RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 12 Rajasthan: Introduction, Physical Features and Drainage System

Go through these RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 12 Rajasthan: Introduction, Physical Features and Drainage System contain important concepts so that students can score better marks in the exam.

Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 12 Rajasthan: Introduction, Physical Features and Drainage System

→ Rajasthan has an important place in Indian history.

→ Rajasthan has been a centre of world’s ancient civilizations.

→ In Rajasthan, the remnants of ancient civilization are found in Tilwara, Ahad, Gilunda, Kalibanga and Ganeshwar Tila.

→ Rajasthan is a land of braves and martyrs.

Regional Names on Geographical Basis in Rajasthan

  • Different regions in Rajasthan were known by different names, i.e. Ganganagar and its neighboring area was known as f‘Yauddheya.” The neighboring area of Nagaur was famous as “Ahichchatrapur,” Jalore and its nearby area was called as “SwarnaGiri” and Abu and its neighboring area was called as Chandravati.
  • Other famous regions in Rajasthan were Shiva, Vagar, Kuru, Shoorsen, Hadoti, Virat, Jangal, Shakambhari and Dhundhar etc.
  • Due to exuberance of estates and chiefships of Rajput emperors, the British called Rajasthan as “Rajputana.”
  • Before independence, there were 19 estates and 3 chiefships in Rajasthan.
  • Ajmer-Merwara was a union territory.

Unification of Rajasthan

  • The unification of Rajasthan was completed in 7 phases which was initiated from 17th March, 1948 to 1st November, 1956.
  • In the first phase, Matsya Sangh, in the second phase, Rajasthan Sangh, in the third phase, Joint Rajasthan Union, in the fourth phase, Greater Rajasthan Union, in the fifth phase, Joint Greater Rajasthan, in the sixth phase, older Rajasthan (second-grade state), and in the last and seventh phase, Rajasthan (A grade state) was formed.

RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 12 Rajasthan: Introduction, Physical Features and Drainage System

Administrative Structure of Rajasthan

  • At present, state of Rajasthan has been divided into seven divisions and 33 districts.
  • There are 9 Sub-Districts, 314 Tehsils, 295 Panchayat Associations, 222 Nagar Palikas and 990 Village Panchayats in Rajasthan.

Location and Extension

  • Rajasthan is located in the North -Western part of India and is situated between 23° 3′ to 30° 12′ Northern latitude and 69° 30′ to 78° 17′ Eastern longitude.
  • The Tropic of Cancer passes through Banswara situated at the southern extreme of Rajasthan.
  • Total length of Rajasthan from North to South is 826 km and width from East to West is 869 km.
  • The total surface area of Rajasthan is 3,42,239 square km, which is 10.43 per cent of the total area of India.
  • With the point of view of area, it is equal to Germany, larger than Japan, 5 times greater than Sri Lanka and more than 17 times larger than Israel.

Border and Shape

  • The determination of borders of Rajasthan is made by Punjab in the North, Haryana in the North-East, Uttar Pradesh in the East, Madhya Pradesh in the South-East, Gujarat in the South-West and by Pakistan in the west through a 1070 km long international boundary line.
  • The border line between Rajasthan and Pakistan is known as Radcliffe Line.
  • Rajasthan is kite-shaped (trapezoid).

Physical Form of Rajasthan

  • With physical viewpoint, Rajasthan has been divided into four parts western deserted area, Aravalli hills area, eastern plains area and south-eastern plateau area.
  • Western deserted region has been divided into dry area with excess sand, Luni basin, the plains of internal drainage, and the plains of river Ghaggar.
  • The Aravalli is the the oldest mountain range of the world. It is extended in 9.3 per cent part of Rajasthan. It’s length in Rajasthan is 550 km.
  • Aravalli mountain range has been divided into three parts – Northern Aravalli, Central Aravalli and Southern Aravalli.
  • The heighest peak of Aravalli in Rajasthan is Guru Shikhar, which is 1722 meters high, while its average height is 930 meters.
  • The Eastern plain is spread on 23.9 per cent part of Rajasthan and is situated between Aravalli mountain range and Hadoti plateau.
  • The Eastern plains region has been divided into Banas-Banganga Basin and Central Mahi-Chappan Basin.
  • The South-eastern plateau is extended in 9 per cent of total area of Rajasthan. It has been divided into Vindhyan border land region area and the Lava plateau of Deccan.

RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 12 Rajasthan: Introduction, Physical Features and Drainage System

Drainage System

  • The drainage system in Rajasthan is controlled and operated by Aravalli Mountain range. It is also known as the water divider line of Rajasthan.
  • The drainage system of Rajasthan has been divided into the drainage system of Bay of Bengal, drainage system of Arabian Sea and internal drainage system.
  • The Rivers Chambal, Banas, Banganga, Parvati and Kali Sindh are included in the drainage system of Bay of Bengal.
  • The Rivers Luni, Mahi and Sabarmati are included in the drainage system of Arabian Sea.
  • The Rivers Kantali, Sabi, Kankani and Ghagghar are included in the internal drainage system.


  • The lakes in Rajasthan have been divided into freshwater lakes and saline water lakes.
  • Sambhar, Didwana, Pachpadra, Lunkaransar and Kuchaman are the lakes of saline water.
  • Jaisamand, Rajsamand, Pushkar, Siliserh, Ramgarh, Kolayat, Nakki and Kaylana are the lakes of fresh water.

Rajasthan: Introduction, Physical Features and Drainage SystemNotes Important Terms

→ Drainage system: The pattern formed by the streams, rivers and lakes in a particular drainage basin.

→ Basin: A basin is a depression or dip in the earth’s surface.

→ Hadoti: Joint name of Kota, Bundi, Baran and Jhalawar regions.

→ Dhundhar or Dhundhad: The Joint name of of Jaipur, Tonk and Dausa regions.

→ Matsya Sangh: A group formed by joining the estates of Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur and Karauli.

→ Latitude and Longitude: These are the angles that uniquely define the points on a sphere.

→ Latitude: It is a measurement on the globe or map of location north or south of the Equator.

→ Tropic of Cancer: The Tropic of Cancer is the circle marking the latitude 23°32′ northern latitude. This is the final border of the vertical position of sun in the northern hemisphere, beyond which the sunrays never fall vertically in its north.

→ Tropic of Capricorn: The Tropic of Capricorn is one of the major circles of latitude of a map of the Earth. It is 23°30′ south of the Equator.

→ Ocean: The vast body of saltwater that covers almost three-fourth of the earth’s

→ Lake: A lake is an area filled with water localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, a part from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain.

→ Watershed or water divider: A high land area which divides the drainage of two river basins.

→ Denudation: A combined process of weathering and erosion.

→ Drainage: A drainage system is the pattern formed by the streams, rivers and lakes in a particular drainage system.

→ Plateau: A plateau is a flat, elevated landform that rises sharply above the surrounding area on at least one side.

→ Desert: A desert is a landscape form or region that receives very little precipitation and has a very little coverage of plants or vegetation.

→ Alluvial: Alluvial soil is typically made up of a variety of materials including fine particles of silt and clay and larger particles of sand and gravel. Alluvial is mainly a region of alluvial soil.

→ Inland Drainage: Inland drainage is that drainage in which rivers do not reach the ocean or sea but empty their waters in a lake or in desert area.

→ Irrigation: Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at required intervals. Irrigation helps to grow agricultural crops, maintain landscapes and re-distribute water in dry areas and provides water during periods of less than average rainfall.

→ Sand Dune: A sand dune is a mound, hill or ridge of sand that lies behind the part of the beach affected by tides.

→ Barkhan: Barkhan is an exclusive type of singular crescent-shaped dune formed in deserts or on sandy sea coasts.

→ Isohyet: A line on a map joining the places having same amount of rainfall in a given period.

→ Rann: The Great Rann of Kutch is a salty marsh located in the Thar Desert in the Kutch district of Gujarat.

RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 12 Rajasthan: Introduction, Physical Features and Drainage System

→ Intensive farming: Intensive farming is a kind of agriculture in which a lot of capital and labour is used to increase the yield that can be obtained per hectare area of land. It is also called Intensive Agriculture.

→ Relief: The difference between the highest and the lowest elevation in an area.

→ Bangar: Bangar is the slightly elevated, terreced land of older alluvium.

→ Khadar: Khadar Plains are those that are low-lying next to a river. Khadar areas are prone to flooding and sometimes include portions of former river beds that became available for agriculture when a river changes its course.

→ Walra Agriculture: The local name of Jhooming or Shifting cultivation practiced in the districts of Dungarpur and Banswara in Southern Rajasthan.

→ Escarpment or Scarp: An escarpment is a steep slope or long cliff that forms as an effect of faulting or erosion and separates two relatively-leveled areas having differing elevations.

→ Canal: A canal is a long man-made strip of water used for irrigation or boat access to a bigger body of water.

→ Gulf or Bay: A gulf is a portion of the ocean that penetrates the land. Gulfs vary greatly in size, shape and depth.

→ Sea: A sea is a large body of saltwater that is surrounded in whole or in part by land.

→ Dbm or Embankment: A barrier formed to hold back water and raise its level forming a reserve or used to generate electricity or for water supply.

→ Flood: An overflow of a large amount of water beyond its normal limits, especially over what is normally dry land.

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