RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 2 Unity in Diversity of India

Go through these RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 2 Unity in Diversity of India contain important concepts so that students can score better marks in the exam.

Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 2 Unity in Diversity of India

→ India has a unique position in the world with the point of view of its natural location and rich culture.

→ Many types of diversities are found in India, but there is a special type of unity among these diversities, which is seen throughout the country.

→ The feeling of self-respect and kinship among the Indians is a special characteristic of Indian culture and civilization which shows unity in diversity of India.


  • The diversity found in Indian society provides a multi-dimensional form to its culture and civilization and unity to the Indian society.
  • The diversity found in India is divided into three types-natural diversity, economic diversity and demographic diversity.

Natural Diversity

  • Topographical diversity, structural diversity, drainage-related diversity, climatic diversity, water supply based diversity, soil based diversity and vegetative diversity are included in the natural diversity.
  • Mountains, plateaus, plains, valleys, deserts and islands, are included in topographical diversity.
  • Variations of the most ancient and newest land masses on the basis of the period of their formation are included in structural diversity.
  • The flow of rivers, their velocity of flow, saline and fresh water found in lakes show the drainage flow related diversity.
  • The seasons like summer, winter, rain and spring found in India show the form of the diversity of temperature, air pressure and climate.
  • Due to uncertainty and irregularity of rainfall in India, there is diversity of availability of water also seen in India.
  • Continuity of floods, droughts and famines in India is due to uncertainty and irregularity of rainfall.
  • Many types of soils like alluvial, black, red, yellow-brown, sand gravel soil, laterite soil, arid and desert soil, saline and alkaline soil, peaty and marshy soil show the diversity in soils of India.
  • Evergreen forests, deciduous forests, thorny shrub forests and grasslands show the diversity related to vegetation in India.

RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 2 Unity in Diversity of India

Economic Diversity

  • Under economic diversity, agriculture, modes of irrigation, energy resources, distribution of minerals, types of industries, modes of transportation and communication, etc. are included.
  • There is diversity in agriculture, such as shifting cultivation, plantation farming, commercial, intensive, subsistence and mixed farming.
  • Diversity in means of irrigation is seen in the form of wells, tube wells, ponds, canals, etc.
  • Availability of coal and its types, hydro-electricity, petroleum, mineral oil, natural gas, atomic energy, solar energy and other sources of energy show the diversity power-resources.
  • Types of minerals, metallic and non-metallic, renewable sources, and optional means of energy sources, small and large scale industries, cottage industries etc. show the industrial diversity of India.
  • Diversity in the modes of transportation and communication is seen in the form of different types of transport-like rikshaw, tonga, car, truck, bus, railways, aircraft and in various means of communication such as telephone, radio, mobile phone, television, fax, internet, etc.

Demographic Diversities

  • Demographic diversity is seen in different Indian states, their religions, languages, festivals, dance-music, dressing, customs and traditions, etc.
  • Diversity in sex-ratio, age group, education standard are also the factors of demographic diversity.

Unity in Diversity

  • Inspite of significant forms of diversity in the culture and civilization, of the Indian society, a unique form of unity is visible everywhere.
  • A united national entity, feeling of patriotism at the time of war and in the period of emergency, joint celebration of different festivals, positive competitive feelings, show unity in the Indian society.

Unity in Diversity of India Notes Important Terms

→ Climate: The composite or generally prevailing weather conditions of a region such as temperature, air pressure, humidity, precipitation, sunshine, cloudiness and winds, throughout the.year.

→ Vegetation: Vegetation is the sum total of plant species and the ground cover they provide. Plants, flora, algae, grass, shrubs, trees and cellular plants are included in vegetation.

→ Soil: The loose top layer of the Earth’s surface consisting of rock and mineral particles mixed with decayed organic matter (humus), which is capable of retaining water and providing nutrients to the plants.

→ Agriculture: The science or practice of farming, including the cultivation of the soil for the growing of crops and rearing of animals to obtain food, wool and other products.

→ Industry: Economic activity concerned with the processing of raw materials and processing of food in the factories.

