Go through these RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 7 The World After the Second World War contain important concepts so that students can score better marks in the exam.
Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 History Notes Chapter 7 The World After the Second World War
- After the second World War, there was a competition between capitalist United States of America and communist Soviet Union (USSR) which is known as cold war.
- The reason of cold war between America and Soviet Union (USSR) was the rivalary to become the super power of the world.
- The incidents such as establishment of control over eastern European nations by Soviet Union, holding of different views regarding acquisition of Italy by Germany, raising voice against the bombardment of Japan by USA etc. laid the foundation of Cold War.
- In 1949 CE communism was established in China and it widened the conflict between USA and Soviet Union over the issue of admission of China in UNO.
- The bitterness turned into hosility finally in 1950 when communist North Korea attacked capitalist South Korea.
- USSR tested its first nuclear device in 1953. To check the onward march of communism in South East Asia, America formed SEATO (South East Asian Treaty Organisation). The USSR retaliated this move by forming a communist defense pact consisting of eight nations as ‘Warsow Pact’ in 1955. It was an answer to NATO.
- In 1963 America and Russia signed, ‘Hotline Agreement’ according to which in the time of emergency, they would communicate through radio and telephones.
- In 1968 America and Russia signed Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT).
- In 1971 America, Soviet Union, Britain and France signed a treaty to allow the movement of people from western to eastern Germany and Vice-versa.
- In 1973, 1974 and 1977 three European security conferences were convened for mutual cooperation and peace in the countries.
- During the war between of India and Pakistan in 1971, US backed Pakistan and Soviet Union supported India.
- In 1983, Soviet Union destroyed a South Korean plane, which was condemned by US.
- In 1986 Soviet Union conducted Nuclear Test after removing restriction from itself. It also warned America not to retaliate back.
- Gradually communism was losing its ground in Europe and Soviet Union was on the verge of financial collapse and it could not carry out struggle against U.S.A. During the period of Gorbachev, cold war came to an end.
- As a result of cold war in 1990 CE Soviet Union became disintegrated and the world became unipolar. The main causes of distintegration of Soviet Union were:
i) Weakening of economic structure of Soviet Union,
ii) Ambition of Soviet Union to get foreign currency
iii) Dictatorship in Russia
iv) Policies of Mikhail Gorbachev.
- When two or more nations raise their voice to remain independent on an international platform, then it is termed as ‘Non-Alignment’.
- In 1961 CE Non-Aligned movement came into existence.
- To safeguard their Sovereignty, cultural and political traditions, newly independent nations chose the path of non-alignment.
- Under NAM two institutions were established ‘Co-ordination Bureau’ and ‘Summit or conference’.
- India was the founder member of Non-aligned movement. India never violated the principles of Non-alignment.
- In 1961, 25 countries participated in the conference of non-aligned movement in Belgrade. The number of members increased to 120 in 2012 CE.
- The cold war got slowed down because of this movement.
- NAM played a major role in maintaining peace in areas like Germany, Korea, China, Indo-China, Congo, etc.
- The policy of NAM has failed to provide any security to the member countries, while membership of a bloc might have ensured help at least from that bloc.
- The Arabs and Israel fought four wars but no NAM country played any active role in stopping them.
- In the freedom struggle of countries like, Algeria, Angola and Mozambique, the role of NAM countries has been negligible.
Challenges before Modern World
- The countries of the world are deliberating on the international platform on a sensitive issue like environment.
- As a result of these efforts United Nations Environment Programme was introduced.
- In 1992 the first eartn summit was convened in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. More than 150 representatives of the world participated in it. The important subjects related to environment were discussed in the summit.
- In 1997 ‘World Environment and Green House summit’ was organised in Kyoto (Japan) which strived to reduce the emission of gases responsible for global warming.
- Following the series, a convention took place in Johansburg of South Africa in 2002 known by the name ‘Earth Summit’.
- In 2005 in Monteral in Canada was convened ‘United Nations Climate Agreemnt Summit’. Again climate change summit took place in capital of Denmark Copenhagen.
- Next most important attempt was made in Nov-Dec 2015 in Paris. When 134 countries participated to mitigate the dangerous effects of climate change. After a prolonged deliberation, it was decided to limit the rise of the earth’s tempeature and to implement the provisions of the Paris agreement by 2020.
- Terrorism is a means, a process or a tool which may be used by any state, political or secessionist organisation fanatics to gain their selfish ends.
