Go through these RBSE Class 11 Geography Notes Chapter 22 Concept of Ecosystem contain important concepts so that students can score better marks in the exam.
Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 Geography Notes Chapter 22 Concept of Ecosystem
→ The concept of ecosystem is very ancient in terms of our culture.
→ Due to the human quest of conquering nature, the concept of ecology emerged from the creation of distortion in the inter-relationship between nature and organisms.
→ The term ecology was first used by Hakal for botanical spheres in 1989.
→ The word Ecology was coined by Haikal by joining the Greek language word Oikos, i.e., habitation, and Logos, i.e., study.
→ The term ecosystem was first used by A.G. Tansley in 1935.
→ According to Tansley, the mechanism in which the biological and abiotic agents of the environment are inter-related, is called the ecosystem.
→ Ecosystem is such a science, which studies the inter-relation between the environment and the organisms, and the living conditions of organisms and the environment in which they reside.
Concept of Ecosystem
- According to Tansley, the mechanism in which all biotic and abiotic agents of the environment are inter-related, is called ecosystem.
- An ecosystem is the basic unit of ecological study.
- An ecosystem can be natural or man-made also.
Types of Ecosystem
- Ecosystems can be classified on the basis of source of energy, on the basis of habitat, on the basis of usage and on the basis of development.
- On the basis of the source of energy, ecosystem has been divided into natural ecosystem and man-made or artificial ecosystem.
- On the basis of habitat, ecosystem has been divided into terrestrial ecosystem and aquatic ecosystem.
- On the basis of usage, ecosystem has been divided into agricultural ecosystem and uncultivated ecosystem,
- On the basis of development, the ecosystem has been divided into mature ecosystem, incomplete ecosystem, mixed ecosystem and unactive ecosystem.
Structure of Ecosystem
- The ecosystem is composed of the mutual interaction of the biotic and the abiotic components of the environment.
- All the living organisms of an ecosystem are called the biotic components of that system; All these creatures are connected with one another through different interactions.
- Biotic components have been divided on the basis of their nutritional capacity and functionalities.
- On the basis of Tropic potential, biotic components have been divided into autotrophic and heterogeneous components.
- On the basis of functionality, biotic components have been divided into producer, consumer and decomposer.
- Consumers are again divided into Herbivores or primary consumers, Carnivores or secondary consumers and Omnivores or tertiary consumers.
- There are three types of abiotic components-climatic elements, organic substances and inorganic substances.
- An ordered series of organisms through which food, energy and nutrients are transferred is called Food Chain.
- Each level or link in the food chain is called Tropic Level.
- Food web is formed when various food chains inter-related with each other.
- The more complex the food web, the more sustainable is the ecosystem.
- The pyramid shaped structure formed by the representation of the amount of the number, biotic weight and energy flow of producers, carnivores and herbivores through rectangles is known as Ecological Pyramid.
Energy Flow in Ecosystem
- Biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem are controlled by environmental ecology.
- Continuous energy flow is essential to keep the ecosystem fleuntly dynamic.
- The green pigment found in plants (chlorophyll) absorbs solar energy and changes it into organic-bio particles.
- Solar energy, carbon-dioxide and water are absorbed by chlorophyll present in the leaves of plants to carry out photosynthesis.
- Herbivores receive the chemical energy stored in plants in the form of food. The carnivores eat the herbivores. Thus, the energy flows from one nutritional (tropic) level to the another nutritional (tropic) level.
- Humans are the only constituent of the environment that affects the environment more than other organisms to derive maximum benefit from their environment.
- There are both favourable and unfavourable effects of humans on the ecosystem.
- Favourable human impacts include land use, development of agriculture, forestry, wild life management, development of advanced seeds, development of agricultural implements, and the development of advanced drugs.
- Adverse (unfavourable) human impacts on the ecosystem include adverse effects of agricultural practices, adverse effects of deforestation, adverse effects of mining operations, industrialisation, climate change and adverse effects of natural calamities.
- According to the 2015 report, forests are found on only 22.02 per cent part of India’s territorial area.
