Go through these RBSE Class 11 Political Science Notes Chapter 10 Forms of Government contain important concepts so that students can score better marks in the exam.
Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 Political Science Notes Chapter 10 Forms of Government
→ Government is an inseparable part of the state. There are many forms of government, wherein, Aristocracy, Monarchy, Dictatorship and Democracy, are the major ones.
→ Democratic administration has many forms, and out of which, the main ones are: (i) Unitary and Federal, (ii) Parliamentary and Presidential.
→ At present time, democracy is thought to be the best system of administration.
→ Besides parliamentary democracy, federal form of government is also present in India.
Unitary and Federal Administration
- The form – Unitary and Federal of democracy depends upon centralization and decentralization of powers of governance given by the constitution of the state
Unitary System of Governance
- In Unitary system, all the powers of administration are delegated to the central government by the constitution.
- The main countries that have adopted the Unitary system of governance are – Britain, Italy, Japan, Belgium, etc.
Main Features of Unitary System of Governance:
- Centralisation of powers
- State’s segregation into several units
- Division and distribution of powers of administration by constitution between central government and local governments
- Local officers are the part of central government
- The constitution of countries having unitary system may be of any type-written, unwritten, flexible, rigid in nature.
Merits of Unitary System:
- Uniformity in administration
- Simple system of administration
- Efficient and strong administration
- Conflict-less system of governance
- Flexible, (v) Economical
- Promotes national unity
- More appropriate in emergency times
- Strong foreign policy.
Demerits of Unitary System:
- Fear of autocratic nature of central government
- Lack of administrative efficiency
- Administration of bureaucracy
- Passivity of people
- Neglect of local self-governance
- Inappropriate for large states.
Federal System of Governance
- Federal administration is such a type of administration, wherein distribution of powers between center and state governments is done by the constitution, and in the context of rules, both the governments are free in their respective fields.
- Main countries having federal system of Governance – India, Canada, United States of America (USA), Switzerland, etc.
Main Features of Federal System of Governance:
- Written (drafted), strong and supreme constitution
- Separation of powers
- independent Judiciary
- Dual citizenship
- Bi-cameral legislature
- Dual use of sovereignty.
Merits of Federal System:
- National unity and local autonomy
- A blend of centralization and decentralization
- Administrative efficiency
- Appropriate for big states
- System to make weak states strong
- Political awareness
- Saving of time and money
- Opposes autocracy
- Favourable to democracy
- Step forward towards world union
- Dignity in international field.
Demerits of Federal System:
- Weak Governance
- Unskilled administration
- Situation of conflict
- Danger to national unity
- Infirmity in international field
- Inappropriate in emergency time
- Apprehension of separation of units
- Conservatism of judiciary.
- A new system in federal state in present time, according to which there is gradual inclusion of unitary system into the execution of political arrangements. Such system has been branded ‘Quasi-federal’ system of administration, by the scholars.
- Three main features are found in Quasi federal system of administration (i) Written and strong constitution (ii) Separation of powers and (iii) Supreme judiciary.
- Sidgewick said, “When we look at future from the past, the greatest possibility seems of development of federal system in terms of form of system of governance.”
Comparison between Unitary and Federal System of Governance:
The following are the bases of differences in unitary administration and federal administration.
- On the basis of distribution of administrative powers
- On the basis of form of constitution
- On the basis of citizenship
- On the basis of status of local governments
- On the basis of powers of administrative units
- On the basis of administrative mechanism
- On the basis of state.
Parliamentary and Presidential Government System
Assessment of parliamentary and presidential form of government in democratic system of administration is done on the basis of relations between the executive and the legislature.
Parliamentary Form of Government:
- In parliamentary form of government, a real executive (council) is formed by the legislature which is answerable to it and-it remains functioning till it retains its confidence.
- There exists a very close relationship between legislature and executive in parliamentary form of government.
Main Features of Parliamentary Form of Government:
- Dual executive
- Close rapport between executive and legislature
- Collective responsibility
- Leadership of prime minister
- Political uniformity
Merits of Parliamentary Form of Government:
- Answerable administration
- Mutual cooperation between legislature and executive
- Administration of able and experienced persons
- No possibility of autocracy of administration
- Importance of opposition parties
- Political awareness and education
- Head of state (President) – a fair advisor.