- Some examples of Terrorism are : The attack of Jews on the representative council of Syria in UNO in 1969, bombardment of Iranian mission at the office of UNO in 1971, hijack of Indian plane from Kathmandu in 1999, attack on world trade centre of New York in 2001 and attack on Indian Parliament in 2001 and the serial bomb blasts in Mumbai on 28 November 2008, etc.
- The most infamous terrorist organization Islamic State (IS) was formed in 2013 CE. It was also known as Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) and Islamic State of Iraq and Levant (ISIL).
- The motive of ISIS is to establish control over nations of Muslim majority.
- To fight the problem of terrorism, various agencies have framed documents related to agreemnts and treaties from time to time.
Contemporary Outlook of India
Look East Policy
- With the disintegration of Soviet Union, India became more conscious of South East Asian countries. India has worked really hard to maintain commercial and tactical relations with these nations.
- Under this India signed bilateral agreement with Vietnam on the issues of nuclear energy, trade and commerce, art and culture.
- India concluded defence agreement with Indonesia.
- Mekong-Ganga cooperation was constituted consisting of five members: India, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. This began the cooperation in the fields of trade, investment, technology, tourism, education and culture.
- In India-ASEAN relationship was decided to act unanimously agaisnt Terrorism.
- Till November 2014,12 sessions took place of India: ASEAN heads of government summit. 13th India-ASEAN summit to be held in Cambodia.
- ‘BRICS’ presently is a group of nations which are part of emerging economies.
- ‘BRICS’ group was established in 2008.
- BRICS represents 25% geographical area and 41% of world’s population. Its extent lies from Asia, Africa to South America.
- The first summit of BRICS held in June 2009 at Ketinburg in Russia. Till now seven summits have been held and eighth summit is to be held in India.
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation: SAARC
- In 1985 the head of seven states: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Maldives formed an assocaition named ‘South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation’ (SAARC).
- Afghanistan is the eighth member of this association.
- The secretariat of SAARC is established in the capital of Nepal Kathmandu.
- The main objective of SAARC is to promote active collaboration and mutual assistance in the economic, social, cultural, technical and scientific fields. .
- The main principle of SAARC is non-interference in the internal affairs of other states.
- Till November 2014, 18 summits of SAARC took place. 19th summit of SAARC is to be organised in Islamabad (Pakistan).
- SAARC works with the assistance of various institutions, which fulfill the aims and objectives of SAARC. The important institutions are: Heads of states summit, Ministerial council, Permanent council, Technical committee, Executive committees and Secretarait.
Role of India in SAARC
- India has played an active role since the establishment of SAARC.
- In 1992 an important issue like environment was discussed in New Delhi by SAARC nations.
- In 1996 first SAARC trade fair was organised in New Delhi.
- In the same year India organised ‘Economic Cooperation Summit’.
- In 1998, a summit on Multilingual and Multidimensional Information Technology was organised in Pune.
- In 2004 Atal Bihari Vajpayee reiterated the priority to economic agenda.
- In January 2006 an independent trade agreement SAFTA (South Asian Free Trade Association) was established which is considered a revolutionary event in the history of SAARC.
- In April 2007, the 14th summit was held in New Delhi where India declared concessions to under developed countries in tax in bilateral trade.
- In 2014, PM Narendra Modi invited the leaders of SAARC in Oath ceremony and the invitation was accepted by the leaders which gives a positive message to the world in cooperation of the SAARC nations.
The World After the Second World War Important dates and events
1914-1919 CE – The period of first world war.
1917 CE – Bolshevik Revolution in Russia.
1918 CE – Lenin’s treaty of Brest Litovsk with Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey.
1917-1945 CE – The first phase of cold war.
1939-1945 CE – Period of Second World War.
1945 CE – Bombardment on Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities of Japan by America.
1946-1953 CE – The second phase of cold war.
1947 CE – India got independence.
1949 CE – In the leadership of America, North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) was formed.
1949 CE – Communist rule was established in China.
1953 CE – Death of Russian leader Stalin. Soviet Union tested its first nuclear device.
1954 CE – South East Asian Treaty Organisation (SEATO) was formed.
1955 CE – USSR retaliated by forming a communist defense pact consisting of eight nations known as Warsaw pact.
1956 CE – British, French and Israeli invasion on Egypt.
1959-1962 CE – The fourth phase of cold war.