→ Language: The method of communication of human, either verbal or written, consisting of the use of words in a structured and conventional way.

→ Mountain: A large natural elevation of the earth’s surface rising abruptly from the surrounding level; a large steep hill.

→ Plateau: A plateau is a flat, elevated landform that rises sharply above the
surrounding area on at least one side. The height of a plateau is maximum 300m above the sea level.

→ Plain: A plain is a flat, sweeping landmass that generally does not change much in elevation. The height of a plain land is maximum 150m above the sea level.

→ Valley: A valley is a low area between hills or mountains, often with a river running through it. Valleys are one of the most common landforms on the surface of the earth.

→ Desert: A desert is a landscape form or region that receives very little precipitation. Due to lack of water, there is very few vegetation and there is low rate of rainfall.

→ Society: A high-structured system of human organisation for large-scale community living, that normally furnishes protection, identity, security and notional identity to its members.

→ Natural Diversity: Topographical, vegetational, climatic, structural, soil-based and water drainage based diversities found on the earth’s surface.

RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 2 Unity in Diversity of India

→ Topographical Diversity: Relief-related diversities found on the earth’s surface.

→ Structural Diversity: The diversity found in the rocks, mountains, their time period of formation etc.

→ Delta: A delta is a landform that is made from deposition of sediment carried by a river as it flows, leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water.

→ Drainage: Drainage is the process in which the water reaches downwards from the upper soil layer to lower layer, or the system by which surface water is removed.

→ Climatic Diversity: The long-term and short-term variation in the temperature, rainfall, air pressure, wind flow, found in a country.

→ Season: Season is the main period into which a year can be divided (Summer, Winter, Autumn and Spring) and each of which has its own typical weather conditions.

→ Air pressure: Air pressure is the force exerted out from a surface by the weight of the air.

→ Weather: The condition of the atmosphere at a particular place and time as regards to heat, cloudiness, dryness, sunshine, wind, rain etc.

→ Drought: A prolonged period of abnormally low rainfall, leading to shortage of water.

→ Flood: Overflow of a large amount of water beyond its normal limits, especially over a
normally dry land.

→ Evergreen forests: A forest in which there is no complete seasonal loss of leaves (i.e. trees shed old leaves and produce new ones partially and sometimes throughout the year rather than during a particular time period).

→ Autumn Forests: The forests that shed their old leaves to maintain the water level inside them in autumn season are called autumn forests.

→ Shifting Agriculture: A form of agriculture practiced especially in tropical areas in which an area of ground is cleared of vegetation and cultivated for a few years and then abandoned for a new area until its fertility has been naturally restored.

→ Plantation Agriculture: Plantation agriculture is a form of commercial farming in which crops are grown for profit. Under this type of farming, saplings are planted once and the crop is obtained for many years.

→ Mixed Farming: It is a system of agriculture in which a farmer conducts different agricultural practices together, such as growing cash crops and rearing livestock.

→ Commercial Agriculture: Commercial agriculture is a large-scale production of crops for sale, intended for widespread distribution to wholesalers or retail outlets.

→ Irrigation: Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at regular intervals.

→ Mineral oil: Mineral oil is light hydrocarbon which is a product of petroleum and is used as a lubricant.

→ Mineral: A naturally occurring inorganic substance with a definite chemical composition and a regular internal structure.

→ Communication: The imparting or exchange of information by speaking, writing or using some other medium. Television is an effective mode of communication.

→ Internet: A global computer network providing a wide variety of information and communication facilities, consisting of an interconnected network using standardized communication protocol.

→ Race: Any one of the groups that human beings can be divided into, based on shared distinctive physical traits or a group of individuals who share a common culture or history.

→ Caste: Caste is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, hereditary transmission of lifestyle, which often includes an occupational status in a hierarchy and customary social interaction and exclusion.

→ Tribes: A social division in a traditional society consisting of families or communities linked by social, economic, religious or blood ties, with a common culture and dialect, typically having a recognised leader.

→ Centrifugal force: The component of force acting on a body in curvilinear motion that is directed towards the centre of curvature or axis of rotation.

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