Go through these RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 8 Natural Vegetation of India contain important concepts so that students can score better marks in the exam.
Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 8 Natural Vegetation of India
→ The collective form of trees, plants, grass, shrubs, bushes etc. found in a particular region or physical unit is called vegetation.
→ The form of vegetation is controlled by the temperature, rainfall, soil, land, winds and the sun.
→ Due to the geographical variation of India, a variety of vegetation is found here.
Classification of Vegetation
- Indian vegetation is classified on geographical basis, administrative basis and on the basis of new classification.
- On Geographical classification basis, Indian vegetation has been classified into Evergreen forests, Autumn forests, Dry forests, Desert forests, Tidal forests and Mountain forests.
- Evergreen forests remain green round the year and the nature of these forests is intensive.
- The forests that shed their leaves during dry season are called Autumn Forests. They are also known as Monsoon Forests.
- Dry vegetation is found in the regions that receive 50 – 100 cm annual rainfall.
- Desert vegetation is found in the areas that have little annual rainfall. Thorny vegetation is mainly found there.
- Tidal forests are found at the mouth of peninsular rivers and in the deltas of Ganga-Brahmaputra.
- Mountain forests are found in the hilly areas of South India, Western Himalayas and hills of Assam.
- On the basis of administration, Indian forests have been classified into Protected, Conserved and Unclassified forests.
- Protected forests are very important, in which wood-cutting and grazing of animals is completely prohibited.
- In Conserved forests, the persons with government license can only cut woods.
- There is no prohibition on wood cutting or animals grazing in Unclassified forests.
- According to the new classification, forests are classified into State forests, Community forests and Individual forests.
- The state government has full control over State forests. Almost 95 per cent of Indian forests are included in this category.
- Local government, Nagar Nigam, Nagar Palika, etc. have full control over Community forests. 3 per cent of Indian forests are included in this category.
- The forests on which an individual has a right and control are called Individual forests. Such type of forests are only 2 per cent in India.
- Forests have an important place in the natural resources of India.
- Forests are extended over 22.02 per cent part of the Indian land area (according to 2015).
- The benefits that are provided by forests are divided into two parts-Direct benefits and Indirect benefits.
- The natural vegetation helps to maintain ecological balance.
Products of Forests
- The forest products are divided into two parts as main products and secondary products.
- The main product of forest is wood which is further classified into woods of Himalayan Region, woods of Monsoon Forests and woods of Dry Forests.
- Paper, fibreboard, oils tans and dyes, gums and resins etc. are included in secondary products obtained from the forests.
Forest Development in India
- Several efforts are being made in India to increase the forests per cent cover from 22% to 33%.
- The prohibition on wood-cutting, establishment of research centres, public awareness programmes and many other official and non-official programmes are being operated in the country for the development of forestry.
- Forest education and research programmes are being promoted according to Forest Policy in the country.
Natural Vegetation of India Notes Important Terms
→ Vegetation: Plants considered collectively, especially those found in a particular area or habitat.
→ Rain: The quantity of rainfall caused in a given area in a given time.
→ Soil: The upper layer of earth in which plants grow; a black or dark-brown material, typically consisting of mixture of organic remains, clay and rock particles.
→ Evergreen Forest: Due to high rainfall, this type of forest remains evergreen round the year.
→ Island: The area of land that is not connected to a continent and is surrounded by water from all sides.
→ Transport: Transport is the movement of humans, animals and goods from one place to another place.
→ Autumn Forests: The forest that loses its leaves during the dry season or at the time of season change.
→ Dry forest: Forests found in low rainfall (50-100 cm) areas are called dry forests.
→ Desert forest: Areas of extremely less rainfall (less than 50 cm), where thorny vegetation is found.
→ Fossils: The remains or impression of pre-historic plants or animals embedded in rock and preserved in petrified form.
→ Erosion: Erosion is an action of surface processes such as water flow or wind that removes soil, rock or dissolved material from a location on the earth’s crust.
→ Alpine Forests: The forests in mountain region, that are found at greater height (3500 m) are called alpine forests.
→ Tidal forests: The forests that grow in delta regions of Ganga, Godavari, Mahanadi, Krishna and Kaveri.
→ Peninsula: A piece of land almost surrounded by water or projecting out into a body of water.
→ Delta: Delta is an area of low, flat land, shaped like a triangle, where a river splits and spreads out into several branches before entering the sea.
→ Tide: The alternate rising and falling of the seawater, usually in each lunar day at a particular place, due to the attraction of the moon and the sun.
→ Unclassified forests: The forests where there is no restriction on wood-cutting and grazing of animals.
→ Grazing: It is a method of feeding in which a herbivore feeds on plants such as grasses or other multicellular organisms such as algae.
→ State Forests: The forests on which the state government has full control.
→ Community forests: The forests which are looked after and controlled by the local government like-Nagar Nigam, Nagar Palika etc.
→ Individual forests: The forests on which an individual or a person has full right to use and control.
→ Resources: Resource is any physical material constituting the part of earth that
people need and value.
→ Arable land: Land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops.
→ Social Forestry: Social forestry means the management and protection of forests and afforestation on barren lands with a purpose of promoting environmental, social and rural development.
→ Gulf or Bay: A large area of a sea or ocean partially enclosed by land, especially a long landlocked portion of sea opening through a strait.
→ Industry: Economic activity concerned with the processing of raw-materials and manufacture of goods in factories.
→ Occupation: A person’s usual or principal work or business, especially as a means of earning a living.
→ Coal: A combustible black or dark-brown rock consisting chiefly of carbonized plant matter, found mainly in underground seams and used as fuel.
→ Climate: The weather conditions prevailing in an area in general or over a long period.
→ Flood: An overflow of a large amount of water beyond its normal limits, especially over what is normally dry land.
→ Conservation: Prevention of decay, waste or loss of natural resources.
→ Atmosphere: A layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or satellite.
→ Research: The systematic investigation into and the study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.
→ Pollution: The presence or introduction of a substance which has harmful or poisonous effects on the environment.
→ Noise Pollution: High-intensity sound or pollution caused by unwanted noise, by which the condition of unrest and uneasiness occurs in humans.
→ Greenhouse effect: Atmospheric insolation effect which helps in controlling the temperature of the earth.