RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 1 India: Location, Extent & Situation

Go through these RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 1 India: Location, Extent & Situation contain important concepts so that students can score better marks in the exam.

Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 1 India: Location, Extent & Situation

Nomination of India

  • The name of our country got its name ‘Bharat’ on the basis of the branch named ‘Bharat’ of the Aryans or on the basis of the name of a great king named ‘Bharat’. Due to it being the land of the Aryans, it was also called Aryavrata.
  • The Persians called the coastal residents of Indus River as Hindu and its territory as Hindustan.
  • The ancient Romans called the river Sindhu as ‘Indus’, and the Greeks called it ‘Indos’. So on this basis, our country got its name India.

History of Indian Culture

  • The civilization and culture emerged in India in a very ancient age. It is India, which spread the light of its culture and knowledge all around in the world.
  • In the ancient period, India was a great, prosperous and well-cultured country.
  • The most important characteristic of India is “Unity in Diversity”.
  • In the medieval period, due to foreign invasions, robbery and subjugation, various obstacles came in its progress, development and reputation.
  • After a long time of slavery, with the help of awareness among the Indians and the invincible weapons of truth and non-violence founded by Mahatma Gandhi, India got freedom from foreign invasion.
  • The past of India was golden. It was known as the Golden Bird. It’s present is in transition, but we can form a glorious and well-cultured society on the basis of hard labour and our ideal of unity.
  • The geographical structure of India can play an important role in the all-round development of India.

Location and Situation of India

  • India is located in the north of the equator between 8°4′ to 37.6′ northern latitude and 68°7′ to 97°25′ eastern longitude.
  • Tropic of Cancer (23\(\frac{1}{2}\)° northern latitude) divides India into two parts.
  • The northern boundary of India starts from the Great Himalayan mountain system and extends up to Kanyakumari in the South.
  • Its size appears to be like a kite.

RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 1 India: Location, Extent & Situation

Boundary and Extent of India

  • The Indian border shows both the forms-terrestrial as well as oceanic. Its northern boundary is terrestrial, while the southern border reflects the oceanic boundary.
  • The length of India is 3, 214 km from north to south and the width is 2933 km from east to west.
  • The terrestrial border is almost 15,200 km and the coastal border is almost 6100 km long.
  • The longitudinal expansion of India extends from Arunachal Pradesh in the east up to Dwarka in the west.
  • 82\(\frac{1}{2}\)° eastern longitudinal line is considered as the Standard Time Line of India.
  • The total area of India is 32,87,263 (32.88 lakh) sq. km. It is the seventh largest nation in the world in terms of area.

Coastal Area of India

  • The coastal part of India is known as the Eastern Coast and Western Coast respectively.
  • The extent of eastern coast is from the mouth of the Ganga river to Cape Comorin whose Northern part is known as the Northern circar Coast from the delta of Ganga river to the delta of Krishna river) and the Southern part is known as the Coromandel Coast (from Krishna river delta to Cape Comorin).
  • The ports like Kolkata, Visakhapatnam, Paradeep, Chennai, Tutikorin and Nagapattam are situated on the eastern coast.
  • The Western coastal part extends from the Gulf of Khambhat to Cape Comorin, in which Saurashtra Coast (from Kutch to Surat), Konkan coast (from Surat to Goa) and Malabar Coast (from Goa to Cape Comorin) are present.
  • The major ports on the western coast include Mumbai, Mangalore, Kozhikode, Thiruvananthuram, etc.

Neighboring Nations and their Boundaries

  • The southern border of India is completely natural which is determined by the Bay of Bengal, Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea.
  • The western border of India is marked by India-Pakistan border (Radcliffe Line), Northern border of India-China (McMahon Line) and India-Afghanistan border (Durand Line). The countries like Nepal and Bhutan are also situated in the Himalayan region in the North.
  • Eastern border joins to Myanmar (Burma), also the borders of four Indian states (Mizoram, Tripura, Meghalaya and West Bengal) join Bangladesh.
  • Pakistan is situated on the north-western and western border of India.

Location of India

A. Sub-contirlental Location

  • The Indian sub-continent is the largest peninsula of the Asian continent.
  • It has been called a sub-continent due to its specific natural, economic and demographic characteristics.
  • In spite of many diversities, Indian sub continent is a specific geographical unit bounded by natural and cultural fragments.
  • The past of India was glorious, present is honourable and the future will be well-developed and glorious.
  • Due to its location, it occupies an important place from the perspecitve of business, commerce and communication.
  • The Indian oceanic situation, airways location, two tropical zones situation tropical and location of the Himalayan mountains make India a distinct nation of the Indian Ocean.

RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 1 India: Location, Extent & Situation

Location of India in regard to Neighbouring Countries

  • In this context, to provide India a massive form, apart from the role of Indian Ocean waterways, the role of the rivers and valleys of the Himalayas has been important.
  • Besides the water routes of the great Indian Ocean, the passes and the valleys of Himalayas also play their special role in making India comprehensive.