1961 CE – Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) came into existence.
1961 CE – The first summit of Non Aligned movement.
1962 CE – Chinese invasion on India.
1963-1979 CE – The first phase of cold war.
1963 CE – Partial trial prohibition treaty got recognition.
1963 CE – Hotline agreement between Russia and America.
1966 CE – John. F. Kennedy became the president of America.
1968 CE – Russia and America signed Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT).
1971 CE – Pakistan invaded India.
1980-1990 CE – The sixth and last phase of cold war.
1985 CE – SAARC was established in Dhaka city of Bangladesh.
1986 CE – Star Wars programme was launched in America.
1988 CE – The leadership of Soviet Union came in the hands of Mikhail Gorbachev.
1989 CE – Soviet Union was disintegrated. The official name of Burma became Myanmar.
1990 CE – Lithuania, Estonia and Latvia declared themselves independent. The unification of Germany was effected.
1991 CE – Georgia and Ukraine declared themselves independent. Warsaw pact came to an end.
1992 CE – The first earth summit was held in Rio-de Janeiro of Brazil. India got the place of sectoral diologue partner in ASEAN.
1993 CE – The emergence of independent Czech and Slovak states.
1995 CE – India got the place of full dialogue partner in ASEAN.
1996 CE – India became the member of regional forum of ASEAN.
1997 CE – The earth summit was held in New York and World environmental and Green House summit in Kyoto in Japan.
1998-2004 CE – In the tenure of Atal Bihari Vajpayee, India tested two nuclear devices.
2001 CE – Attack on world trade centre of New york and attack on Indian parliament.
2002 CE – Earth summit was held in Johannesburg city of South Africa.
2005 CE – ‘United Nations Climate Agreement’ was held in Montreal city of Canada.
April 2007 CE – 14th summit of SAARC was held.
28 November 2008 CE – Serial bomblast in Mumbai.
2008 CE – BRICS group was formed.
2009 CE – The first summit of BRICS group was held in Ketinburg in Russia. A summit was organised in Copenhegan-capital of Denmark on the issue of climate change.
2010 CE – The second summit of BRICS group was held in Brasilia.
2011 CE – Third summit of BRICS group was held in Sanya city of China. Death of the leader of terrorist organisation Osama-Bin-Laden.
2012 CE – The fourth summit of BRICS group was held in New Delhi.
2012 CE – The terrorist named Mohammad Ajmal Amir Kasab was captured alive was hanged at Yervada Jail in Pune.
2013 CE – The fifth summit of BRICS group was held in South Africa. Islamic State of Iraq and Levent (ISIL) was formed.
2014 CE – The sixth summit of BRICS group was held in Brazil. Narendra Modi became the prime minister of India.
2015 CE – ‘Climatic change summit’ was held in Paris. The seventh summit of BRICS group was held in Russia.
The World After the Second World War Notes Important terms
→ Capitalism: An economic and political system in which a country’s trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit rather than by the state.
→ Communism: An economic and social system in which all property and resources are collectively owned by a classless society and not by individual citizens.
→ Cold War: After the second war, serious tension and distrust created a race for becoming superpower between USA and USSR which is known as cold war.
→ NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organisation formed by America
→ SEATO: South Eastern Asia Treaty Organisation formed to check the Russian influence in Asia.
→ Unipolar world: When a single country has a status of superpower then that condition in International politics means unipolar world order.
→ Veto power: It refers to the power of the permanent members of UNO to veto (Saying ‘No’) any substantive resolution.
→ Perestroika: It means to reconstruct.
→ Glasnost: It means openness in governance.
→ Non-Aligned Movement: It is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.
→ Sovereignty: A country which is free in taking decisions in its internal and external matters is called a sovereign country.
→ Agenda 21: It is a historic document of 800 pages which was prepared in the first earth summit held in Rio-de-Janeiro (Brazil). It highlights the important issues regarding the environmental concerns.
→ Environment conservation: To protect environment from pollution and to protect biodiversity.
→ Terrorist: A person usually a member of a group who uses or advocates terrorism.
→ I.S. (Islamic State): An infamous terrorist organisation.
→ C.T.B.T.: Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty which came to existence in 1996.
→ BRICS: The organisation formed by Brazil, Russia, China, India, South Africa for the protection of regional interests.
→ SAFTA: South Asian Free Trade Area. A trade contract between SAARC members in 2006.
→ SAARC: An organisation of South Asian countries. Is full name is ‘South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation’.