Demerits of Parliamentary Form of Government:
- Contrary to the principle of separation of powers
- advent of Autocracy
- Intensity in political factionalism
- Weak administration
- Unstable administration
- Nature of despotism in council of ministers
- Administration of inexperienced persons
- Negligence of administrative duties
- Fear of dictatorship of majority party
- Improper for emergency times.
Presidential Form of Government
- In modern democratic age, the second main popular form of government is presidential Form of government.
- In this form of government, both legislature and executive are quite different and independent from each other.
- The basis of this form of government is the principle of separation of powers.
- In this system of administration, the executive is not answerable for its actions to the legislature.
Features of Presidential Form of Government:
- Separation of powers
- Definite tenure
- Real executive
- The principle of checks and balances
- Political uniformity unnecessary.
Merits of Presidential Form of Government:
- Efficiency in governance
- Stability in governance
- Unity in administration
- Freedom from defects of factionalism
- Protection of civil liberties
- Appropriate in emergency time
- Freedom of legislature
- suitable for states having diversity.
Demerits of Presidential Form of Government:
- Unanswerable and autocratic government
- Apprehension of deadlock in governance
- Uncertainty of responsibility
- Inimical for administrative delicacy
- Lack of flexibility
- Uncertainty in foreign policy
- Opposite to organic principle
- Lack of political awareness in people.
Comparison of Parliamentary and Presidential Forms of Government:
- On the basis of executive
- On the basis of work period
- On the basis of relations between executive and legislature
- On the basis of powers of governance
- On the basis of responsibility
- On the basis of status of ministers
- On the basis of change
- On the basis of party situation in government.
- According to Garner, “Parliamentary system is such a system of governance, wherein real executive or ‘Council’ is legally responsible towards the legislature or popular House of parliament and ultimately towards the electoral college for its policies and works, and the head of the state is nominal and it is unanswerable.”
- Head (king or president) of the nation in parliamentary governance is head only in name, the real governance is governed by the ‘council’ of ministers needed by the Prime Ministers.
Characteristics of Parliamentary Form of Government
- Distinction of executive – Nominal or real.
- Closeness between legislature and executive.
- Indefinite working tenure.
- Collective responsibility.
- Personal responsibility.
- Leadership of Prime minister.
Benefits of Parliamentary Form of Government:
- Coordination between legislature and executive.
- Responsibility towards the people.
- Limited governance.
- Lack in deadlock.
- Governance of able, experienced and popular persons.
- Political education.
- Transformation of hereditary monarchy into democratic form.
Defects of Parliamentary Form of Government:
- Opposer of principle of powers of separation.
- Party-based dictatorship.
- Weak governance.
- Difficulty in government formation in multi-party system.
- Unstable executive.
- Mutual policy differences.
- Governance of unskilled persons.
- Autocracy of council.
- Negligence of administrative works.
- Fiery and constant party competition.
- Weakness of executive in emergency time.
- Expanding form of ‘Council’ (cabinet).
- Such a system of governance, under which executive branch is quite different from legislative branch and there is such a head of the executive who is not answerable to legislature, is called presidential form of government.
- According to Garner, “Presidential government is such, wherein the executive, that is, President of the state, and its ministers, are free from legislative assembly from constitutional point of view in terms of their tenure and they are also not answerable to it in respect of their political policies.
Characteristics of Presidential Form of Government:
- Segregation of executive and legislature.
- Nominal and real executive the same person.
- Tenure – Definite.
Difference between Parliamentary and Presidential Forms of Government:
- Difference in the head of state and executive.
- Difference in respect of mutual relations of legislature and executive.
- Executive – related rights.
- Ministers, state – related differences.
- Comparison in the form of patron of freedom.
- Based on democratic principles.
Merits of Presidential Form of Government:
- Governance stable.
- Administrative perfection.
- Administrative unity.
- Power separation.
- Evils of groupismless.