In Reference to the World

  • In the Eastern hemisphere, India has a central location which is very important. Due to international central location, it has become a confluence of sea routes and air routes. Therefore, has been substantial development of commercial, business and communication facilities.

Location-Induced Advantages to India

Due to its geographical position, history of India has been is glourious. India is a confluence centre of many international water routes like Suez Canal route, Cape of Good Hope route, Atlantic, Pacific Ocean route and the Mediterranean oceanic route. India is enjoying several benefits of development of export and import, due to air routes due to the means of communication, public relations have increased rapidly, volume of agriculture has increased, the ports and port cities are busy throughout the year, the market of under-developed neighbouring countries, like Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Africa is also available. The Indian Ocean located in the south provides it a sub-continent status.

RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Notes Chapter 1 India: Location, Extent & Situation

India: Location, Extent & Situation Notes Important Terms

→ Civilization: Civilization is a physical form of culture which is an indicator of economic prosperity.

→ Culture: Culture refers to people encompassing language, religion, social habits, music and arts.

→ Location: The terms ‘location’ and ‘place’ in geography are used to identify a point or an area on the Earth’s surface or elsewhere. The term ‘location’ generally implies a higher degree of certainty.

→ Latitude: The angular distance of a place north or south of the earth’s equator, or of the equator of a celestial object, usually expressed in degrees and minutes.

→ Longitude: The angular distance of a place which is in the east or west of the Greenwich Meridian or west of the Standard Meridian of a celestial object, usually expressed in degree and minutes.

→ Tropic of Cancer: The parallel of latitude that is approximately 23\(\frac{1}{2}\)° degree north of the equator which passes through the centre of India.

→ Zone: Area between latitudes.

→ Temperate zone: Temperate zone is the area located in between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn and the polar regions. The temperature in these regions is generally relatively moderate, rather than being extermely hot or cold, and the changes between summer and winter are also usually moderate.

→ Torrid Zone: The part of the earth’s surface between the Tropic of Cancer 23\(\frac{1}{2}\)° northern latitude and the Tropic of Capricorn 23\(\frac{1}{2}\)° southern latitude, characterized by a hot climate.

→ Equator: The imaginary great circle around the earth’s surface, equidistant from the poles and perpendicular to the earth’s axis of rotation.

→ Strait: A strait is a naturally-formed narrow, typically navigable waterway, comecting two broad oceans.

→ Standard Time: Standard time is the synchronisation of clocks within a geographical area or region to a single time standard, rather than using solar time or a locally-chosen meridian to establish a local mean time standard.

→ Island: Island is an area of land that is not connected to a continent and is surrounded by water.

→ Gulf or Bay: A large area of a sea or ocean partially enclosed by land, especially a long land-locked portion of sea opening through a strait.

→ Lake: An expanse of water entirely surrounded by land and unconnected to the sea, except by rivers or streams.

→ Delta: A delta is a landform that forms from the deposition of sediment carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or standing water.

→ Port: A port is a docking place for ships on the coast of an ocean, a river or a lake.

→ Swamp: An area of low-lying land that is frequently flooded, especially one dominated by woody plants.

→ Sea: Seas are smaller than oceans and are usually located where the land and ocean meet.

→ Ocean: The vast body of saline water that covers almost three-fourth of the earth’s surface.

→ Pass or Gap: A gap or break in a highly rugged terrain, such as a mountain ridge.

→ Valley: A valley is a low land area between hills or mountains, often with a river running through it.

→ Transport: The action or practice to carry people or goods by various modes from one place to another.

→ Sub-continent: A large distinguishable part of a continent, such as North America or South Africa.

→ Peninsula: A piece of land almost surrounded by water from three sides or projecting out into a body of water.

→ Continent: A continent is a very large area of land, rising up above the sea level. Shifting Agriculture: A form of agriculture, practiced especially in tropical areas, in which an area of ground is cleared of vegetation and cultivated for a few years and then abandoned for a new area until its fertility has been naturally restored.

→ Mechanical Agriculture: A modern agricultural method in which the machines and modern technology are used the most.

→ Indo-China: This word is used for combined land area of four countries in south-east Asia.

→ Hemisphere: One of the two equal parts of a globe or earth.

→ Import: Goods or services brought into one country from another.

→ Export: Goods and services produced in one country and purchased by citizens of another country.

→ Trade: The act or process of buying, selling or exchanging commodities in either wholesale or retail within a country or among countries.

→ Communication: The imparting or exchanging of information by speaking, writing or using some other medium.

→ Confluence: The place where two rivers, especially rivers of approximately equal width are found.

→ Monsoon: A seasonal prevailing wind in the region of south and south-east Asia, blowing from the Indian Ocean and bringing rain (the wet monsoon).

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