish Lady Annie Besant established this society.
→ Imperialism: When a country establishes its economic and political domination on countries outside its own territory, such a state is known as colonial or dominion state, and this practice is called imperialism.
→ Communalism: It is that state in society, wherein different religious groups try to establish their superiority upon other groups in communities.
→ Native states: In British India, there were many small states which were ruled by Indian princes, Independent kings/nawabs under the overall control of British empire. These native states were one-third area of British-ruled territory.
→ Mauryans: A dynasty that rule over a part of India in ancient times.
→ Mughal: During medieval time, ruling dynasty of India. In 1526, Babar founded the Mughal empire in India. Akbar was the most famous ruler of the dynasty.
→ Viceroy: The highest authority to conduct British rule under the British crown was called viceroy. Viceroy was appointed under the India Council Act of 1858. Prior to this, governor-general was appointed by the East India company. Lord Canning (1856-1862) was the last governor-general appointed by the company, and the first viceroy appointed under the British crown.
→ Indian Civil Service: Lord Cornwallis is known to have founded this arrangement. In 1864, Satyendra Nath Tagore became the first Indian to be selected in this service. Indian civil service was called the ‘steel frame’.
→ Criminal Law: Law to deal with crimes.
→ Civil Law: Law to deal will the disputes regarding property, wealth, marriage, agreements and services, etc.
→ Western Education: In 1835, on the suggestion of Lord Macaulay, education was started to be given through English medium. This was called in India by the name of western education.
→ Pass: A narrow land route through a series of mountains is called pass.
→ Khyber Pass: A major pass situated in the the north western range of the Himalayas in Indian sub-continent. At present, this pass is situated between the borders of Pakistan and Afghanistan.
→ Civilization: It is the developed state of arts, science and literature, which has all the provisions of controlling human behaviour.
→ Middle Class: In the 19th and 20th century, the Indians who were engaged in government service, knew English language. Their economic condition was satisfactory.
→ Culture: Great traditions inherited from heritage are known as culture.
→ Vernacular Press Act: During the rule of Lord Lytton, the law made in 1879 to ban the freedom of the Indian newspapers.
→ Economy: The framework of the organisations which exercises social control on the means of production, and the use of the products and services so produced is known as economy.
→ Indian National Congrass: On 18 Dec. 1885, an English civil servant named Allan Octavian Hume founded this organisation in Gokuldas Tejpal College in Bombay along with 72 political workers.
→ Revolution: A sudden revolt which aims at bringing a change in government and administrative set up even through violent or unlawful means.
→ Non-violence: Any conduct, behaviour or activity, which is based on love even towards a rival/foe in thought, word or deed.
→ Satyagraha: To insist on something with truth. A non-violent way of life adopted by Gandhiji against suppressive power.
→ Swadeshi: According to the liberal thinking, promotion and use of indigenously produced goods and establishment of self-rule.
→ Boycott: Not to accept the use of foreign goods, government services and titles offered by British rulers.
→ Nationalist education: According to the extremists, they considered national education to be such that is controlled and conducted by the representatives of India, as laid by directions framed in the interests of the Indian students.
→ Quit India Movement: In 1942, a movement conducted under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. In this movement, Gandhiji gave the slogan “Do or Die”.
→ Non Co-operation Movement: The movement conducted by Mahatma Gandhi in Jan. 1921. The aim of the movement was to resist the injustice done to Indians in Punjab and Turkey. Through this movement, they pressurised the British government for self-rule.
→ Swami Dayanand Saraswati: Founder of the Arya Samaj. Its chief slogan was ‘Return to the Vedas’.
→ Raja Ram Mohan Roy: A greal social reformer of the 19th century. He opposed the sati custom, purdah (veil) system and child marriage.
→ Swami Vivekananda: Disciple of Ramkrishna Paramhansa. At the international conference of world religions at Chicago, he advocated the popularity and superiority of the Hindu religion since ancient times.
→ Annie Besant: She was an Irish lady. She was also elected as the president of Indian National Congress.
→ Lord Macauley: The English officer who introduced English system of education in India.
→ Dadabhai Naoroji: One of the founders of Indian National Congress, remained president of Indian National Congress for three terms.
→ Ferozeshah Mehta: He was the president of the Indian National Congress session held in 1890 at Calcutta.
→ Gopal Krishna Gokhale: A Congress leader. His contribution to the freedom movement is considerable.
→ Vyomesh Chandra Banerjee: First President of the Indian National Congress session at Bombay in 1885.
→ Max Muller: A greal educationist and Sanskrit scholar of his time. He translated the Rigveda into German laguage.
→ Surendra Nath Banerjee: Was elected president of the Indian National Congress for two terms, architect of modern Bengal, he brought political awakening in Bengal.
→ Lala Lajpat Rai: He was a social reformer and a Congress leader of Punjab. He was popularly known as Punjab Kesari.
→ Mahatma Gandhi: His full name was Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. He was a saint, a statesman and a humanist leader.
→ The Bombay Chronicle: An English newspaper published from Bombay in 1913.
→ The Maratha: The English newspaper published by Bal Gangadhar Tilak from Bombay in 1882.