Go through these RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 9 Soil of India contain important concepts so that students can score better marks in the exam.
Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 9 Soil of India
Soil: Introduction and Definition
- There is great importance of soil in the economic sector of every country.
- India is an agricultural country whose approximately 70 per cent population is engaged in agriculture for livelihood.
- Soil is the upper layer of earth in which plants grow, it is a black or dark-brown material typically consisting of mixture of organic remains, clay and rock particles.
- On the basis of composition, soil is classified into local and transported soil.
- The soil which is formed by the fragmentation of rocks is called as local soil and the soil which is formed by the transferred rocks from their origin is called as transported soil.
- Local soil is found in the Southern Plateau and transported soil is found in the plains and coastal areas.
- On the basis of composition and characteristics, soil is divided into six types clayey, sandy, silty, peaty, chalky and loamy.
- The soil is also classified as – alluvial soil, black or lava soil, red soil, laterite soil, sandy soil and mountain soil.
- A fine-grained fertile soil deposited by water flowing over flood plains or in river beds. It is mostly found in the Northern plains in India and is spread in over eight lakh sq. km area.
- According to geographical conditions, alluvial soil is classified as Ancient alluvial, Newer alluvial and Newest alluvial.
- As a whole, it is very fertile, with large amount of humus, having sufficient water in it.
Black or Lava Soil
- It is formed due to the solidification of lava spread over large areas during volcanic activity in the Deccan Plateau.
- As it is made of lava, its colour is black.
- There is exuberance of iron and alluminium in it.
- Since cotton has been the most common traditional crop in areas where it is found, so it is also known as black cotton soil.
- Due to its porous structure, there is less capacity to hold water in it.
- Due to exuberance of iron mineral in it, its colour is reddish-brown or red.
- Due to lack of nitrogen, phosphorus and humus, it requires irrigation again and again.
- Due to the high iron oxide content, almost all laterite soils are of rusty-red coloration.
- The formation of this type of soil is due to high temperature and fragmentation of rocks.
- These soils found in the Southern Ghats are very suitable for tea and cocoa plantation.
- Due to exuberance of alkaline substances, sandy soil is porous, dry and light, and is transferred by the winds.
- In the areas, where means of irrigation are available, sandy soil is very useful for farming.
- By developing the facilities of irrigation, several efforts are being made to make it suitable for farming.
- It is immature soil, so it contains large particles, pebbles and stones.
- There is very little quantity of humus and calcium in it, and it is acidic.
- The farming of potatoes and tea is done in this soil.
- Where the soil is less fertile in the slopes of mountains, meadows are found there.
- Among the soil problems, soil erosion is the major one. This problem arises due to the floods and wind storms.
- Soil erosion is divided into sheet erosion and gully erosion.
- In the region of Yamuna and Chambal rivers, ‘behads’ have formed due to gully erosion.
- The decreasing fertility capacity of soil is another major problem. This problem has resulted into decrease in agricultural production.
- Soil conservation refers to prevention of soil loss from erosion and infertility, caused by over-usage, acidification, salinization etc.
- The methods of soil conservation include aforestation, dam construction, contour plowing, terrace farming, contour ridging, salinity management etc.
- Other meaningful methods of soil conservation are crop cycling, use of green compost, vermi-compost etc.
Soil of India Notes Important Terms
→ Soil: The upper layer of earth in which plants grow; a black or dark-brown material typically consisting of a mixture of organic remains clay and rock particles.
→ Agriculture: The science or practice of farming including cultivation of the soil for the growing of crops and rearing of animals to provide food, wool and other products.
→ Humus: The organic component of soil formed by the decomposition of leaves, plants and fossils.
→ Climate: The weather conditions prevailing in an area in general or over a long time period.
→ Vegetation: Vegetation is an assemblage of plants species and the ground cover they provide.
→ Transported Soil: Soil which is transferred by natural forces like air, water, glacier, etc. to a new site, away from the site of origin is called transported soil.
→ Plateau: A land area having a relatively leveled surface, considerably raised above the adjoining land on at least one side, and often cut by deep canyons. Its height is normally 300 m above the sea level.
→ Glacier: A slowly-moving mass or river of ice formed by the accumulation and compaction of snow on mountains or near the poles.
→ Irrigation: Artificial supply of water to land or crops to help growth, typically by means of water channels.
→ Alluvial Soil: A fine-grained fertile soil deposited by water flowing over flood plains or in river beds.
→ Older Alluvial Soil: A form of alluvial soil which was formed by rivers in the past and there have been no new deposits over it for a long time.
→ Newer Alluvial Soil: The sediments, carried by the rivers every year, that make a new layer on the previous layers.
→ Newest Alluvium Soil: The top-most sedimentary layer of alluvium soil.
→ Bangar: The slightly-elevated terraced land of older alluvium is called bangar.
→ Delta: It is a landform that is created from the deposition of sediment carried by a river as its flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or standing water.
→ Desert: It is a landscape form or region that receives very little precipitation. There is no vegetation due to lack of water, but some types of bushes are seen here and there.
→ Valley: A valley is a low area between hills or mountains, often with a river running through it.
→ Rain: Precipitation in any form of moisture which falls on the earth. It includes rain, snowfall, hail and sleet and is measured by an instrument called rain-gauge.
→ Khadar: Areas prone to flooding and sometimes including portion of former river beds that became available for agriculture when a river changed its direction.
→ Erosion: It is a process that breaks surfaces or rocks down by different natural forces such as water, wind etc.
→ Weathering: It is the breaking down of rocks, soil, minerals and wood, as well as artificial materials, through contact with the earth’s atmosphere, water and other biological substances.
→ Terrace farming: A method of cultivation of crops on sides of hills by planting on graduated terraces but into the slopes.
→ Pasture: It is the land used for grazing and these are enclosed tracts of farmland.
→ Conservation: Conservation means careful management of environment, its natural resources and cultural heritage and cultural landscape to prevent their loss or destruction.
→ Soil conservation: It is the prevention of soil loss from erosion or reduced fertility caused by over-usage, acidification, salinisation or other chemical contaimination.
→ Bad Land or Rugged: Having a rough irregular surface and not suitable for agriculture as well as for other purposes.
→ Flood: A flood is an overflow of water that submerges that part of land which is usually dry.
→ Fertilizer: A substance that is used to fertilize the soil, especially commercial or chemical manure.