Go through these RBSE Class 11 Geography Notes Chapter 1 Geography as a Subject contain important concepts so that students can score better marks in the exam.
Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 Geography Notes Chapter 1 Geography as a Subject
→ We live under the influence of geography till death. Every aspect of our life is associated with geography and its various components.
→ Our universe is full of mysteries in singular form or in multi-dimensional form.
→ Millions of galaxies in the cosmos have billions of stars, and planets connected with them, and clouds of dust particles and gas present a mysterious picture of the effects of gravity and other forces.
→ In this infinite universe, our galaxy is the milky way in which, there are innumerable star clusters.
→ Solar family is the group of sun, planets, satellites, meteorites, asteroids and comets.
→ Scientists believe that the age of the universe is about 14 billion years, the solar system is 10 billion years old and the earth is 4.6 billion years old.
→ Human beings came about 20 million years ago on earth.
→ Human beings have proved themselves to be the most intelligent creatures of the nature by using the resources provided by the nature according to their need and capacity.
→ Earth’s surface is the base of geography in which various variations are found.
→ Scientific geography is used to make pure and systematic analysis and logical analysis of the earth’s surface along with its variations.
→ Modern geography has evolved into an intra-disciplinary subject in which the inclusive study of physical, human and social sciences is done.
→ All these sciences have highly influenced one another.
→ The earth is a combination of lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere.
Meaning and Definition of Geography
- Geography is the word of the English language, which is inspired by the Greek language geographical terminology. Its literal meaning is ‘to describe the earth’.
- The word ‘Geographia’ was first used by the Greek scholar Eratosthenes.
- Greek and Roman scholars considered the earth to be flattened or static. It is considered spherical in ancient Indian literature.
- Geography is the science of the earth’s surface or the terrestrial science, it is studied in the context of the place and its various features/characteristics, distribution and spatial relations to the human world.
- In the nature of the subject of geography, there have been many changes from the earliest to the present.
- Geography is the science of study of the earth’s surface and it interactive relationship with humans.
- Humboldt stressed upon global systematic studies, while Reiter emphasized on regional studies of geography.
- The spread of modernity and technology has broadened and deepened the study of the earth’s surface.
Geography as a Study
- Physical and human aspects are studied in geography. On this basis, geography is divided into two branches. 1. Physical geography, 2. Human geography.
- The scope of the first branch of geography (Physical geography) is also very broad, which includes such branches as geodesy geophysics, astronomical geography, geomorphology, climatology, oceanography science, glaciology, soil geography, bioneography, medical geography, etc.
- In the second branch of geography (human geography), economic geography, agricultural geography, resource geography, transport geography, population geography, political geography, settlement geography, military geography, social geography and cultural geography, etc. have been included.
- The main purpose of geography is to contribute to the description and development of the earth in relation to human beings in a scientific way.
Physical Geography: An Introduction
- Physical geography is a major branch of geography that is rooted in facts and principles.
- Physical geography performs synthesized study of geo-physiological facts.
- The study of physical environment is the subject matter of physical geography.
Meaning and Definition of Physical Geography
- Physical geography is an important and fundamental branch of geography. This is an integrated study of many land sciences.
- In physical geography, natural variations of the inter-relation of the natural forms of lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and all the three components are explained.
- Physical geography has been defined by many scholars in different forms. In general, it can be said that the analytical study of the structural composition and inter-relationship of physical and biological environment is done in physical geography.
Nature and Scope of Physical Geography
- Earth’s surface is the center point of the study of physical geography. Not only human physical activity, but also all the components of the earth are related to the physical environment.
- In physical geography, all the three physical components are included, i.e., water, air and land. The special study of the biosphere found in all these three is also the main subject of physical geography.
- The entire outer layer of the earth’s surface, on which the continents and oceans are located, is called the lithosphere.
- The lithosphere comprises the scientific history of the earth, the type of rocks, the tectonic plates, the tectonic force, the landforms, the geological process and the crustal states.
- The gaseous covering spread around us is called atmosphere.
- Seasonal changes and climatic events are phenomena of the atmosphere.
- The composition, profile and height of the atmosphere, the temperature, the pressure of the wind, the direction of the wind, the form of humidity, the density of air, the origin and the type of the clouds are related to the atmosphere.
- The large water cover which is found on the earth is called hydrosphere. Physical geography is associated with the study of seas and oceans.
- The study of hydrosphere involves the study of the origin of oceans and seas, marine minerals, sea salinity, density, tides, coral reefs, waves, currents and ocean sediments.
- Between the ground and the atmosphere, there is a large circular belt which is the layer of soil, vegetation and organisms.
