Go through these RBSE Class 11 Geography Notes Chapter 23 Ecosystem of the River Ganga contain important concepts so that students can score better marks in the exam.
Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 Geography Notes Chapter 23 Ecosystem of the River Ganga
→ The ecosystem is a landscape of special Biotic and Abiotic identity.
→ Ecosystems can be divided into terrestrial and aquatic systems.
→ The Biotic and Abiotic components of each ecosystem have a deep mutual inter-relationship.
→ Through water conservation, human beings receive Biotic and Abiotic resources.
→ Water is polluted by the mixing of chemical fertilizers, industrial waste, and domestic waste of growing population, animal waste pollution and residual water from washeries.
- In India, the Ganga is a holy river, which is 2071 km. long.
- The total drainage area of Ganga river is 9.51 lakh square km. out of which 8.61 lakh square km. area is in India.
- 45% of the population of the country resides in the Ganga river basin.
- A total of 2073 towns have setteled under Ganga river basin.
- Aquatic ecosystem can be divided into stable and flowing and saline and fresh or soft water.
- All civilizations of the world have been born in the freshwater river valleys. That is why they are considered to be the cradle of human civilization.
Ganga River Ecosystem
- Centuries, ago, the Aryans settled in the Ganga river basin. This river originates in the form of Bhagirathi and Alaknanda.
- Ganga river originates from Gangotri glacier. This river first reaches the plains in Haridwar, flowing through Rishikesh.
- Bio-diversity and cultural-spiritual aspects are very important in context to the Ganga river.
- The area around Shivpuri has abundant aquatic bio-diversity. This place is called Ramsar.
- The area from Bithoor to Kanpur pollutes the river Ganga the most.
- River meander, Khadar and Bangar, Doab and Terai regions have their own distinctive geographical characteristics.
- Eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bihar states are included in the Mid-Gangetic plains.
- Ghaghra, Gandak, Kosi and Son rivers flow in the central Gangetic plain. In this part of the Ganges, dolphins (souns) have been declared as national aquatic creatures, they are also called tigers of freshwater.
- After every 12 years the Mahakumbh fair is held at Prayag as festival. The confluence of rivers Ganga, Yamuna and Saraswati in Allahabad.
- The researchers of Harvard University have declared the arrangements (Souns) of Mahakumbh to be an extraordinary example of management.
- The area from Kishanganj up till entire West Bengal and Bangladesh is included in the lower plains of the Ganges.
- The forests found in Swampy areas found in this plain area are called Sundarbans.
- This area is one of the leading areas of the world from the point of view of bio-diversity, there is a variety of mangrove type vegetation found.
- The lower plain of the Ganga is known for its production of rice and the highest production of the jute in the world. This area is famous due to the diet of rice and fish.
Dam & Bridge on Ganga River
- The Farakka Barrage has been constructed on the River Ganges, which is 2240 meters long.
- The Tihri dam is built on river Bhagirathi. This dam is 261 meters high.
- The Bhimgoda dam has been built near Haridwar on the river Ganga.
Pollution in Ganga River
- A large number of people populated the Ganga basin because of the settlement of 2500 – 3000 cities on both banks of river Ganga.
- Pollution of river Ganga has increased due to animal waste, waste products from chemical, leather, fertilizer and other industries and sewage waste from the cities.
- Near Haridwar, Allahabad, Varanasi and Patna, the amount of polluted substances is found to be high in Ganga river water.
- Kannauj, Kanpur, Allahabad and Varanasi have the highest amount of toxic micro-organism called coliform, due to which Ganga has become most polluted.
Protection & Solution
- Ganga Action Plan I and II have been arranged for Ganga river pollution controlling treatment and cleaning of river water and waste water purification plants.
- In order to preserve the Ganga, it is necessary for the society to be aware and co-operative.
- The responsibility of sanitation of river Ganga is that of the government, and it is even more of the people of the society and the people living in the Ganges Flow area.
- Not only the river but also human, flora, fauna, environment and greater ecosystem can be kept well-organised by the protection of river Ganga.
Ecosystem of the River Ganga Notes Important Terms
→ Ecological System or Ecosystem: The system generated from the mutual interaction of all living and non-living factors in their environment and their integration.
→ Bog or Quagmire: The soft, humid and spongy land which is wet due to waterlogging in the absence of runoff, and in which, mainly rotten and wasted moss, algae and other vegetative substances are found.
→ Delta: Triangular or fan-shaped lower-land made of abundant alluvial deposits on the river estuary.
→ Basin: A broad subsidence on the surface of the Earth that is formed by the tilt or denudation of the geological structure.
→ Confluence: The place where two or more rivers meet.
→ Bio-diversity: The number of organisms found in a given geographic area and their species variation is called bio-diversity.
→ Ox-bow: Rivers in the flood plains are often flowing through meander paths. Due to deposit of debris at the entrance of the meander, the aquatic part of the meander is separated from the main river and takes the form of a lake. Such a lake is called Ox-bow lake.
→ Ramsar land: The highly humid and swampy areas which have great bio-diversity are termed as Ramsar land.
→ River meander: Curving or spiral path of the river in the flood plain.In the plains, the river produces a wide flood plain by horizontal erosion.
→ Khadar: The lower land on the bank of the river, where water flow of the river deposits new alluvium soil every year.
→ Bangar: A high altitude alluvial plain built by the river, where floodwater of the river does not reach. Old alluvial soil is found here.
→ Doab: The area spread between two flowing rivers which is characterised by accumulation of alluvial soil.
→ Terai: In northern India, especially on the northern border of Uttar Pradesh and other states, a narrow stretch of land is situated between pebble stone region in the north and the main plain in the south, whose land is more humid and boggy.
→ Dam or Embankment: A wide and high wall made of soil, cement, concrete, built on the river’s waterway to prevent flow of water or to change the direction of flow or to control the flow.
→ Soil erosion: Removal and transportation of soil taking place at a place due to the agents of erosion, which can be mechanical or chemical.
→ Deforestation: The action of making a forest deprived of trees by cutting and burning of trees. For other uses of land, like agriculture, industries and urbanisation, land is often acquired through deforestation.
→ Society: A large group of individuals who are correlated in geographic, functional, cultural or other forms.