- Highly appropriate for multiparty system.
- Cabinet of most eligible people.
- Best for emergency time.
- Executive has more power than the legislative assembly.
Demerits of presidential Form of Government:
- Lack of administrative unity.
- Non-cooperation between legislative and executive departments.
- Hardship in operation of foreign relations.
- Lack of political education.
- Lack of permanency.
- Uncertain responsibility.
Appropriate System for India: Parliamentary or Presidential
- After a profound discussion and contemplation, founding fathers of constitution supported parliamentary system of government for India.
- Till prior to fourth general election, parliamentary system was generally thought to be satisfactory, but fourth general elections provided a new turn in Indian politics.
- After taking due note of the different prevailing circumstances of India, it can be concluded that the parliamentary system of government is the most appropriate for India in the interest of Indian democracy and also in the interest of liberty of an individual.
Forms of Government Notes Important Terms
→ Government: The institution, which provides a visible and tangible shape to a state, is called government. It expresses ‘State will’ in the form of laws in public interests. By implementing laws, it provides real form of will of the state and punishes those who put obstacles in its way.
→ Monarchy: A state or nation in which the supreme power is lodged in a monarch (king or queen). At present, it is not generally prevalent in the world.
→ Aristocracy: When sovereignty resides in some persons only, then it is called Aristocracy or Plutocracy. At present time, nobility, in pure and influential form, is not seen. In its place, political sovereignty has gone in the hands of persons who are rich or are born in high class, this is called aristocracy.
→ Dictatorship: This is an autocratic governance of one individual or a group or party. In this type of governance, no liberty is granted to its people.
→ Democracy: When sovereignty resides in the entire citizenry, it is called democracy. In it, people or representatives of the people govern the state.
→ Unitary System Governance: Such a system wherein entire powers of governance are embedded in central government, as per constitution, is called unitary governance.
→ Federal system of Governance: Such a system of governance, wherein the division of all the powers of the state is done between union government and its units, is called federal governance.
→ Parliamentary Governance: Such a system is called parliamentary government, wherein the real executive is legally responsible towards the legislature for all its works.
→ Presidential Governance: Such a system is called presidential form of government wherein executive, that is, president of the state and his ministers, are quite free from the control of legislature in terms of their tenure, and they are also not answerable to it for their policies.
→ Law: Any bill passed by parliament and assented to by the president, is called a law.
→ Foreign Policy: A policy which a country adopts towards other countries. In this way. the use of polices, programme and principles used by one country in order to establish relations with other countries/nations, is called foreign policy of the country.
→ Bureaucracy: A specific organization of proficient, trained and dutiful officials wherein the principle of transparency and obedience is strictly complied with. In other words, it can be defined as a mechanism to implement the policies of governance. It can also be called permanent executive or administration.
→ Autocratic: Any individual whom none has control on.
→ Dictator: An autocratic ruler, who reigns without any restrictions or answerability after gaining control over governance through illegal means, is called dictator.
→ Local self-governance: Local self-governance refers to such a governance at local level, wherein conduct of governance is done by those institutions which are elected by the people, and while being under central or state government, they are given certain rights and responsibilities for fulfilling local necessities of citizens. This is of two types — (i) Urban local self-governance and (ii) Rural local self-governance.
→ Constitution: A set of rules and principles to govern any country is called constitution.
→ Dual executive: This type of executive has two forms, (i) Nominal executive, such as President of India and King of England, (ii) Real executive, such as Prime Minister of India, and President of United States of America.
→ Dual Citizenship: Besides being a citizen of Union, one has to be a citizen of that state also where he lives. This arrangement is found to be seen in federal governance. In India, despite here being a federal system of governance, dual citizenship is not implemented. In fact India is a union of states.
→ Bicameral system: Two houses of legislature. For example, India has bicameral system, (i) Lok Sabha (Lower house or representative house) (ii) Rajva Sabha (Upper house or permanent house).
→ Red Tapism: Behaviors, practice, or attitudes associated with an excessive adherence to official rules and formalities works.
→ Ambassador: Representative of any sovereign state, appointed in foreign countries.