- It includes organisms, humans, animals and vegetation. It involves the study of various aspects of interpersonal relationship between the organisms and the environment.
Geography as a Subject Notes Important Terms
→ Geography: The word geography can be divided into two parts ‘geo’ and graphy. Geo comes from Greek word ‘ge’ meaning ‘Earth’ and ‘graphy’ comes from ‘graphein’ which means ‘to describe’.
→ Milky way: The earth’s galaxy is named as the Milky way.
→ Solar system: The sun’s family, i.e., the planets, the satellites, the celestial stars, the meteorites orbiting the path around the sun.
→ Planet: It is a celestial body that revolves around a star and is much smaller than that.
→ Satellite: Small astronomical objects that revolve around a planet. For example, the moon is the satellite of the Earth.
→ Asteroids: These revolve around the sun and are small celestial bodies present in the belt between Jupiter and Mars.
→ Comets: Sometimes, in the sky, there appears a head and a tail-shaped star called a comet.
→ Meteor: Bodies made of dust and gas roaming in space, which shine brightly due to being heated up after coming into the Earth’s atmosphere.
→ Atmosphere: The gaseous enclosure in the thickness of several hundred kilometers around the earth is called atmosphere.
→ Vegetation: The grass, bushes, trees, plants found on the earth’s surface is called vegetation.
→ Resource: All such organic and inorganic matter having definite chemical composition which are used to fulfil human needs.
→ Lithosphere: The upper crust of the earth’s up to 200 kilometers deep is called the
→ Hydrosphere: All water bodies located on the earth’s surface which differs from the lithosphere and atmosphere. It includes water present in the oceans, lakes, rivers, glaciers, etc.
→ Biosphere: Plants and creatures that are found on earth. It often creates a biosphere combining with hydrosphere, atmosphere and lithosphere.
→ The Moon: Earth’s natural satellite circling around the earth.
→ Human Geography: One aspect of geography in which humans and their interests or rights, human race, culture, etc. are primarily studied.
→ Climate: Long-term, average weather conditions such as temperature, rainfall, air, humidity, etc. is called the climate of a particular area.
→ Relief: The complex physical nature found on the earth’s surface (level of earth), which is divided into first, second and third relief.
→ Landform: The shape and nature of any specific terrestrial region produced by natural processes of deformation and deposition on the ground.
→ Soil: Particulate mass of inorganic rocks created due to the action of factors such as wind, water, etc. and containing organic matter, moisture, air, etc. found in any area over a long period of time.
→ Ocean: A very large aquatic part of the Earth that is filled with saline water.
→ Agriculture: The art of cultivating land to grow fruits, vegetables, crops, gardens by humans. It also includes animal husbandry.
→ Transport: A system or means of conveying people or goods from one place to another places.
→ Communication: Exchange of facts, messages, expressions and thoughts between different places and human beings.
→ Cartography: Study of the theoretical aspects related to map composition or art.
→ Technology: Technology refers to methods, systems and devices which are the result of scientific knowledge being used for practical purposes.
→ Glacier: A dynamic, giant iceberg is called a glacier.
→ Ecology: Science that studies organisms in relation to their natural environment,
including the reaction of the organisms to the natural environment and their interactions with other organisms.
→ Population: Number of human groups or humans residing in a particular area of the ‘earth’s surface.
→ Volcano: Volcano is a rupture in the earth’s crust where from molten lava, hot ash and gases from below the Earth’s crust escape into the air.
→ Rock: The composition of the mineral particles formed from the collection of solid particles, such as the formation of the earth’s crust.
→ Endogenetic force: The force arising from the interior part of the earth, where there are horizontal or vertical movement in the earth.
→ Exogenetic force: The forces that arise or are functioning on the surface of the earth, which are always active in adjusting the surface.
→ Geomorphology: The science studying various landforms found on the earth’s surface.
→ Turbulence: Irregular and obstructed flow or motion of air or water by which the secondary vortex is produced. Cyclone is an excellent example of turbulence.
→ Ocean deposits: The marine materials which settle down on the ocean beds. Generally. The various solid/particulate matter in sea water which forms sediments on seafloor over time is called ocean deposits.
→ Coral Reef: Marine structures made from solid deposits of coral and other biological materials, which are taller made on continental shelf, and are often immersed in sea water.
→ Rain: The amount of precipitation obtained at some place during a given time period.
→ Food chain: The series in which there is a flow of energy from the producers who make their own food. This energy is used by consumers. Decomposers are the last link of this series.
→ Sustainable Development: Sustainable development is development done without harming the environment. In this context, the current development process is determined by keeping in view the needs of the future.