- Central Environment Pollution Control Board is a national organisation of the country which plays the role of being responsible for monitoring of water pollution, air pollution and ensuring environmental protection.
- Human activities such as deforestation, industrialisation, invention of nuclear power, etc. are responsible for climate change.
- In June 2004, the Government of India issued the first National Communication Report on Climate Change.
- Ecological imbalance is mainly due to human action. When the status of this imbalance is reduced by various preventive and effective measures, such a situation is called ecological balance.
- In ecological balance, natural balance and the systems of balance in nature obstruction in natural balance, the contribution of animal species and wildlife in retaining the balance of nature are included.
- Competitive ecosystem and behaviour etc. arrangements are necessary for retaining balance between the biotic species and the environment present in nature.
- Every animal species creates a functional image by its lifestyle, which is called Niche.
- The process of balance in nature is controlled automatically.
- Key-stone species are such species that affect most ecosystems of a particular region.
- Elephants and frogs are keystone type species which play their role in maintaining natural balance.
- Key-stone species and wildlife ensure their important contribution in the balance of nature, through whose preservation, the balance is established in the environment.
Concept of Ecosystem Notes Important Terms
→ Ecological System or ecosystem: The mechanism generated from the mutual interaction and integration of all living and non-living factors in an environment.
→ Natural Ecosystem: The developed ecosystem of natural states is called the natural ecosystem.
→ Biotic Components: All the living organisms of an ecosystem are called biotic components of that system.
→ Autotrophic Components: Autotrophic components also called primary producers,
make their own food through the process of photosynthesis from solar energy and from soil through roots.
→ Heterotrophic Components: These are the Heterotrophic living beings which obtain the food provided by autotrophic primary producers. Due to their consumption of food produced by autotrophs, they are also called consumers.
→ Solar Energy: The heat or energy received from the sun is called solar energy.
→ Photosynthesis: The entire process of the formation of organic compounds, energy or chemicals, in green plants with the help of sunlight. Living cells of green plants combine carbon-dioxide and water with the help of sunlight to form biological compounds.
→ Saprophyte: A plant that depends on dead biomass for its diet. Such as fungus, mushroom, etc.
→ Parasite: The organism or plant that relies (depends) on any other organism or plant and receives food and nutrients from it.
→ Holozoic: Organism that eats food in the manner of a person’s food habits, i.e., one which eats by altering organisms or biological substances.
→ Decomposer: It consists primarily of micro-organisms and fungi, which decompose biological substances including dead plants and animals by decaying them.
→ Tropic Level: In the biosphere or the ecosystem, the different levels of transfer of energy in the form of food from one organism to another organisms are called Tropic Levels.
→ Food Web: The inter-mixing of various food chains is called the Food Web.
→ Ecological pyramid: Pyramid diagram showing a biospheric food chain on which the subsequent and sequential levels of nutrition are displayed on the vertical axis, and the producers are shown on the horizontal axis.
→ Landslip: Collective transfer of a large quantity of rocks downwards along a mountain, highland or cliff. Landslides also occur due to earthquakes.
→ Water Pollution: Mainly due to human factors, changes in the physical, chemical and biological properties of water, which results in drinking water becoming harmful for the health of humans and animals.
→ Air Pollution: Pollution caused by the introduction of external harmful substances in the atmosphere, due to which imbalance takes place in the amount and composition of gases in the atmosphere.
→ Environmental Pollution: The process of polluting the environment directly or indirectly by which any part of the environment is so much affected that it becomes harmful for humans, fauna and flora.
→ Acid Rain: Rainfall containing nitric acid and sulphuric acid due to presence of sulphur-dioxide and nitrogen oxide in the Earth’s atmosphere which is harmful to living being and buildings.
→ Ozonosphere: The atmospheric belt, located between the altitude of about 15 and 35 km, from the surface of the earth, in the lower part of the stratosphere, where the prevalence of ozone gas is found.
→ Squall: Fierce atmospheric storms blowing with strong winds of high velocity. The duration of the squall is usually less.
→ Niche: Every animal species creates a functional image by its lifestyle, which is called Niche.