→ Slave tradition (Serfdom): Such a tradition wherein persons are kept as slaves, like property, and they are purchased and sold like a commodity.
→ Provincial government: Government of units of a union is called provincial government.
→ Local government: Such a government, which works at village or district level, is called local government. Such as village panchayat, panchayat committee, district council etc.
→ Media: Sources of communication are called media. Media is of two types, (i) Print media and. (ii) Electronic media. Newspapers and magazines,come under print media, whereas television, radio, internet, etc. come under Electronic media.
→ Executive: The organ/part of a government responsible for implementing the laws made by legislature.
→ Legislature: A main organ of government for forming laws.
→ Judiciary: A main organ of government to deliver justice in accordance with laws.
→ Censure Motion: A censure motion is brought in parliament in order to criticize works or policy adopted by a minister or governance.
→ Adjournment Motion: If there occurs a specific event or there is an issue needing urgent attention, then members of parliament may propose to take up the very matter for discussion, thus postponing the running debate. This is called adjournment motion.
→ Cut motion: A proposal to reduce (cut) the demands of budget is called cut motion. To grant its permission or otherwise depends on the discrimination of the speaker of the house.
→ No-confidence motion: No-confidence motion is brought by opposition party/parties in Lok Sabha. If Lok Sabha speaker thinks of the motion being in accordance with the rules, he will read it out in the house. After debate, the motion is put to vote. If Lok Sabha passes the bill with majority, then the entire cabinet has to resign.
→ Language: The means to communicate intention/thought in writing or oral is called language. Mainly, language is of two types: (i) Spoken language and (ii) Written language.
→ Religion: The fundamental nature, behaviour or quality perpetually residing in an individual or in a thing is called Dharma.
→ Culture: All those things of any person, caste, nation, etc. that are indicators of intellectual development in fields of his thought, inclination, taste, behaviour, art and craft and lifestyle, are called ‘culture’.
→ Cabinet: In parliamentary governance, it is a group of cabinet ministers formed under the leadership of Prime Minister. This is developed by tradition. There is no provision of it in constitution. It has much greater importance in comparison to ‘Council of ministers.’
→ President: He is the constitutional head of the state as such in India hut in the U.S.A the president is the real power.
→ Prime Minister: Head of governance of any state. He is responsible for all governance- related works. He is the head of the government.
→ Hamilton: A political thinker. He regards the union as an amalgamation of some states, which forms a big state.
→ Willoughby: A famous political scientist. He regards the union as a multi-ruled state.
→ Durgadas Basu: Famous Indian constitutional expert. He explained that the success and strength of federal government depends on cooperation and coordination between central government and its subordinate units.
→ Dr. Garner: A distinguished political thinker. He has provided exhaustive details of unitary and federal governments. He has also presented clarification about presidential and parliamentary forms of government.
→ Huskin: A political thinker. He has regarded Supreme Court in federal governance as a wheel to establish balance in administrative machinery.
→ Bezhot: A political thinker. He has termed mutual disconnect of legislature and executive powers as a specific goal in presidential form of government.
→ Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar: The president of drafting committee of Indian constitution. He accepted that in parliamentary system of government, there should be evaluation of responsibility of governance on daily basis and also after a definite time-interval.
→ Laski: Political thinker of England. He was a supporter of democratic socialism, hhs famous creations are ‘A Grammar of Politics’, ‘Communism and study in the problem of sovereignty’, etc.
→ Churchill: He was the Prime Minister of England. During Second World War, he was made the Prime Minister of England, in place of Chamberlain.
→ V.P. Singh: He was the Prime Minister of India. His full name is Vishvanath Pratap Singh.
→ Chandrashekhar: After the resignation of V.P. Singh, he became the Prime Minister of India with outside support of the Congress.
→ Remjemyor: Famous political thinker. He considered that in parliamentary form of governance, bureaucracy governs in place of the responsible cabinet. He also construed cabinet as a driving mechanism of state-ship.
→ Presidential Governance: Such a system of governance, under which, executive branch is quite different from legislative branch, and head of the executive is such a person who is not answerable towards the legislature, is called presidential governance.